Shared Flashcard Set


Chapter 3
Putting Down Roots
Undergraduate 2

Additional History Flashcards




The majority of white males arrived in Virginia and other southern colonies as...
indentured servants
Which of the following was NOT true about the women in New England colonies?
They had a shorter life expectancy than women back in england
Which of the following limited everyday colonial citizens from wearing certain "nice" clothing in some Massachusetts Bay colonies?
Sumptuary Laws
The Indian uprising "______'s War" contributed to the social and economic unrest in the Massachusetts Bay area, and wiped out several villages completely
King Philip
During the early colonial period (especially prior to 1680), _______ was pretty much the only major advantage of living in the Chesapeake Bay colonies, compared to Massachusetts Bay colonies
the potential for upward economic mobility
What factors explain the remarkable social stability achieved in early New England?
-migrated in family groups
--men to women ratio almost the same, making it easier to marry and start families
-healthy climate, population growth
-most colonists eventually acquired property
What factors contributed to political unrest in the Chesapeake region during this period?
-most immigrants were single, unmarried men
-most were indentured servants
-disease killed many
-men way outnumbered women, so starting families was difficult
-short life expectancy
-economic inequalitiy
How did African American slaves preserve an independent cultural identity in the New World?
-slaves developed new creole language that blended english with african languages
-enduring kinships formed that helped mitigate the hardships of slavery
-developed new forms of music/folk art that drew upon African roots and Christianity, including African religious elements
Why did England discourage free and open trade in colonial america?
-parliament passed mercantilist laws declaring that colonial raw materials and commerce would benefit only the mother country and not a european rival
-represented englands new blueprint for the empire
how did colonial revolts affect the political culture of virginia and new england?
-Bacon's Rebellion: landless freemen rose up against the governor and demanded indian lands
-rebellion failed, but it unified VA ruling elit
-1684, James II restructured colonies to increase crown authority
-New Englanders threw off Dominion of New England and negotiated for gov. charters that allowed significant autonomy
What was life like for yeomen farmers in northern colonies?
yeomen: independent farmers
-many were very independent and lived in small communities with militias and village meetings, church affairs, etc.
The Restoration:
“Declaration of Breda,” by King Charles II
since all nations are competing over limited natural resources, one nation’s success was every other nation’s loss. (essentially translates to MINE)

-England wants to protect its trading rights, raw materials, etc, from rival nations.

-Trade policies follow, as ways to keep their colonists from trading with other European nations.
No “free market” nonsense for them, thanks.
who supported mercantilism:
-the king: Money (taxes on imports AND exports).

-Merchants: Englishmen want their cut of the business, especially against Dutch traders.

-Parliament/Landed Gentry:
Excuse for stronger Navy, increased prestige.
Navigation Act of 1660.
No ship can trade with the colonies unless it was built in England/America, and had three-quarters English crew
-“Enumerated Goods” that aren’t from England can ONLY be transported for the colonies to England or another English colony.
enumerated goods:
tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, rice, molasses, tar, turpentine…
(things only grown in America, not in England)
Navigation Act of 1663
called “Staple Act,” nothing can be shipped into America unless it was shipped through England
Affected by the Navigation Act
-Dutch get muscled out
-Southern Colonies hit the hardest (especially small planters).
-English customs/taxes cut into profits.
-Loss of business with the Dutch reduced competition, lowered prices.
-New England ports largely ignore the law, or try to play games with it.
--Many shipbuilders profit enormously from the new laws.
-Smugglers make a profit.
-“Loophole” about transporting goods from America to another English colony.
--Closed with Navigation Act of 1673
1696 Further reforms:
Tighter enforcement procedures.
Pressured colonial governors to refuse trade outside the Navigation Acts.
Vice-admiralty courts in the colonies, extending English law.
“Lords of Trade” replaced with “Board of Trade.”

