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Chapter 18
The Rise of Russia
10th Grade

Additional History Flashcards




page 400

Ivan III

AKA Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar (Caesar)--equivalent of emperor

Significance: -organized strong army
-freed Russians from payment to Mongols
-found conquest more important than defense
-revived old tradition of centralized rule
Analyze: -claimed to be descendant of Rurik
-learned political methods during occupation of Golden Horde
page 402

Ivan IV

AKA Ivan the Terrible; confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars; continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture

Significance: -stressed system of autocracy
-continued gaining territory and sending peasants to settle in new lands (cossacks)
-known for violent rages and killing/exiling boyars out of paranoia

Analyze: -Mongol counterattacks were a concern; territorial gains and strong military were necessary to avoid them
page 403

Peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements

Significance: -conquered and settled in new lands
-new settlements introduced previously unfamiliar cultures and people to Russian empire

Analyze: -cossacks' discovered lands were rewarded to loyal nobles and aristocrats
-conquered peoples could be turned into serfs (cheap labor)
page 404

Time of Troubles
Followed death of Russian tsar Ivan IV w/o heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613

Significance: -demonstrated lack of stability in empire
-made Russia prone to attacks from Sweden and Poland

Analyze: -absence of autocratic leader led to confusion among aristocrats over rightful successor
-political instability = proneness to attacks
page 404

Romanov Dynasty
Dynasty elected in 1613 at end of Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917

Significance: -leaders, such as Michael, reestablished internal order and drove away foreign invaders
-resumed expansionist policies

Analyze: -strong government was necessary to avoid disruption of Russian life and mantain order of aristocrats and peasants
page 404

Alexis Romanov

(1904-17 July 1918)
Russian heir to throne at the time of the Russian Revolution; youngest member of royal family at the time of their execution

Significance: -abolished assemblies of nobles and gained new powers over Russian church
-exiled Old Believers to Siberia or Southern Russia
-tightened laws that bound peasants to the land

Analyze: -eager to rid church of (what he considered) false beliefs introduced by Mongols
-serfs provided cheap labor and kept aristocrats wealthy
page 405

Old Believers
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or S. Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization

Significance: -instance of both political power and religious devotion

Analyze: -Alexis Romanov possessed immense influence over his people; pious believers of Eastern Orthodox faith refused to comply with reformations
page 405

Peter I
AKA Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689-1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.

Significance: -imitated western militaristic forms
-developed functionally specialized bureaucratic departments, as well as the building up of metallurgical/mining industries
-adopted some western culture (hairstyles, clothes, more egalitarianism among genders)

Analyze: -desire to further tsarist power and improve Russian military strength
-found interest in Western culture
page 408

Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina in 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry

Significance: -put down Pugachev rebellion
-extended powers of central government in regional affairs
-accepted Western culture but also allowed punishment of serfs to become harsher

Analyze: -she possessed genuine interests in reforming politics and culture but also needed to establish herself as a powerful ruler, hence the apparent contradictions in her policies
page 409

Pugachev Rebellion
During 1770s in reign of Catherine the Great; led by cossack Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be the legitimate tsar; eventually crushed; typical of peasant unrest during 18th century and thereafter

Significance: -used as excuse by Catherine the Great to extend governmental power
-example of anger felt by oppressed serfs

Analyze: -slaughtering of Pugachev warned other serfs of Catherine's capabilities
-Pugachev was one of many peasants who formed a significant, albeit unsuccessful, uprising out of hatred toward his harsh estate owners
page 409

Partition of Poland
Division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe

Significance: -divided territories of Poland; majority went to Russia
-start of Russian interference and influence in eastern Europe

Analyze: -Poland had an extremely weak government due to corrupt parliament and static decision making
-Russian acquisition of Polish territory permitted access into eastern--and eventually western-- Europe
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