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Final Exam Essays
UT Texas Final History 315L Seaholm Essay Prep
Undergraduate 3

Additional History Flashcards




Social Welfare Liberalism: 1930's to 60's
to the
Rise and triumph of conservatisim: late 20th cent
Part 1

Definition: the concern that the national government should take more responsibility for the welfare of its citizens

3 Causes :

1. Collapsed Economy Economic flaws

(Banking Industry Flaws - no cap on lending & investments)

(high supply, low demand, little profit)

(mass consumption & prod - needed constant consumer pending to stay alive)

(no stock market cap - common to buy now pay later)

2. abuse of industrial workers during 20's

3. Rising discontent with President Hoover Main Discontents

(*Bonus Army incident - over 43,000 (17,000) in DC during spring & summer 1932 demanding immediate cash for their WWI service because of severe unemployment during Great Depression)
(Hoover-villes - term coined by Charles Michelson to describe shanty towns built by homeless in G-Depression)
(Hoover-blankets - newspaper used by homeless for blankets)

-Fixing Hoover's Problems: Next 3 Pres Social Welfare Legis.

(FDR - NIRA (Nat Ind Recov Act) take care of workers by setting min wage, work day hrs, limited overproduction)
(Truman - NHA (Nat Housing Act) authorized the building of 810,000 low income units)
(LBJ - CRA 1964 (Civ Rights Act) outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex)

Social Welfare Liberalism: 1930's to 60's
to the
Rise and triumph of conservatisim: late 20th cent
Part 2

A) Opposition:

When, Why, and How:

-Continued concern about communism
(liberal consensus dissolving, most Americans disapproved of Vietnam. American Society felt US was a World Power that deterred and opposed communism)

-Fear of Big Government
(Increased fear from obvious government growth in numbers and programs compared to the early 20th century)

-Ideological Oppositions to Reforms at the Time
(Many white supremacists felt it was not the government's place to implement CRA of 1964, during 70's many people feared the social welfare programs eroded indiv. respons.)

-Reaction to Counter culture of 70's
(Kent State Massacre on May 4 1970, Hippies protesting the invasion of Cambodia announced by Nixon, guardsman opened fire killing 4 people and wounding 9 others)

-Serious Economic Contraction of 70's
(People's faith in gov. went from optimistic and supportive during 50's and 60's to sluggish cynicism in 70's)
(Stagflation: more inflation, less employment)
(Worst economic performance in a decade since G-Dep)
(Interest rates breached double digits)
(1973 Oil Crisis - U.S. supported Israeli military during Yom Kippur War, OAPEC raised gas prices 400% and cut off supply to areas of the world. -elicits US's dependency on overseas oil & recurring theme of always being at war, society is tired of war)

-Population shift of 70's
(Increase going from rust belt to sun belt areas of country gave greater share of votes to electoral college than ever)
(Sun Belt increase of population due to federal spending for military bases, the defense industry, and the space program and people migrated to these areas in search of jobs)

B) Conservative Opposition Ideology:
(Believed reform movements were too radical)
(Fear of big gov., too much gov. spending, people began questioning if the gov. was too intrusive with social welfare)
(Campaigned to oppose the ratification of 18th, against abortion, against growing numbers of homosexuals)
(Wanted more states rights', believed it should be up to states to decide civil rights)

C) The "Reagan Revolution":
(The US was united under a common enemy after the despair experienced during Vietnam War, provided hope and restored pride) (1980 new inspiration to pull America from pitiful 70's)
(People believed the government was a problem, they wanted minimal government and a strong military)
(Wanted less welfare, less food stamps, less unemp. benefit)
(Wanted to rid nation of social welfare programs and curb inflation)

Social Welfare Liberalism: 1930's to 60's
to the
Rise and triumph of conservatisim: late 20th cent
Part 3

Differences in Liberals and Conservatives:

(The government should be responsible for helping people)

(The gov. should not help people, individuals are responsible for themselves, the government is not a charity)

--I think the pendulum has swung in both ways from the liberal to the conservative stance, but there is a delicate balance between the two in such that I see a 50/50 balance. The government still has many programs that provide for those in need of assistance. I would argue that a conservative ideology is more prominent. Consider: education system, financial bracket people with gov. assistance live in primarily, it is the American way to build your way to the top, and then keeping it in the family. We take care of ourselves