By 1700, 25% of all English exports were headed to America
Bacon's Rebellion:
Virginia. Economic problems.
1670, Governor Sir William Berkeley disfranchises all landless freemen as “troublemakers.”
Nathaniel Bacon arrives, 1674, wealthy English planter.
Wanted more. Refused a fur trading license.
1675, Native Indian attacks spark Berkeley’s “forts” scheme. No one likes it.
Bacon volunteers to form an army, demands wants official rank, legal right to attack other Indians. Berkeley refuses.
Neither side is very good at this “war” thing.
Bacon and his angry mob/army kill the wrong Indians.
Berkeley flees when Bacon burns down Jamestown. Bacon’s lieutenants chase, lose.
King sends in troops to put a stop to the nonsense. Bacon dies after an illness, Berkeley replaced by people just as greedy and inept.
Greed and ineptitude actually get Virginia gentry to unite against them, so in a way it all worked out. Unless you ask Jamestown or all the dead people
King Philip's War:
King Philip=Metacomet
-Chief of Wampanoag
-Narragansett Indians join in the war.
-Frontier villages destroyed, hundreds killed, economy a wreck.
-Eventually 1,000+ casualties, took about three years.
-Finally ended by Major Benjamin Church.
Massachusett's Problems:
-War brought debt, added to the business/social conflicts already brewing.
-1684, Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company annulled. Puritan dream destroyed, replaced by English bureaucracy.
-“Dominion of New England” created by James II. Grows to include Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, etc…all under a single (very unpopular) royal governor.
-Governor Sir Edmund Adros is not a very nice or popular person.
--Abolishes local elective assemblies.
-Financial disruption from Navigation Acts increases, debt from King Philip’s War increases, Navigation Acts are enforced very harshly.
-“Glorious Revolution” back in England sees William III and Queen Mary on the throne.
-News hits New England, and everyone is just so danged happy they overthrow and arrest Andros.
-1691, new royal charter granted, mixture of royal whim and local election.
Salem Witch Hunts:
-Salem, Massachusetts 1691
-19 young women hanged, 1 pressed to death by rocks, others died in jail (no one actually burned at the stake).
What the heck happened (Salem Witch Hunts)?
Scares over Indian attacks.
Community split over minister choice.
Economic resentment.
King Philip's War:
AKA Metacom's War/Rebellion
-Metacomet was part of the wampanoag tribe
-His side: Wampanoag tribe
Nipmuck tribe
Podunk tribe
Narragansett tribe
Nashaway tribe
Eventually lost roughly 3,000 men.

-the other side: New England Confederation (Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven)
Mohegan tribe
Pequot tribe
Lost roughly 600 men.
King Philip's War cont:
-Metacomet, aka “King Philip,” was actually Massasoit’s son. He distrusted the colonists, particularly because the colonists kept snatching up more and more Indian lands.

-His older brother, Wamsutta, died just after visiting the home of the colonial governor of Plymouth. Mysterious? Coincidence?

-John Sassamon was an Indian convert to Christianty (and Harvard graduate) who worked as a translator.

-He let the governors now that Metacomet was readying for war, Metacomet got a formal trial and an ultimatum:
--Any more rumors or trouble, and we’re confiscating land and guns!

-Sassamon found murdered not long after. A joint jury was put together (including tribal elders), and convicted three Wampanoag men.
-Initially the Native Indians had all the momentum and initiative on their side.
-Raids and attacks all along the frontier, throughout the winter of 1675-76.
-Providence, RI got burned down, part of Springfield got burned down, all sorts of ambushes and major conflicts.
-War of Attrition: war to the elimination.
Burn crops, destroy houses, kill women and children.
-Logistics begins to matter more than initiative.
-Colonists were driven back to their towns (and safety), while the Indians were further and further away from their homes.
-Indians run low on powder and lead
-Captain Benjamin Church starts to organize and lead “raiding parties” of militia and friendly Indians.
-King Philip is tracked down and killed (then beheaded, then drawn and quartered).
Supporting users have an ad free experience!