Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Brady's AP WORLD HISTORY EXAM FLASHCARDS
Flashcards to help prepare for upcoming AP World History Exam
813
History
10th Grade
03/07/2014

Additional History Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Paleolithic Age

(Old Stone Age)

Definition
The Old Stone Age ending in 12,000 BCE; typified by use of crude stone tools adn hunting and gathering for subsistence
Term
Homo sapiens
Definition
The humanoid species that emerged as most successful at the end of the Paleolithic Period
Term

Hunting and gathering societies…

 

a. Are not able to produce art

b. Are always warlike and require little land

c. Organize rather small groups into political units 

d. Could not survive after agriculture was developed in the Fertile Crescent

Definition

ANSWER:

 

c. Organize rather small groups into political units 

Term

Why did the original inhabitants of Australia not develop agriculture?

 

a. Australia’s soil was too barren to grow crops

b. They were prevented from doing so due to the Neolithic Revolution

c. The Australian climate was too severe

d. They were too isolated to learn developments from elsewhere until recently

Definition

ANSWER:

 

d. They were too isolated to learn developments from elsewhere until recently

 

Term

[image]

What does this image represent in terms of early man?

Definition

ANSWER:

 

Stone Age paintings found in the caves of Lascaux, France

Mostly painted animals but historians aren't sure why but it shows they had paintings to possibly express a sense of nature's beauty and power

Term
Neolithic Age
Definition

The New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 BCE; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished

 

Causes: Possibly climate change--> people migrated to other parts of the world including more temperate climates in Mediterranean 

Term
How did agriculture affect early humans?
Definition

-Allowed people to settle in one area

-More food meant larger populations

-Specialization allowed as some moved from farming to other roles

-Focus on particular economic, political and religious goals and activities

-This will lead to the rise of civilizations

Term
Neolithic Revolution and its hearths
Definition

Neolithic Revolution is the succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization taht led to the development of agricultre; 8500-3500 BCE

 

 HEARTHS:

-Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia)

-Indus River Valley

-Huang He River Valley

-Nile River Valley

-Sub-Saharan Africa

-MesoAmerica

-Papua New Guinea

-Andes

 

-Different crops and animals were domesticated in the various hearths due to available local fauna and flora

Term

What Am I?

       –Jordan River Valley, 10,500 to 8000 B.C.E.

Barley, wheat
Hunting-gathering
More densely populated
Building
Society: stratified, matrilineal, and matrilocal

       Abandoned after 9000 B.C.E.

 
Definition

Natufian Complex

Term

Why did the development of agriculture led to an increase in population?

 

a. Farming was less labor intensive than hunting and gathering

b. The stable food source allowed for more permanent homes and larger families

c. Farming provided a healthier diet than hunting and gathering

d. The nomadic way of life ended worldwide

Definition

ANSWER:

 

b. The stable food source allowed for more permanent homes and larger families

Term

The phrase below describes what culture?

-Used Hammurabi’s Code as the system of law and was organized into city-states; cuneiform


a. Egypt 

b. Olmecs

c. Mesopotamia 

d. Huang He

Definition



c. Mesopotamia 

Term
Hunting Gathering
Definition

 

The original human economy, ultimately eclipsed by agriculture; groups hunt for meat and forage for grain and nuts

More gender equality

Exchange between different groups

 

Term
What was the impact of fire on early humans?
Definition

Humans used fire in new ways: to aid hunting and foraging, to protect 

against predators, and to adapt to cold environments

Term

In hunting and gathering bands, what was a characteristic of labor?

 

Definition
Was divided on a gender basis
Term

What society created an alphabet around 1300 BCE which was the predecessor of Greek and Latin?

 

a. Sumerians

b. Babylonians

c. Shang

d. Phoenicians

Definition

ANSWER:

 

d. Phoenicians


-They were a seafaring civilization, located on shores of the eastern Mediterranean and established colonies throughout Mediterranean

Term
What is demography?
Definition

Study of changes in population due to things like births, death, illiness, migration, etc.

Seen as the science of populations

Term
Early pastralism developed at various sites in the grasslands of __________________.
Definition

Afro-Eurasia

 

-Pastoralism also affected the environment by grazing large numbers of animals on fertile grasslands leading to eroison and overgrazing

Term
What were some improvements in agricultural production, trade and transportation during early human societies?
Definition

Pottery

Plows

Woven texiles

Metallurgy

Wheels and Wheeled vehicles

Term
What was from about 4000 BCE when bronze tools were first introduced in the Middle East to about 1500 BCE when iron began to replace it
Definition

The Bronze Age

Useful in agriculture and herding societies; specialization--> artisans and toolmakers

Term
What is slash and burn agriculture?
Definition
A system of cultivation typical of shifting cultivations; forest floors are cleared by fire and then crops are planted; soil becomes depleted over time and so the people move on to the next area
Term
What was Catal Hüyük?
Definition

Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey; was largeer in population than Jericho and had a greater degress of social stratification; houses were constructed out of mud bricks set in timber frameworks

Many religious shrines showed the existence of a powerful priesthood

Term
Name and Location of Core/Foundational Civilizations
Definition

Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys

Egypt in the Nile River Valley

Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River Valley

Shang in the Yellow (Huang He) Valley

Olmecs in Mesoamerica

Chavín in Andean South America

Term
Sumeria
Definition

-Tigris and Euphrates plain

-Irrigation-->food
-Sumerians in c. 4000 B.C.E.
-City-States
        •Establish boundaries
        •State religion
        •Courts
-Kings
        •Defense, war
-Priests
        •With kings, administer state land and slaves
-Writing
        •Cuneiform: stylus on clay tablets
        •Phonetic
        •Scribes
        •Epic of Gilgamesh
-Astronomy, numeric system
-Wheeled chart
-Religion
        •Patron gods
-Ziggurats (massive towers usually associated with temple complexes)
 
Term

Which region of the world would not had yet experienced the Neolithic transition by 600 CE?

A) Mesoamerica

B) South America

C) Northern Europe

D) Australia

Definition

D) Australia

Term
Matrilocal
Definition

 A culture in which young men upon marriage go to live with the bride’s family

 
Term
Matrilineal
Definition

family descent and inheritance traced through female line

 
Term
Who was often the developers and disseminators of new weapons and modes of transformation that transformed warfare in agrarian civilizations?
Definition
Pastoralists
Term
The Spread of the Neolithic Revolution: What crops originated in what areas?
Definition

Northern China: Millet

Rice: Southeast Asia, to China, India, islands 

Mesoamerica, Peru: Maize, manioc, sweet potatoes

Sub-Saharan Africa: Root and tree crops like sorghum

Papua New Guinea: Sugar cane, taro, yams

Middle East: wheat and barley

 

Map on page 14 in textbook has diffusion 

 
Term
Shang
Definition

First Chinese dynasty for which archeological evidence exists; capital located in Ordos

Flourished 1600-1046 BCE

Layed the foundation fo Chinese Civilization

Term
Cuneiform
Definition

Form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge-shapted stylus and clay tablets

 Helped with systems of record keeping, taxes, laws, etc.

Term
Harappa
Definition

Major urban complex of the Harappan civilization

Laid out on planned grid pattern

Kiln dried bricks, walled cities--> effective central government (assumed)

Citadels--> strong ruling class; advanced agriculture

Term
Chichimec
Definition
Nomadic hunter/gatherers who periodically moved down from the desert regions of North Mexico to feritle valley
Term
Characteristics of More Complex Societies
Definition

Food Surplus--> storable grain

Cities: Ex. Babylon

Specialization: artisans, scribes, using metals

Trade: Ex. transregional between Indus Valley and                 Mesopotamia or Egypt and Nubia

Social Stratification

Organized Government Ex. Assyria Dynasty or Shang

Complex Religions

Written Language: Ex. Hieroglyphs of Cuneiform

Arts/Architecture Ex. Zigguart, temples, etc.

Term
Who was Hannurabi?
Definition

Babylonian ruler from 1792-1750 BCE

Used an organized central bureaucracy

Taxation

Famous for Hannurabi's Code: laws that outlined crimes with punishements, punishment based on social standing and the idea that governement had a responsibility to its citizens

Term
Who were the Aryans?
Definition

Nomadic

Of Indo-European ancestry

Migrated to what today is India aound 1700 BCE

Polytheistic

Patriarchal Society

 

Term
What was the period known as the "Era of Warring States"?
Definition
The period of disorder in China before the establishment of Qin Dynasty
Term

Which of the following was NOT an advantage held by homo sapiens?

