Term

Definition
Set of mathematical and logic rules used in cryptographic functions 


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Definition
Another name for algorithm 


Term

Definition
Science of secret writing that enables an entity to store and transmit data in a form that is available only to the intended individuals 


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Definition
Hardware or software implementation of cryptography that contains all the necessary software, protocols, algorithms, and keys 


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Definition
Practice of uncovering flaws within cryptosystems 


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Definition
The study of both cryptography and cryptanalysis 


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Definition
Act of transforming data into an unreadable format 


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Definition
Act of transforming data into a readable format 


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Definition
Sequence of bits that are used as instructions that govern the acts of cryptographic functions within an algorithm 


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Definition
Instance when two different keys generate the same ciphertext from the same plaintext 


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Definition
A range of possible values used to construct keys 


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Definition
Data in readable format, also referred to as cleartext 


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Definition
Encryption method that uses an algorithm that changes out (substitutes) one value for another value 


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Definition
Ancient encryption tool that used a type of paper and rod used by Greek military factions 


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Definition
Concept that an algorithm should be known and only the keys should be kept secret 


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Definition
Encryption method created by Gilbert Vernam that is considered impossible to crack if carried out properly 


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Definition
Algorithm used to create values that are used in cryptographic functions to add randomness 


Term

Definition
Substitution cipher that creates keystream values, commonly from agreedupon text passages, to be used for encryption purposes 


Term

Definition
Encryption method that hides a secret message within an open message 


Term

Definition
Method of hiding data in another media type with the goal of secrecy 


Term
Digital Rights Management (DRM) 

Definition
Access control technologies commonly used to protect copyright material 


Term

Definition
Encryption method that shifts (permutation) values 


Term

Definition
Simple substitution algorithm created by Julius Caesar that shifts alphabetic values three positions during its encryption and decryption processes 


Term

Definition
Cryptanalysis process used to identify weaknesses within cryptosystems by locating patterns in resulting ciphertext 


Term
Key Derivation Functions (KDFs) 

Definition
Generation of secret keys (subkeys) from an initial value (master key) 


Term

Definition
Encryption method where the sender and receiver use an instance of the same key for encryption and decryption purposes. 


Term

Definition
Sending data through an alternate communication channel. 


Term

Definition
Encryption method that uses two different key types, public and private. Also called public key cryptography. 


Term

Definition
Value used in public key cryptography that is used for encryption and signature validation that can be known by all parties. 


Term

Definition
Value used in public key cryptography that is used for decryption and signature creation and known to only key owner. 


Term

Definition
Asymmetric cryptography, which uses public and private key values for cryptographic functions. 


Term

Definition
Symmetric algorithm type that encrypts chunks (blocks) of data at a time. 


Term

Definition
Transposition processes used in encryption functions to increase randomness. 


Term

Definition
Substitution processes used in encryption functions to increase randomness. 


Term

Definition
Algorithm design requirement so that slight changes to the input result in drastic changes to the output. 


Term

Definition
Algorithm type that generates a keystream (random values), which is XORd with plaintext for encryption purposes. 


Term

Definition
Component of a stream algorithm that creates random values for encryption purposes. 


Term
Initialization vectors (IVs) 

Definition
Values that are used with algorithms to increase randomness for cryptographic functions.
For example, if we have the plaintext value of “See Spot run” two times within our message, we need to make sure that even though there is a pattern in the plaintext message, a pattern in the resulting ciphertext will not be created. So the IV and key are both used by the algorithm to provide more randomness to the encryption process. 


Term

Definition
Combined use of symmetric and asymmetric algorithms where the symmetric key encrypts data and an asymmetric key encrypts the symmetric key. 


Term

Definition
Symmetric keys that have a short lifespan, thus providing more protection than static keys with longer lifespans. 


Term

Definition
Message is encrypted with a symmetric key and the symmetric key is encrypted with an asymmetric key. Collectively this is called a digital envelope. 


Term

Definition
Block symmetric algorithm chosen by NIST as an encryption standard in 1976. It uses a 56bit true key bit size, 64bit block size, and 16 rounds of computation. 


Term

Definition
Algorithm that was chosen for the Data Encryption Standard, which was altered and renamed Data Encryption Algorithm. 


Term
Data Encryption Algorithm 

Definition
Algorithm chosen to fulfill the Data Encryption Standard. Block symmetric cipher that uses a 56bit true key size, 64bit block size, and 16 rounds of computation. 


Term
Advanced Encryption Standard 

Definition
U.S. encryption standard that replaced DES. Block symmetric cipher that uses 128bit block sizes and various key lengths (128, 192, 256). 


Term

Definition
Block symmetric cipher that was chosen to fulfill the Advanced Encryption Standard. It uses a 128bit block size and various key lengths (128, 192, 256). 


Term

Definition
Symmetric cipher that applies DES three times to each block of data during the encryption process. 


Term
International Data Encryption Algorithm 

Definition
Block symmetric cipher that uses a 128bit key and 64bit block size. 


Term

Definition
Block symmetric cipher that uses 64bit block sizes and variablelength keys. 


Term

Definition
Stream symmetric cipher that was created by Ron Rivest of RSA. Used in SSL and WEP. 


Term

Definition
Block symmetric cipher that uses variable block sizes (32, 64, 128) and variablelength key sizes (0–2040). 


Term

Definition
Block symmetric cipher that uses a 128bit block size and variablelength key sizes (128, 192, 256). Built upon the RC5 algorithm. 


Term

Definition
First asymmetric algorithm created and is used to exchange symmetric key values. Based upon logarithms in finite fields. 


Term

Definition
De facto asymmetric algorithm used for encryption, digital signatures, and key exchange. Based upon the difficulty of factoring large numbers into their original prime numbers. 