Rights Revolutions: Part 1

Who & Why:


African Americans & Women:

(During WWII many of these people did hard work for America. After the war, continued disrespect ---> desired respect and equality)

Two Movements:

Civil Rights Movement:
(1955-1968 Because of laws like Jim Crow laws & Plessy v Ferguson (high taxes, voting education tests) after Civil War, separate but equal facilities and voting rights were two main issues of inequality. In working class both minorities were payed less and faced worse unemployment than whites. Also face severe racial disparity from white supremacists (KKK))


-- Blacks began to not tolerate & created organizations to empower themselves. NAACP used non-violent resistance (civil disobedience). Brown v Board of Ed. overturned Plessy v Ferg making seg. unconstitutional.
-- Rosa Parks, convicted of "disorderly conduct" but led to black's boycotting the bus system & led to overturn of segregation on buses.
-- Integration schools implemented
-- MLK's speech in 1963 "I have a dream" @ Lincoln Memorial, marches like this and others occurred.


Goal: "meaningful civl rights laws, a massive federal works program, full and fair employment, decent housing, and adequate integrated education."

CRA 1964:
(ended voting restriction and "public accomodations" segregations, initially weak, later effective; meant to guarantee protection of 14th and 15th amendments (equal protection & voting rights))
VRA 1965:
(outlawed discriminatory voting practices on disenfranchisement of blacks, specifically outlawed literacy tests)
I&NA of 1965:

(Immigration & Nationality Act allowed many more immigrants to come to America, caused immigration to double from 1965-70, and doubled again from 1970 to 90; JFK proposed, LBJ passed it; Conservatives were the main opposition; JFK said nothing to fear, our nation will not be over-run by immigrants and we will not lose jobs for americans)
Fair Housing Act of 1968:
(Title VII of CRA 1968; prevented discrimination of housing based on race or working class)





Rights Revolutions: Part 2

Women's Rights Movement:


-Second Wave feminist movement
(1960's-70's women did not like housewife image, represented "lesser sex")

(Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique combated the image by stating women's talent was being wasted & degrading)


(Affirmative Action Rights

Equal Pay Act 1963:

Fair Housin Act:

(National Organization for Women 1966; Betty Friedan co-founder; worked to end sexism and related it to homophobia and racism)


(Equal Credit Opportunity Act 1974; creditors cannot discriminate)

(Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978; women cannot be fired due to pregnancy)
Roe V Wade:

(1973 made abortion legal under 2 conditions)

Also, women allowed into military in 1975 & marital rape illegalized

Schulman Essay

How and Why:


-Government Spending & Programs
(Until 1970's & 80's, tons of social welfare & gov. control, people feared communism, but then people began questioning gov extent of power)


-Evangelical Christianity -
("The Third Great Awakening)

(70's & 80's, huge shift towards christian morals & beliefs, people reverted to traditional views, large families seen as good and anything else anti-American)

-Political Effects

(Sun Belt Population increase from northerners looking for jobs (NASA & military stations) -> northerners conform & thus increase in Christian values & swung political shift from left to right) 

        *left = liberal, right = conservative

(This political shift upset northerners when south received more electoral college votes & gov spending)

        *gained gov spending because larger population payes more


-National Policy Effects

(affected 80's & 90's, result of conservative shift)

(lowered taxes, gov spending decreased, gov programs decreased, social welfare of 30's to 60's shifted to conservative individualistic ideals in that one is respsonsible for oneself)

       *thus one reaps what one sews, work hard = successful life


Idea for conclusion:

(The south had always supported states' rights & less governmental "charity" for the people. The conservatives were against civil rights, very much comprised of white supremacists who believed traditionally in the national agenda worrying more about having a weak, small government that did not interfere with the citizens personal live's. This is illustrated in the capping of governmental program cuts & society's negative perception of trusting the government. The south became very republican after an over 100 year reign of democrats, hated "pointy-headed intellectuals & welfare Cadillacs"*, & gained control of the White House. Every president since Kennedy was from the South)

*1 southern term to describe social welfare supporters aka big gov. control



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