A) A large brain

B) Opposable thumb

C) Superior speed and body strength

D) Use of tools and weapons

Definition
C) Superior speed and body strength
Term
From what continent did humans originate?
Definition
Africa
Term
What were the first grains domesticated in the Middle East?
Definition
Wheat and barley
Term
What advantages were gained by early animal domestication?
Definition

-Additional source of protein

-Expanded choice of material for clothing

-Materials for boats

Term
What impact did the Neolithic Revolution have on the population of humans?
Definition
Caused it to increase from eight million to around 60 or 70 million
Term

In comparison to the position of women in hunting and gathering societies, the social status of women in sedentary agricultural communities did what?

 

A) Improved

B) Stayed about the same

C) Allowed them to monopolize the religious and political elites

D) Declined

Definition
D) Declined
Term

The concept of "barbarians"...

A) Was strictly a Chinese idea

B) Was only developed in nineteenth century Euorpean culture

C) Was commonly used to distinguish between cosmopolitan,urban-focused cultures and nomadic peoples

D) Was dropped in modern cultures

Definition
C) Was commonly used to distinguish between cosmopolitan,urban-focused cultures and nomadic peoples
Term
What is known as the combination of the ideas, objects and patterns of behavior that result from human social interactions?
Definition
Culture
Term
Where is Jericho, one of the early town centers located? What was its economy primarily based on?
Definition

-In the Jordan River Valley in the Middle East

- Cultivation of wheat and barley

Term
What was one of the results of the long isolation of American Indian peoples from the centers of civilization in Africa, Asia and Europe?
Definition
Vulnerability to diseases of the Old World
Term
What were the advantages and disadvantages of sedentary intensive hunting and gathering over nomadic hunting and gathering?
Definition

-Advantages: support larder and more complex social organizations; social stratification and specialization

-Disadvantages: More dependent on specific crops and animals; vulnerable to chanages in ecoloy

Term
Define civilization
Definition

Civilization: societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses and existence of nonfarming elties as well as merchant and manufacturing groups

 

 

Term
What three new religious beliefs were associated with the early agricultural societies time period?
Definition

The Vedic Religion

Hebrew Monotheism

Zoroastrianism

Term
What were some examples of literature that reflected the culture of the early agricultural societies?
Definition

Epic of Gilgamesh (Sumerian)

Book of the Dead (Egyptian)

Rig Veda (Indus Valley)

Term
Babylonian Empire
Definition

Unified all of Mesopotamia c 1800 BCE

Collapsed due to foreign invasion c 1600 BCE

Famous ruler Hammurabi & his code of laws

Helped extend civilization to other parts of the Middle East

Term
Ancient Egypt
Definition

Farming by 5000 B.C.E. 

Civilization emerges by 3200 B.C.E.

Difference from other regions: no city‑states

Government: Ruler was the Pharaoh, (intermediary between gods and men), Bureaucracy and 

Regional governors

Hieroglyphic alphabet--> Pictograms, phonetic

Papyrus (paper)

Monopolized by priesthood

Medicine

Religion: Isis, Osiris, Horus

Cycle of life, annual rise and fall of Nile

Pyramids used as burial site for pharaohs
 
Term
What was Kush?
Definition

An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c 1000 BCE; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries

Height from 250 B.C.E. to 50 C.E.

center of iron working

Defeated by Axum, c. 300 C.E.

 
Term
What are ideographs?
Definition

Pictographic characters grouped together to create a new concept

Typical of Chinese writing

Term
Huang He Early Civilization
Definition

Longshan culture (2000-1500 B.C.E.)

Millet, larger villages

Controlled river with dikes

Rulers associated with flood control

Mythical Yu, ruler of Xia

Religion: Shamans served as oracles

Ideographs 

Shang Dynasty c. 1500 BCE

 
Term
Olmecs
Definition
-Circa 1200 BCE in Mexico that featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginning of a calendar and writing system
Term

Chavín

 
Definition

Developed between 1800-1200 BCE in the Andes

-Large stone ceremonial centers

-Chavín de Huantar was their greatest ceremonial center characterized by artistic motifs

 
Term
Transforming Human Societies: Key Concepts
Definition

-Elite acquired wealth creating more hierarchal structure (patriarchal)

-Rulers often seen as divine and supported by warrior and priestly class

-Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths and monumental art
-States grew & competed for land & resources; the more favorably situated were able to undertake territorial expansion and conquer surrounding states
-Early regions of state expansion  (empire building) were Mesopotamia, Babylonia and the Nile Valley
 
 
Term
Zhou
Definition

Came from the north, replacing Shang

Flourished 1122-256 BCE

System of indirect rule

Territorial expansion

Ruled through alliances with noble families

Some centralization

Religious practices reshaped; linguistic unity

“Sons of Heaven” emperors were given a mandate from heaven to rule China

 
Term

What were the three schools of thought that emerged in Classical China?

 
Definition
Three Schools of Thought emerged: Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism
Term
Who was Shi Huangdi?
Definition

Founder of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE

First Emperor of China (ended Era of Warring States)

Created China's first centralized government

Legalism

Brutal Ruler

Great Wall

Standarized Chinese Writing

Known for his tomb full of terracota warriors

Term
Qin Dynasty
Definition

Followed the Zhou

-First unified, multi-national and power-centralized state in the Chinese history

-Established in 221 BCE at the end of the Era of Warring States

-Founded by Shi Huangdi (the tiger)

-Standarized coinage, weights & measures, uniform Chinese writing, national census

-Great Wall-->forced labor, high taxes 

(the project was built to keep northern invaders out and was worked on for over 1,000 years)

-Great centralization; organized into provincesruled by his appointed bureaucrats

-Burned books and scholars (Confucianism)

-Short lived however and replaced by Han

 

Term
Who was Wu Ti?
Definition

Wu Ti (140-87B.C.E.)

-One of the most famous Han rulers

-Establishes peaceful rule

-Promoted Confucianism (created imperialuniversity)

-Examination system 

-Trained bureaucrats 

 
Term
Han Dynasty
Definition

Territorial expansion: into Korea, Indochina & central Asia

Contact with India

Trade with Roman Empire

Han rule strong until about 220 C.E. 

–Ruled for four centuries

–Long-lasting, stable bureaucracy & lessened the Legalist “hard edge of rule”

–Rise of Chinese sense of uniqueness

 
Term
Who was Confucius?
Definition

-Known as Kung Fuzi

-Major Chinese philosopher born in 6th century BCE

-Wrote the Analects

-Philosophy based on need for restoration of order through advice of superior men to be found among the shi

-Philosophies become foundations for Confucianism


Term
What was a "dynasty" in Chinese history ?
Definition
A family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation
Term

How did the Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou dynasty?

A) It lasted longer

B) It practiced Confucianism

C) Its government was more centralized

D) It was defeated by invading Huns

 
Definition
C) Its government was more centralized
Term
What did Chinese views of nature emphasize?
Definition
A harmonious earthly life
Term

Which of the following was a Confucian belief?

 

A) Change should be encouraged and modeled by the emperor

B) A good society has a hierarchy both in family and state

C) Merchants must be valued for their money-making skills

D) People of all social classes and abilities should be actively involved in government

 
Definition
B) A good society has a hierarchy both in family and state
Term
Why did ceremony and hierarchy became an important part of upper-class Chinese life?
Definition
The Chinese believed that it would help unify society and prevent greed
Term

Daoists would agree with Confucianists on all of the following EXCEPT:

A) The importance of political activity

B) Scorn for greed

C) Basic harmony of nature

D) Importance of restraint in personal life

 
Definition
A) The importance of political activity
Term
What was legalism?
Definition

-Favored a strong state, ruling through force

-Belief that human nature was basically evil

-In opposition to Confucianism in many ways

yet the two often combined in exercise of power

 
Term

What was the capital of the Han Dynasty?

 
Definition

Chang’an was the capital of the Han Dynasty

 
Term

Which of the following groups was considered "low standing" in official Chinese social hierarchy?