Term

Definition
Asymmetric algorithm based upon the Diffie Hellman algorithm used for digital signatures, encryption, and key exchange. 


Term
Elliptic curve cryptosystem algorithm 

Definition
Asymmetric algorithm based upon the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. Used for digital signatures, encryption, and key exchange. 


Term

Definition
Asymmetric algorithm based upon a subset sum problem (knapsack problem). It has been broken and no longer used. 


Term

Definition
One entity can prove something to be true without providing a secret value. 


Term

Definition
Cryptographic process that takes an arbitrary amount of data and generates a fixedlength value. Used for integrity protection. 


Term
Message authentication code (MAC) 

Definition
Keyed cryptographic hash function used for data integrity and data origin authentication. 


Term
Hashed message authentication code (HMAC) 

Definition
Cryptographic hash function that uses a symmetric key value and is used for data integrity and data origin authentication. 


Term

Definition
Cipher block chaining message authentication code uses encryption for data integrity and data origin authentication. 


Term

Definition
Cipher message authentication code that is based upon and provides more security compared to CBCMAC. 


Term

Definition
Block cipher mode that combines the CTR encryption mode and CBCMAC. One encryption key is used for both authentication and encryption purposes. 


Term

Definition
When two different messages are computed by the same hashing algorithm and the same message digest value results. 


Term

Definition
Cryptographic attack that exploits the mathematics behind the birthday problem in the probability theory forces collisions within hashing functions. 


Term

Definition
Ensuring the authenticity and integrity of a message through the use of hashing algorithms and asymmetric algorithms. The message digest is encrypted with the sender’s private key. 


Term
Digital signature standard 

Definition
U.S. standard that outlines the approved algorithms to be used for digital signatures for government authentication activities. 


Term

Definition
Component of a PKI that creates and maintains digital certificates throughout their life cycles. 


Term

Definition
Component of PKI that validates the identity of an entity requesting a digital certificate. 


Term
Certificate revocation list 

Definition
List that is maintained by the certificate authority of a PKI that contains information on all of the digital certificates that have been revoked. 


Term
Online certificate status protocol 

Definition
Automated method of maintaining revoked certificates within a PKI. 


Term

Definition
Digital identity used within a PKI. Generated and maintained by a certificate authority and used for authentication. 


Term

Definition
Technology that encrypts full packets (all headers and data payload) and is carried out without the sender’s interaction. 


Term

Definition
Encryption method used by the sender of data that encrypts individual messages and not full packets. 


Term
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension 

Definition
Standard that outlines the format of email messages and allows binary attachments to be transmitted through email. 


Term

Definition
Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, which outlines how public key cryptography can be used to secure MIME data types. 


Term

Definition
Cryptosystem used to integrate public key cryptography with email functionality and data encryption, which was developed by Phil Zimmerman. 


Term

Definition
Use of quantum mechanical functions to provide strong cryptographic key exchange. 


Term

Definition
A combination of HTTP and SSL\TLS that is commonly used for secure Internet connections and ecommerce transactions. 


Term
Secure Electronic Transaction 

Definition
Secure ecommerce standard developed by Visa and MasterCard that has not been accepted within the marketplace. 


Term

Definition
Data files used by web browsers and servers to keep browser state information and browsing preferences. 


Term

Definition
Network protocol that allows for a secure connection to a remote system. Developed to replace Telnet and other insecure remote shell methods. 


Term

Definition
Protocol suite used to protect IP traffic through encryption and authentication. De facto standard VPN protocol. 


Term
Authentication header protocol 

Definition
Protocol within the IPSec suite used for integrity and authentication. 


Term
Encapsulating security protocol 

Definition
Protocol within the IPSec suite used for integrity, authentication, and encryption. 


Term

Definition
Mode that IPSec protocols can work in that provides protection for packet data payload. 


Term

Definition
Mode that IPSec protocols can work in that provides protection for packet headers and data payload. 


Term
Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol 

Definition
Used to establish security associates and an authentication framework in Internet connections. Commonly used by IKE for key exchange. 


Term

Definition
Attack where the attacker does not interact with processing or communication activities, but only carries out observation and data collection, as in network sniffing. 


Term

Definition
Attack where the attacker does interact with processing or communication activities. 


Term

Definition
Cryptanalysis attack where the attacker is assumed to have access only to a set of ciphertexts. 


Term

Definition
Cryptanalysis attack where the attacker is assumed to have access to sets of corresponding plaintext and ciphertext. 


Term

Definition
Cryptanalysis attack where the attacker can choose arbitrary plaintexts to be encrypted and obtain the corresponding ciphertexts. 


Term

Definition
Cryptanalysis attack where the attacker chooses a ciphertext and obtains its decryption under an unknown key. 


Term
Differential cryptanalysis 

Definition
Cryptanalysis method that uses the study of how differences in an input can affect the resultant difference at the output. 


Term

Definition
Cryptanalysis method that uses the study of affine transformation approximation in encryption processes. 


Term

Definition
Attack that uses information (timing, power consumption) that has been gathered to uncover sensitive data or processing functions. 


Term

Definition
Valid data transmission is maliciously or fraudulently repeated to allow an entity gain unauthorized access. 


Term

Definition
Cryptanalysis attack that exploits vulnerabilities within the intrinsic algebraic structure of mathematical functions. 


Term

Definition
Cryptanalysis attack that exploits vulnerabilities within the algorithm structure. 


Term

Definition
Cryptanalysis attack that uses identified statistical patterns. 


Term
Social engineering attack 

Definition
Manipulating individuals so that they will divulge confidential information, rather than by breaking in or using technical cracking techniques. 


Term
Meetinthemiddle attack 

Definition
Cryptanalysis attack that tries to uncover a mathematical problem from two different ends. 