A) Students

B) Merchants

C) Scholars

D) Soldiers

 
Definition
B) Merchants
Term

A famous example of "cultural diffusion" in early Chinese history was...

A) The spread of paper-making technology from the Middle East

B) The use of the iron plow from Rome

C) The development of written Mandarin Chinese characters

D) The introduction and spread of Buddhism from India

 
Definition
D) The introduction and spread of Buddhism from India
Term
Daoism
Definition

Laozi (400s B.C.E.)

–Best known Daoist philosopher

–Retreat from society

–State cannot solve all problems

–Nature

-Dao, cosmic force (“the way of nature”)

–Meditation

-Influences Chinese medical practices like acupuncture

 
Term
Culture, Art and Technology for Classical China
Definition

Family-->both living and ancestors most important unit 

Reverence for nature through Daoism

Daoism-influenced architecture (i.e. sloping roofs seen on many East Asian temples)

Decorative arts: Ex. Calligraphy

Science concentrated on the practical

Technology: Plows, new collar for draft animals

Iron tools, Water-powered mills and paper

 
 
Term
Han Economics:
Definition

Han government sponsored canal projects to help transport trade goods

Silk Road (flourished under Han)

Economy was mostly based on agriculture (iron was introduced)

 
Term
Confucian Social System
Definition

-Landowning aristocracy and bureaucrats

-Laboring masses: peasants and artisans

-The “mean people”: Unskilled laborers, Performing artists, slaves

 
Term
Religions Characteristics
Definition
Study the Chart you received on the features of major key religions
Term

What similarity did early Buddhism and early Christianity share?

A) Support for caste system

B) Inclusion of Greek and Roman gods into their pantheon

C) Allowing women to enter monastic life

D) Prohibition of conversion

Definition
C) Allowing women to enter monastic life
Term

Which pair of rulers underwent a religious conversion process that had a broad-based impact on the lands under their control?

A) Julius Caesar and Shi Huangdi

B) Hammurabi and Julius Caesar

C) Asoka and Constantine

D) Henry VIII and Justinian

Definition
C) Asoka and Constantine
Term
What did the Aryan conquerors bring to India?
Definition

-Distinctive religious ideas

(Foundations for Hinduism)

Term
Buddha
Definition
Creator of a major Indian and Asian religion; born in the 6th century the son of a local ruler; found enlightenment under bo tree; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for all earthly things
Term
Successor of Philip II, successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 BCE, attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures
Definition
Alexander The Great
Term
The sacred and classical Indian language
Definition
Sanskrit
Term
Vedas
Definition
Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books from the 6th century BCE
Term
Mahabharata
Definition
Indian epic of war, princely honor, love, and social duty; written down in the lsst centuries BCE; previously handed down in oral form
Term
Ramayana
Definition
One of the great epich tales from classical India; traces adventures of King Rama and his wife Sita; written 4th to 2nd centuries BCE
Term
What did the Four Noble Truths of Buddha teach?
Definition

-In life there is suffering

-Suffering comes from self desire

-Those seeking the path to nirvana should strive to end suffering

-This can be done by following the Eight Fold Path

Term
Upanishads
Definition
Later books of the Vedas; contained sophisticated and sublime philosophical ideas; utlized by Brahmans to restore religious authority
Term
Varnas
Definition

Clusters of caste groups in Aryan society; four social castes:

-Brahmans (priests)

-Warriors

-Merchants

-Peasants

-Untouchables (Dasas) who performed tasks considered polluting like removal of human waste

Term
What was the chief deity of the Aryans?
Definition
Indra
Term
Who was the soldier who seized power in 322 BCE
Definition
Term
Who was the soldier to seize power in 322 BCE along the Ganges River and start a dynasty named after him?
Definition
Chandragupta Maurya
Term
Mauryan
Definition

Dynasty established in Indian subcontinent in 4th century BCE following invasion of Alexander the Great

-maintained large armies

-elephant troops

-bureaucracy

-postal service

Term
Who was Ashoka?
Definition

Grandson of Chandragupta

Completed conquest of Indian subcontinent

Converted to Buddhism

Sent out Buddhist missionaries to teach the religion to his subjects, but also honored Hinduism

Term
What was dharma and why did Ashoka support it?
Definition
dharma was a law of moral consequences that Ashoka hoped could serve as a moral guide and unite his diverse subjects
Term
_______________was the Brahman, later Hindu god of sacrifice that was widely worshipped
Definition
Vishnu
Term
Why did the Kushan invaders conversion to Buddhism hurt the religion in India?
Definition
The greatest Kushan king Kanishka converted to Buddhism so Indians associated the religion with foreign rule
Term
What dynasty succeeded the Kushans to rule India in the third century CE?
Definition

Gupta Empire

-extended to all but the southern region of India's subcontinet

-overturned in 535 CE by the Huns

Term
Who was Kautilya?
Definition

Chandragupta's chief minister

Believed in scientific approach to warfare

Wrote the Arthashastra

Term
Who were gurus?
Definition
Originally known as Brahmans, served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas
Term
What was an economic reason that lead to the fall of the Gupta Empire?
Definition
Difficulty by the government to raise enough taxes to pay the military to protect its borders
Term
What was the most effective unifying force in early Indian culture?
Definition
Widely practiced and similar Hindu tradition, including the caste system
Term
What type of political patterns on the Indian subcontinent in the classical era 1000 BCE to 600 CE were seen?
Definition
Decentralized rule by local princes punctuated by Maurya and Gupta periods of unification
Term
What impact did Hindu dharma have on Indian society?
Definition
formed rigid social and economic groups
Term
What belief do Buddhists and Hindus share?
Definition
Reincarnation
Term
Who was Cyrus the Great?
Definition
Established the massive Persian Empire by 550 BCE
Term
Chief religion of Persian Empire that was monotheistic and saw the battle between the forces of good and evil and stressed the importance of moral choice
Definition
Zoroastrianism
Term
Peloponnesian War
Definition

431-404 BCE

Between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece

Spartan victory but failed to unify Greece

Term
Who was Pericles?
Definition

Athenian leader during 5th century BCE

Ruled through negotiation and influence

Died during early stages of Peloponnesian War

Term
Who was Philip II of Macedonia?
Definition

Father of Alexander the Great

Ruled Macedonia from 359-336 BCE

Later conquered rest of Greece and placed under Macedonian authority

Term
Where was the center of literary studies and the site of the Mediterranean's greatest library during the classical period?
Definition

Alexandria in Egypt

(named after Alexander th Great)

Term
Hellenistic Period
Definition
That culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as a combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms
Term
What was known as the time period in Rome from 510-47 BCE that featured an aristocratic senate, a panel of magistrates and several popular assemblies?
Definition
Roman Republic
Term
What war was fought between Rome and Carthage to establish dominance in western Mediterranean that was won by Rome after three separate campaigns?
Definition
Punic Wars
Term
Hannibal was defeated at what battle?
Definition
Battle of Zama
Term
Who was Hannibal?
Definition

Famous Carthaginian general during Second Punic War, successfully invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome

Used elephants in his campaigns

Term
Who was the Roman general responsible for conquest of Gaul, overthrew republic and was assassinated in 44 BCE by his senators
Definition
Julius Caesar
Term
Roman emperor from 312-337 CE who established a second capital at Constantinople and used Christianity to unify the empire
Definition
Constantine
Term
Who was the first emperor of Rome?
Definition

Augustus Caesar

 

Term
Define polis
Definition
City-state form of government; typical of Greek political organization from 800-400 BCE
Term
Who was Cicero?
Definition
Conservative Roman senator; stoic philosopher and known as a great orator; killed in reaction to Julius Caesar's murder
Term
Hellenistic group of philosophers who emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
Definition
Stoics
Term
Who was the Greek philosopher who was also the teacher of Alexander the Great?
Definition
Aristotle
Term
Who was Socrates?
Definition
Athenian philosopher of later 5th century BCE; tutor of Plato who urged rational reflection of moral decisions; condemned to death for corrupting minds of Athenian youths
Term
Who wrote Oedipus Rex?
Definition

Sophocles

(496-406 BCE)

Greek writer

Term
What are the great epic poems of Homer?
Definition
Odyssey and Illiad
Term
What are the three embellishments of Hellenistic architecture?
Definition

Corinthian

Ionic

Doric

Term

Which of the following was not a change brought about during the rule of Julius Caesar?

A) The Senate was abolished

B) Caesar brought more Italians and other provincials into politics at the expense of old Roman families

C) Caesar was named dictator for life

D) Caesar named many new officials and judges

Definition
A) The Senate was abolished
Term

Which of the following was something classical Greek and Chinese societies had in common?

A) Patriarchal family structure

B) Had only queens as leaders

C) Decentralized political structures

D) Fluid social structure

Definition
A) Patriarchal family structure
Term
Who was the leader under whose guidance Christians began to see themselves as part of a new religion?
Definition
Paul
Term
How did classical Greek politics resemble classical Indian politics?
Definition
Tendency of regional fragmentation
Term
What was the Greek and Hellenistic approach to science?
Definition
Used mathematics to try and explain nature's patterns
Term
What was an impact on Greeks/Romans as a result of relying on slavery?
Definition
Lagged in technological advances compared to the Chinese or Indians
Term
The first kingdoms in east Africa below the Sahara showed the influence of ________________.
Definition
Egypt and Hellenism
Term
What Roman emperor attempted to reverse the decline of the empire by administrative reform and improvements in the system of tax collection?
Definition
Diocletian
Term
Why did nomadic invaders often have military advantages over the armies of empires?
Definition
They were more skilled as horsemen
Term
What religion developed in Japan that was devoted to the worship of many gods and spirits and associated with the natural world?
Definition

Shintoism

 

By c700 CE Shintoism unified into single national religion in Japan

Term
How did the end of the Gupta Empire differ from the decline of the Roman Empire?
Definition
It did not involve the adoption of a new religion by the majority
Term

Which of the following best survived the Hun invasions in India?

A) Hindu beliefs

B) Political unity

C) Nationalist beliefs

D) Buddhist beliefs

Definition
A) Hindu Beliefs
Term

What was an important early symptom of Rome's decline?

 

Definition
Drop in population due to a series of plagues
Term
After 200 C. E., an increasing number of people in Asia, Europe, and North Africa began to adopt faiths characterized by this factor.
Definition
Monothesism
Term

Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands

Replaced Meroë in first century CE

Received strong influence from Arabian peninsula

Eventually converted to Christianity

Definition
Axum
Term
What place in Africa became a Christian Kingdom under the dynasty of King Lalaibela and mained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa?
Definition
Ethiopia
Term

Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c 1200 BCE

Featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems

Definition
Olmec Culture
Term

-Classical culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central America contemporary with Teotihuacan

 

-Extended over broad region

 

-Featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems

 

-Highly developed religion

Definition
Maya
Term

-Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures

 

-Term also used for leader of this empire

Definition
Inca
Term
Define Polynesia
Definition

-Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand and Easter Island


-The Polynesian people reached islands like Fiji and Samoa by 1000 BCE and reaching places such as Hawaii by 400 CE

Term
Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 CE in China promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic
Definition
Yellow Turbans
Term
Sui
Definition

-Dynasty that succeeded the Han in China

-Emerged from strong rulers in northern China

-United all northern China and reconquered southern China

Term
What dynasty succeeded the Sui in 618 CE and was more stable and previous dynasty?
Definition
Tang
Term
Rajput
Definition
Regional princes in western India who emphasized military control of their regions
Term
Mother goddess within Hinduism whose following widely spread with the collapse of the Guptas
Definition
Devi
Term

Major world religion founded in 600s CE in the Arabian peninsula

Based on prophercy of Muhammad

God is Allah

Definition
Islam
Term
What was the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the collapse of western half of the old empire?
Definition
Byzantine Empire
Term
What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire?
Definition
Constantinople
Term
Justinian
Definition

Early Byzantine Emperor (c 482-565)

Responsible for major building in Constantinople and a codification of Roman law

Tried to recapture some additional previously Roman territories but it ended in failure

Term

Bishop of Hippo in Africa

Champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in long term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination

Definition

Augustine

 

Influencial church father and theologian

(354-430 CE)

Later named a Saint 

Term
Christian sect in Egypt, later tolerated after Islamic takeover
Definition
Coptic
Term
Buddhist holy men who built up spiritual merits during their lifetimes; prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness
Definition
Bodhisattvas
Term
Who was the prophet and teacher among the Jewish people who was believed by Christians to be the Messiah?
Definition
Jesus of Nazareth
Term
Who is the head of the Roman Catholic Church?
Definition

The Pope

Name comes from papa (father)

Known as the Bishop of Rome

Term
Who founded monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire?
Definition
Benedict of Nursia
Term
What is animism?
Definition
A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature
Term
What do historians point to as the key infrastructural development of the Tang-Song era?
Definition
Construction of the Grand Canal that helped connect the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys
Term

Which of the following practices emerged in the Song era?

 

A) One Child Policy

B) Arranged Marriages

C) Foot Binding

D) Divorce Rights

Definition
C) Foot Binding
Term
Where in the world did the literary form of the novel emerge?
Definition
Japan
Term
Neo-Confucianism incorporated ideas from what belief systems that had grown in popularity in China?
Definition
Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism
Term
What was the name of the peninsula that served as the homeland of the Byzantine and later Ottoman Empire?
Definition
Anatolia
Term

Which religious schism stemmed from disputes over legitimaye succession of leadership after the death of its key or found figure?

A) Eastern Orthodox and Catholicism

B) Catholicism and Protestantism

C) Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism

D) Sunni and Shia Islam

Definition
D) Sunni and Shia Islam
Term
What West African leadership figure is best known for his lavish fourtheenth-century pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina?
Definition
Mansa Kankan Musa
Term

Which of the following best describes the points of origin of goods one might find in a Swahili coast market?

 

A) Chinese, Indian, English

B) Islamic, Indian, Chinese

C) Scandinavian, Indian, Russian

D) Russian, Islamic, English

Definition
B) Islamic, Indian, Chinese
Term
Since the classical era, which African region most accurately fits the descripition "gateway to the Middle East?"
Definition
Egypt
Term

-Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula

-Culture based on camel and goat nomadism

-Early converts to Islam

-Lived in kin-related clan groups

Definition
Bedouin
Term
What were the leaders of bedouin clans called?
Definition
Shaykhs
Term

Which of the following statements concerning inter-clan relationships in bedouin society is most accurate?


A) Clans within the same tribe almost never engaged in warfare, but violence between different tribes was common

B) Arabic society was too mobile to result in many contacts between clans, and therefore violence was minimal

C) Inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common

D) Inter-clan violence was regulated by a universally recognized code of law imposed by the Quraysh in Mecca

Definition
C) Inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common
Term
What clan was responsible for the foundation of Mecca?
Definition
Umayyad
Term
What was the tribe of bedouins that controlled Mecca in 7th century CE?
Definition
Quraysh
Term

-City located in mountainous region along Red Sea in Arabian peninsula

-Site of Ka'ba

-Original home of Muhammad the founder of Islam

-Location of chief religious pilgrimage point in Islam

Definition
Mecca
Term
Who was Muhammad's wife?
Definition
Khadijah
Term
Who was Muhammad's cousin who was one of the orthodox caliphs and the focus for Shi'a?
Definition
Ali
Term
What is the umma?
Definition

Community of the faithful within Islam

Transcended old tribal boundaries to create a degree of political unity

Term

What was the major difference between Medina and Mecca?


A) Political dominance in Medina was contested between a number of Jewish and bedouin tribes

B) Mecca was established in an oasis, and Medina was in a mountainous region

C) Medina was engaged in long-distance caravan trade, while Mecca was not

 D) Medina was located on the western side of the Arabian Peninsula, while Mecca was located on the Persian Gulf

Definition
A) Political dominance in Medina was contested between a number of Jewish and bedouin tribes
Term
What is zakat?
Definition
Tax for charity
Term

What was the nature of pre-Islamic bedouin religion?

Definition
It was a blend of animism and polytheism
Term
What was the clan into which Muhammad was born?
Definition
Banu Hashim
Term
What was the initial response of the Umayyads to Muhammad's new faith?
Definition
They regarded him as a threat to their wealth and power as he questioned the traditional gods of the Ka'ba
Term
Who was one of Muhammad's earliest converts and succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of the Islamic community?
Definition
Abu Bakr
Term

-Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632 CE

-Resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some larger clans

-Restored unity to Islam

Definition
Ridda Wars
Term
Who were the Nestorians?
Definition

-A Christian sect found in Asia

-Tended to support Islamic invasion of this area in favor of Byzantine rule

-Became cut off from Europe by Muslim invasion

Term
What was Muhammad's teaching with respect to the revelations of other monotheistic religions?
Definition

-Muhammad accepted the validity of earlier Christian and Judaic revelations and taught that his own revelations were a final refinement and reformulation of earlier ones

-People of the book

Term

Why was the caliph Uthman disliked by so many Arabs?

Definition
He was of the Umayyad
Term
What was the result of the first civil war between Ali and the Umayyads?
Definition
Despite early successes, Ali's faction disintegrated, leading to an Umayyad victory and Ali's assassination
Term
What was the Battle of Siffin?
Definition

Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads

Settled by negotiation that led to the fragmentation of Ali's party

Term

The political and theological faction within Islam that recognized only Ali and the descendants of the family of Muhammad as rightful rulers was called _________________.

Definition
Shi'a
Term

Under the Umayyads, the political center of Islam shifted to ______

Definition
Damascus
Term

What was the nature of citizenship within the Umayyad Empire?

Definition
Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens of this great empire
Term

What was the term for non-Arab Muslim converts?

 

Definition
Mawali
Term
Who were the dhimmi?
Definition

"People of the Book"

Applied as inclusive terms for Jewish people, and Christians in Islamic territories

Term
What dynasty succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam around 750 CE?
Definition
Abbasid
Term
What was the Battle of the River Zab?
Definition

Victory of Abbasids over Umayyads

Resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital

Term
Where did the Abbasid Dynasty establish their capital?
Definition
Baghdad
Term
What are dhows?
Definition
Arab sailing vessels with triangular lateen sails tha strongly influenced European ship design
Term
Who were the ayan?
Definition
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule
Term

What was the primary cultural contribution of the Muslims during the Abbasid period?

Definition
The Muslims were able to recover and preserve the works of the ancient philosophers as well as transmit ideas and culture from one civilization to another
Term

What was the nature of slavery within the Abbasid social system?


A) Slavery was limited to the non-Arab converts to Islam, and died out during the period of the Abbasid Empire

B) Because most unskilled labor was left to the unfree, slaves could be found in both the towns and countryside of the Abbasid Empire

C) Slavery was known in Abbasid cities, but was virtually unknown in the countryside where most labor was performed by a free peasantry

D) Most slaves worked under favorable conditions but were never allowed to convert to Islam

Definition
B) Because most unskilled labor was left to the unfree, slaves could be found in both the towns and countryside of the Abbasid Empire
Term

What was the status of artisans in Abbasid cities?

Definition
Artisans were free men who owned their own tools and who formed guild-like organizations to negotiate wages
Term

Who were the ayan?

Definition

A rural landholding elite

Term
What was the nature of the economy of the Abbasid period?
Definition
It was a period of general prosperity typified by urban growth and the restoration of the Afro-Eurasian trade axis
Term
Where did the Abbasids move the political center of their empire?
Definition
Baghdad
Term
What was the most significant of the transformations brought about by the Abbasids' rise to power?
Definition
The mawali were admitted as full members of the Islamic community
Term

What are some reasons for the decline of the Abbasid dynasty by the ninth century C.E.?

 

Definition

 

-The retention of regional identities by the population

-The difficulty of moving armies across the great distances of the empire

-The difficulty of compelling local administrators to obey

Term

Which of the following groups did NOT revolt against Abbasid rule?

A) Slaves

B) Sunnis

C) Shi'as 

D) Buyids

Definition
B) Sunnis
Term

Which statement is TRUE regarding Caliph al-Mahdi and the problem of succession in the Abbasid dynasty?

A) He specified the rule of primogeniture, the succession of the oldest son

B) He accepted the Shi'a doctrine that only the person with the most direct relationship to Muhammad should succeed

C) He accepted the radical proposition that only a man of demonstrable Islamic purity should succeed

D) He failed to resolve the problem of dynastic succession, with disastrous results

Definition
D) He failed to resolve the problem of dynastic succession, with disastrous results
Term
What was al-Mahdi's attitude toward the Shi'as?
Definition

He appealed to the moderate factions of the Shi'as to support the Abbasid dynasty

Term

What was the fictional account of life at the court of the Caliph al-Rashid?

Definition

The Thousand and One Nights

Term

How did the administration of al-Rashid set a trend for subsequent Abbasid rulers?

A) He was at the outset of his reign heavily dependent on Persian advisors, a practice that became commonplace thereafter

B) He divided the empire into a series of states each of which elected representatives to a caliphal parliament at Baghdad

C) He removed all regional governors and established strict absolutism from the court at Baghdad

D) He made the position of caliph all-powerful by building a new capital complex in Cairo

Definition
A) He was at the outset of his reign heavily dependent on Persian advisors, a practice that became commonplace thereafter
Term
What was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-Rashid?
Definition
Succession disputes led to the build up of personal armies, often of slave soldiers
Term
What is Ramadan?
Definition
Islamic month of religious observance requiring fastening from dawn to sunset
Term
Define hajj
Definition
Muslim pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca to worship Allah at the Ka'ba
Term
Five Pillars
Definition

The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims:

confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat (give to charity) and hajj

Term
Jihad
Definition
Struggle; often used for wars in defense of faith
Term
Mu'awiya
Definition
Leader of Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali
Term
al-Mahdi
Definition
Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problems of succession
Term

Which of the following groups did NOT revolt against Abbasid rule?

A) Slaves

B) Sunnis

C) Shi'as

D) Buyids

Definition
B) Sunnis
Term

What was the fictional account of life at the court of the Caliph al-Rashid?

Definition
The Thousand and One Nights
Term

What accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the Abbasid Empire?

A) The decline of the cities led to a fall in the demand for food supplies and consequent drops in agricultural prices

B) Progressive desiccation of the region led to a diminution of the land available for agriculture

C) Spiraling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works, and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction and abandonment of many villages

D) The ayan class began to import large numbers of slaves to work the land

Definition
C) Spiraling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works, and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction and abandonment of many villages
Term
What changes occurred during the Abbasid period with respect to women?
Definition
The establishment of the harem
Term

What was the attitude of the Abbasids toward the institution of slavery?

Definition
The Abbasid elite demanded growing numbers of both male and female slaves for concubines and domestic service
Term

How did the administration of al-Rashid set a trend for subsequent Abbasid rulers?


Definition
He was at the outset of his reign heavily dependent on Persian advisors, a practice that became commonplace thereafter
Term
What was the regional splinter dynasty that captured Baghdad in 945 CE?
Definition
Buyids
Term
What group successfully captured Baghdad in 1055?
Definition
Seljuk Turks
Term

What was the religious affiliation of the Seljuk Turks?

 

Definition
Sunni Islam
Term
In what year was Jerusalem captured by Christian crusaders?
Definition
1099 CE
Term
Who was the Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century who reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam?
Definition
Saladin
Term
In what region were the Crusades fought?
Definition
The Holy Land
Term
Who was the Muslim historian who developed the concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors had a cycle of three generations--> strong, weak, and dissolute
Definition
Ibn Khaldun
Term
What was the impact of the Seljuk conquest of Baghdad on the Abbasid Empire?
Definition
It restored the ability of the empire to defeat Egyptian and Byzantine attacks
Term

What accounts for the success of the First Crusade?

Definition
Muslim political fragmentation and the element of surprise
Term

The fall of Acre, the last crusader stronghold, occurred in what year?

Definition
1291
Term

What was the impact of the Crusades on the Christian West?

Definition
Christians adopted Muslim military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among other things
Term

What was the trend of urbanization during much of the Abbasid Empire?

Definition
Despite political disintegration and a declining agricultural sector, towns continued to grow rapidly
Term

What was the level of trade in the Abbasid Empire?

 

 

Definition
Long-distance trade with Africa, the Mediterranean, India, and China continued to flourish despite periodic interruption
Term

What was the primary written language of the later Abbasid court?

 

 

 

Definition
Persian
Term

What was the Shah-Nama?

A) The name given to the first wife of the caliph

B) The title of the commander of the slave mercenaries

C) The title given to the oldest son of the caliph 

D) A written history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests

Definition
D) A written history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests
Term
Who wrote the Shah-Nama?
Definition
Firdawsi int he late 10th, early 11th centuries
Term
Define ulama
Definition
Orthodox religious scholars within Islam pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; increasingly opposed to non-Islamic ideas and scientific thinking
Term
Who was al-Ghazali?
Definition
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Qur'an traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the Sufi movement within Islam is most accurate?

A) The Sufi movement stressed an increasingly restrictive conservatism within Islam

B) The Sufi movement stressed withdrawal from life and into monastic communities

C) The Sufi movement incorporated mysticism with a trend toward evangelism 

D) The Sufi questioned the Islamic interest in the Greek traditions in science

Definition
C) The Sufi movement incorporated mysticism with a trend toward evangelism
Term
What group captured Baghdad in 1258 CE?
Definition

Mongols

 

Term

Who Am I?

 

-Born in 1170s

-Elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206 CE

-Responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions

-Died in 1227 CE

Definition
Chinggis Khan
Term
Who ruled the Ilkhan khanate, was Chinggis Khan's grandson, and was responsible for the capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1257 CE?
Definition
Hulegu
Term
Who were the Mamluks?
Definition

Muslim slave warriors who established a dynasty in Egypt

Defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 CE and halted Mongol advance

Term

How did the political center of Islam change after the Mongol invasions?

 

 

 

Definition
Baghdad was supplanted by Cairo to the east and soon thereafter Istanbul to the north
Term

What was the difference between the Islamic invasions of India and previous incursions of the subcontinent?

 

Definition
With the Muslims, the peoples of India encountered for the first time a large-scale influx of invaders with a civilization as sophisticated as their own
Term

How did Islam and Hinduism differ?

Definition
Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system
Term
What was the date of the first Muslim raids into India?
Definition
711 CE
Term
How did the Muslim conquerors of Sind treat the Hindu and Buddhist residents of the region?
Definition

Hindus and Buddhists were treated as dhimmis or "peoples of the book."

Term
Who was the Arab general who conquered Sind in India and declared the region and the Indus Valley to be part of the Umayyad Empire?
Definition
Muhammad ibn Qasim
Term
What was the most critical cultural advance as a result of the increased contact between Muslims and Indian civilization?
Definition
Muslims adopted the Indian system of mathematical notation
Term

What descendant of a Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan led a series of expeditions into India to seize booty in the eleventh century?

 

 

Definition
Mahmud of Ghazni
Term

What ruler was associated with the transition from raiding to the establishment of an Islamic empire in the Indian subcontinent?

A) Mahmud of Ghazni

B) Muhammad ibn Qasim

C) Hajjaj 

D) Muhammad of Ghur

Definition
D) Muhammad of Ghur
Term
Where was the capital of the Islamic kingdom established after 1206 on the Gangetic plain?
Definition
Delhi
Term

What groups were most responsible for the conversion of Indians to Islam?

A) Traders and Sufi mystics

B) Ulama and Sunni evangelists

C) Soldiers and Shi'a exiles 

D) Delhi Sultans

Definition
A) Traders and Sufi mystics
Term

Why were the Sufis effective missionaries within the Indian subcontinent?

Definition
In both style and message they shared much with Indian mystics and wandering ascetics
Term
What groups in India were most likely to convert to Islam?
Definition
Buddhists and low caste Hindus
Term

How did Hinduism respond to the challenge of Islam?

 

 

 

Definition
Hindus placed greater emphasis on the devotional or bhaktic cults of gods and goddesses such as Shiva and Vishnu
Term

The spread of Islam to southeast Asia was delayed until the fall of the Buddhist trade empire of ______________.

A) Borneo

B) Sumatra

C) Kashmir

D) Shrivijaya

Definition
D) Shrivijaya
Term
Who was Mira Bai?
Definition
Celebrated Hindu writer of religious poetry; reflected upon openness of bhaktic cults to women
Term
Who was Kabir?
Definition
Muslim mystic; played down importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam
Term

In general, how did Islam spread in southeast Asia?

 

Definition
Port cities were points of dissemination to other links in trading networks
Term

What was the nature of Islamic religion that developed in Southeast Asia?

 

 

 

Definition
Because Islam came to Southeast Asia from India and was spread by Sufi holy men, it developed a mystical nature that incorporated much of indigenous religion
Term
What was Malacca?
Definition
Portuguese factory/fortified trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center of trade among the southeastern Asian islands
Term
What was Demak?
Definition
Most powerful of the trading states on north coast of Java; converted to Islam and served as point of dissemination to other ports
Term

Between 800CE and 1500CE, as the frequency and intensity of contact with the outside world increased, which of the following had the most significant impact on sub-Saharan Africa?

A) The arrival of the Portuguese

B) The arrival of Christianity

C) The arrival of Islam 

D) The arrival of Chinese merchants

Definition
C) The arrival of Islam 
Term
What was one of the major differences between African civilizations and other postclassical societies?
Definition
African civilizations built somewhat less clearly on prior societies than did other post-classical societies
Term

Which of the following statements concerning political and religious universality in Africa is most accurate?


A) Although a universal empire did not develop in Africa, Islam provided a principle of universality in the continent

B) During the post classical period, Africa was politically united under a single government but remained religiously diverse

C) Universal religions found no adherents in Africa, a fact that helps to account for the failure of a universal political system to develop

D) Neither universal states nor universal religion characterized Africa, but both Christianity and Islam did find adherents in Africa

Definition
D) Neither universal states nor universal religion characterized Africa, but both Christianity and Islam did find adherents in Africa
Term
African societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority were referred to as ______________.
Definition
Stateless Societies
Term
What was the Arabic term for eastern north Africa?
Definition
Ifriqiya
Term
What was the Arabic word for western north Africa?
Definition
Maghrib
Term
What was the Almohadis?
Definition
Reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa
Term

What was the function of secret societies in African culture?

Definition
Because their membership cut across lineage divisions, they acted to maintain stability within the community and diminish clan feuds
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the economies of Africa is NOT correct?


A) North Africa was fully involved in the Mediterranean and Arab economic world

B) Settled agriculture and iron working had been established in many areas before the postclassical period

C) Trade was handled by professional merchants, often in kinship groupings

D) Much of the region lacked a market economy and was based on self-sufficient agricultural units

Definition
D) Much of the region lacked a market economy and was based on self-sufficient agricultural units
Term

What region of Africa was first converted to Islam by 700 C.E.?

A) East Africa

B) Central Africa

C) West Africa

 

D) North Africa

Definition
D) North Africa
Term

What does the phrase "equality before God and inequality within the world" mean?

 

Definition
 It refers to the disparity between law and practice in many African societies
Term

What was the most important Christian kingdom in Africa?

Definition
Ethiopia
Term
What is the name for the grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara that served as a point of exchange between the forests of the south and north Africa?
Definition
Sahel
Term
What Sudanic kingdom declined in 1076 CE, making way for new political organizations in the region?
Definition
Ghana
Term
What Ethiopian king contrusted the Bet Giorgia the showed the power of early Christianity?
Definition
King Lalibela
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the Sudanic states of Mali and Songhay is most accurate?


A) Although powerful, the Sudanic states never reached the level of empires

B) Sudanic states had territorial core areas in which the people were of the same ethnic background, but their power extended over subordinate communities

C) What provided the cultural unity necessary for the establishment of states in the Sudan was the conversion of many people to Christianity 

D) The Sudanic states were distinguished from other African civilizations by the peculiar lack of family or clan lineages as an organizing principle of society

Definition
Sudanic states had territorial core areas in which the people were of the same ethnic background, but their power extended over subordinate communities
Term

What was the geographical location of the empire of Mali?

Definition
Between the Niger and Senegal Rivers
Term

What monarch is credited with beginning Malinke expansion and creating the Mali Empire?

 

 

Definition
Sundiata
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the social organization of the Malinke people is most accurate?


A) Following their conversion to Islam, the Malinke removed the worst aspects of social stratification in order to achieve social equality

B) The Malinke recognized only two sorts of people, those who were free and slaves

C) The Malinke regarded all members of the tribal group as children of the ruler and thus essentially equal

D) Malinke society was divided into three groups: clans of freemen, people devoted to religion, and specialists and tradesmen

Definition
D) Malinke society was divided into three groups: clans of freemen, people devoted to religion, and specialists and tradesmen
Term
Who were the Malinke merchants who formed small partnerships to carry out trade throughout the Mali Empire, eventually spreading throughout much of west Africa?
Definition
Juula
Term

What was the social and political function of the griots?

Definition
Griots mastered the oral traditions of the Malinke and by knowing the past were considered excellent advisors of kings
Term

What was the nature of urbanization within the Mali Empire?

 

Definition
Mali possessed "port cities" along the Niger River such as Jenne and Timbuktu, which flourished both commercially and culturally
Term
Who was Sundiata?
Definition
The "Lion Prince" who was a member of the Keita clan who created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died about 1260 CE
Term

What ruler was responsible for the creation of the Songhay Empire?

Definition
Sunni Ali
Term
Who was Ibn Batuta?
Definition
Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records
Term
What was the Songhay?
Definition

Successor state to Mali that dominated middle reaches of Niger Valley

Formed as an independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty

Capital at Gao

Reached imperial status under Sunni Ali

Term

What was the military title taken by the later rulers of Songhay?

Definition
Askia
Term
What Songhay Empire Islamic ruler extended the boundaries of the Songhay Empire?
Definition
Muhammad the Great
Term
Who were the Hausa?
Definition

People of norther Nigeria

Formed states following the demise of Songhay Empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions

Term

What accounted for the downfall of Songhay?

Definition
Invasion by a Moroccan Muslim army equipped with firearms, followed by internal revolts
Term
Why was Islam so readily adopted by rulers within the Sudan?
Definition
The Muslim concept of a ruler who united civil and religious authority reinforced traditional ideas of kingship
Term

What was the relationship between Islam and the indigenous religions of Africa?


A) Islamic teachers attempted to eradicate the animist indigenous religions of Africa

B) Because both indigenous African religion and Islam were monotheistic, the two became inextricably intertwined

C) Islam was able to accommodate pagan practices and beliefs in the early stages of conversion

D) Islam successfully overcame indigenous religious beliefs, and almost all Africans converted to Islam

Definition
C) Islam was able to accommodate pagan practices and beliefs in the early stages of conversion
Term
What is Sharia?
Definition
Islamic law
Term

How did contact with the Muslim world affect the African slave trade and How was the institution of slavery viewed in Muslim society?

 

Definition

Slavery became a more widely diffused phenomenon and the slave trade developed rapidly T


In theory, slavery was seen as a stage in the process of conversion of pagans to Islam

Term
What was the Arabic term for the east African coast?
Definition
Zenj
Term
What is known as the study of population?
Definition
Demography
Term
What is the demographic transition?
Definition

Shift to low birth rate, low infant death rate, stable population

First emerged in western Europe and the USA in the 19th century

Term

Which of the following groups did NOT migrate to the coastal region of East Africa?


A) Bantu

B) Seaborne immigrants from Indonesia and Malaya

C) Refugees from Oman 

D) Berbers from north Africa

Definition
D) Berbers from north Africa
Term
What was the common cultural trait of the urbanized trading ports of the east African coast?
Definition
Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili language
Term

What was the nature of trade for the towns of east Africa?

Definition
International trade flourished in the urbanized ports of east Africa, including commerce with India and China
Term

How did the expansion of Islam aid in the creation of international trade on the east African coastline?

 

Definition
Islam expanded to India and southeast Asia, providing a religious bond of trust between those regions and the converted rulers of the cities of east Africa
Term
What was the impact of the Portuguese arrival on the trading patterns of the east African coast?
Definition
Despite great effort to shift the focus of trade into their hands, the Portuguese were never able to control trade on the northern Swahili coast
Term
What was the form of political organization of the Yoruba people of Nigeria?
Definition
The Yoruba were organized in a number of small city-states under the authority of regional kings
Term
What was Benin in the 14th century?
Definition

Powerful city-state (in present day Nigeria) which came into contact with the Portuguese in 1485 bute remained relatively free of European influence

Was an important commercial and political entity until the 19th century

Term

Which of the following states represents the development of Bantu concepts of kingship and state-building?


A) Mali

B) Kingdom of Kongo

C) Songhay

D) Mombassa

Definition
B) Kingdom of Kongo
Term
The ruler of the kingdom centered on Great Zimbabwe took the title of _____________.
Definition
Mwene Mutapa
Term

What was the form of political organization of the Kingdom of Kongo?

 

 

Definition
The Kingdom of Kongo was a confederation of smaller states brought under the control of the king and divided into eight provinces
Term
What was the form of political organization of the Yoruba people of Nigeria?
Definition
The Yoruba were organized in a number of small city-states under the authority of regional kings
Term

Which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct continuation of the Roman Empire?

A) Frankish Empire

B) Ottoman Empire

C) Byzantine Empire 

D) Holy Roman Empire

Definition
C) Byzantine Empire
Term
What was the church constructed in Constantinople during the reign of Justinian? (later became a mosque and a musuem)
Definition
Hagia Sophia
Term
Who was Belisarius?
Definition
Important military commanders during Justinian's reign, commanded in north Africa and Italy
Term
What was Greek Fire?
Definition
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Term
What was the Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of the Balkan Peninsula that was a constant source of pressure on Byzantine Empire?
Definition
Bulgaria
Term
Who was Emperor Basil II?
Definition

Slayer of the Bulgars

Defeated Bulgarians for Byzantines in 1014

Term
Cyril and Methodius
Definition
Missionaries sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans and converted southern Russians and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic kingdom called Cyrillic
Term
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century
Definition
Kiev
Term
Who is the legendary Scandinavian regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 CE?
Definition
Rurik
Term
What was Kievan Rus'?
Definition
Predecessor to modern Russia, was a medieval state which existed from the end of th9th to the middle of the 13th century; territory spanned parts of modern Belarus, Ukraine and Russia
Term
Who was the Kievan ruler from 980-1015 who converted the kingdom to Christianity?
Definition
Vladimir I
Term
Who was Yaroslav?
Definition

978-1054

Last of great Kievan monarchs who issued legal codification based on formal codes developed in Byzantium

Term
Define boyars
Definition

Russian aristocrats

Held less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe

Term

Identify:

-Mongols

-Captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236

-But left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact

Definition
Tatars
Term

 

What was the year span of strong political & cultural activity of the Byzantine Empire?

 

Definition
500-1450CE
Term

 

 

What were  some outcomes of Justinian's wars of reconquest ?

 

Definition

 

-Increased tax pressures on the government.

 

-Short-lived military successes in north Africa and Italy.

 

-Weakening of the empire's defenses on its eastern frontiers

 

Term
What was the name of Justinian's wife and advisor?
Definition
Theodora
Term
After the reign of Justinian, what became the official language of the eastern empire?
Definition
Greek
Term

 

How was the Orthodox  Christian Church different then the Western Christian Church in terms of politics?

 

Definition
Power of the state over Orthodox Church
Term
What was a difference between art in western and eastern Christianity?
Definition

 

Art in the Roman church emphasizes Christ's suffering, while Orthodox art emphasizes Christ's majesty

 

Term
Why did Vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism?
Definition

 

He believed that Roman Catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by the state

 

Term
Kievan Decline
Definition

 

Decline from 12th century

 

Rival governments

 

Succession struggles

 

Asian conquerors

 

Mongols (Tartars)

 

13th century, take territory

 

Traditional culture survives

 

Mongol invasions usher in new period

 

East and West further separated

 

Term
Middle Ages
Definition
The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century
Term
Vikings
Definition
Seagoing Scandinavian raiders who disrupted coastal areas of western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries
Term
What is manorialism?
Definition

System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages

Involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access of land

Term
Serfs
Definition
Peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages
Term
What is a moldboard?
Definition
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; allowed for deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a new technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the impact of Christianity on polytheistic religions in western Europe is most accurate?

A) Christianity eradicated all traces of those earlier religions as the new religion became universal in western Europe

B) The process of conversion produced a religious blend in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with Christianity

C) Although Christianity made inroads, many areas of Europe retained polytheistic beliefs and rejected the new religion

D) Small islands of polytheistic belief remained, but most Europeans converted from polytheistic faiths in the initial post-classical centuries

Definition
B) The process of conversion produced a religious blend in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with Christianity
Term
Following the fall of Rome, where was the center of the post-classical West?
Definition
The central plains of northern Europe
Term
Who were the Scandinavian invaders who disrupted the development of durable political institutions in the medieval West until the 10th century?
Definition
Vikings
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the three-field rotation system is most accurate?

A) Introduced in the 8th century, the three-field rotation left a third of the land unplanted to regain fertility

B) The three-field system removed more land from production than before by reserving one-third for fallow

C) The three-field system was rapidly replaced after the 8th century by the two-field system that offered greater flexibility in terms of crop rotation 

D) The three-field system removed fallow fields and replaced them with nitrogen-bearing crops

Definition
A) Introduced in the 8th century, the three-field rotation left a third of the land unplanted to regain fertility
Term
What Frankish king was responsible for the conversion of his people to Christianity in order to gain a vague domination over the Franks?
Definition
Clovis
Term
Benedict of Nursia was responsible for what accomplishment in the 6th century?
Definition
The creation of a set of rules for monasteries
Term
What belief did the conversion of Germanic kings create among Western religious leaders, particularly the pope?
Definition
That the Church was superior to the secular rulers
Term
Name benefits of the monastic movement in western Europe
Definition

-They disciplined the intense spirituality of the medieval West in order to promote Christian unity

-Many monasteries helped improve the cultivation of the land

-By copying ancient texts, monks preserved classical culture for later intellectual inquiry

Term

What dynasty took over the Frankish monarchy in the 8th century and was replaced in the 10th century?

Definition
Carolingians
Term
Who was Charles Martel?
Definition

686-741

Carolingian monarch of Franks who was responsible for defeating the Muslims in the Battle of Tours in 732 which ended Muslim threat to western Europe

Term
Who was Charlemagne?
Definition

Aka: Charles the Great

Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany c 800

Restored some church based education in western Europe

Upon death empire was divided between his three grandsons

Term

Holy Roman Emperors

(Shortly after division of Charlemagne's Empire)

Definition

Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire

Claimed title as emperor c 10th century

Failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany

Term

Where was the greatest concentration of urbanization after the 10th century in Europe?

Definition

Italy and the Low Countries  

 

 

Term
What was the impact of the improved economy after the 10th century on the social system of western Europe?
Definition
The increased pace of economic life created a less rigid structure
Term

Relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty were called

______________________.

Definition
Feudalism
Term
What were vassals?
Definition
Members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a feudal lord in return for military service and loyalty
Term

What historical person?

-Invaded England from Normandy in 1066CE

-Extended tight feudal system to England

-Established administrative system based on sheriffs

-Established centralized monarchy

Definition
William the Conqueror
Term
How did the introduction of feudal monarchy into England compare to the political experience of France?
Definition
English feudal monarchy was introduced abruptly following 1066, while French feudal monarchy developed more slowly
Term

By what century did France achieve a complete feudal monarchy?

Definition
13th Century
Term

In what year did Pope Urban II call for the First Crusade?

Definition
1095
Term
What was the Magna Carta?
Definition

-Great charter issued by King John of England in 1215

-Confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims

-Represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy

Term
Parliaments of 13th century
Definition

-Bodies representing privileged groups

-Institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals

-Found in England, Spain, Germany and France

Term
The three estates consisted of what three social groups seen as the most powerful in Western countries?
Definition

Church

Nobles

Urban Leaders

Term
Hundred Years War
Definition

Conflict between England and France from 1337-1453

Fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal right versus the emerging claims of national states

Term

Who created the reforming monastic orders founded in Assisi in the 13th century?

 

Definition
St. Francis and St. Clare
Term

Pope Gregory VII decreed the practice of investiture invalid. What was investiture?

 

Definition
The practice of state appointment of bishops
Term
The Fourth Crusade was manipulated by merchants in Venice, who turned it into an attack on _____________.
Definition
Constantinople
Term
What is known as the practice of state appointment of bishops?
Definition

Investiture

 

Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investiture leading to war with Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire

Term

Who Am I?

-Author of Yes and No

-1079-1142 CE

-University scholar who applied logic to problems of theology

-Demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine

Definition
Peter Abelard
Term
Who was Bernard of Clairvaux?
Definition

-1090-1153 CE

-Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic

-Stressed important of mystical union with God

-Successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities

Term
What term do historians associate with medieval Western inquiry that sought to reconcile reason and religious faith and is most closely associated with the thinking of St. Thomas Aquinas?
Definition

Scholasticism

 

Term

Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of territorial expansionary moves by Western powers in the postclassical era?

 

A) Germanic settlement in Poland

B) Iberian offensives against Islamic presence in Spain

C) Crusades to the Middle East

D) Belgian conquest of the Congo

Definition
D) Belgian conquest of the Congo
Term

Which of the following regions of Western Europe remained most insulated from the general trend toward disorder following the fall of the Roman Empire?

 

A) France

B) England

C) Germany

D) Spain

Definition
D) Spain
Term

The leading figure in the synthesis of classical rational philosophy with Christian theology was what teacher at the University of Paris in the 13th century?


A) Thomas Aquinas

B) William of Ockham

C) Peter Abelard

D) William of St. Thierry

Definition
A) Thomas Aquinas
Term
During the 11th century, what new architectural style featuring pointed arches and flying buttresses became dominant in western Europe?
Definition
Gothic
Term

Which of the following developments was NOT a result of the improved economy of the High Middle Ages?

A) Urban growth allowed more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities, including banking

B) Some peasants were able to throw off the most severe constraints of manorialism, becoming almost free farmers

C) Rising trade permitted the redevelopment of commerce within the Mediterranean and beyond

D) Conflicts between peasants and the landlords became rare, if they did not disappear altogether

Definition
D) Conflicts between peasants and the landlords became rare, if they did not disappear altogether
Term

What were some functions of the merchant and artisan guilds? 

 

Definition

Limitation of membership

Regulation of apprenticeship

Guaranteeing good workmanship in their products 

 

 

 

Term

Who was Jacques Coeur?

 

Definition

-French merchant who founded a trading company that competed with Italians and Spaniards in dealing with the Middle East

-He used his wealth to arrange for his 16-year-old son to become an archbishop

-He had the largest fleet ever owned by a French subject

-He was tortured, admitted to various crimes, and had his property confiscated


Term
What was known as an organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance?
Definition
Hanseatic League
Term

Which of the following was a result of the Hundred Years War during the 14th and 15th centuries?


A) Kings reduced their reliance on feudal forces in favor of paid armies

B) An English victory, but only after an invasion of France by Richard the Lionhearted

C) Mounted knights continued their dominance over foot soldiers and archers

 D) Major battles resulted in enormous loss of life over the course of the war

Definition
A) Kings reduced their reliance on feudal forces in favor of paid armies
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the medieval economy is most true?


A) Medieval economic thought and practice was of no consequence to later Western economic thinkers and actors.

B) Medieval economics was a combination of capitalistic and feudal practices

C) Medieval economics simply repeated the thought and practice of earlier economic thinkers.

D) Medieval economics, overall, tended to discourage merchant activity and technical innovation

Definition
B) Medieval economics was a combination of capitalistic and feudal practices
Term
What group was most likely to be literate in the period of European history often called the Dark Ages?
Definition
Monks
Term

Which of the following do historians most closely assoicate with the period of Western history known as the High Middle Ages?

 

A) Carolingian France

B) Enclosure movement and the rise of commercial agriculture

C) Gothic architecture, the Crusades, & rise of Western universities

D) Frequent Viking incursions and raids along European coastlines adn rivers

Definition

C) Gothic architecture, the Crusades, & rise of Western universities


High Middle Ages is c 1000-1300 and connotes something of a recovery from the Dark Ages that followed the fall of Rome c 5th century

Term
What alternative path would be available to medieval women if they chose not to marry?
Definition
Becoming a nun (religious order)
Term

Which of the following civilizations listed below existed in the most complete state of isolation in the period 600-1450 CE?

 

A) Ming China

B) Delhi Sultanate

C) Aztec Empire

D) Kievan Rus

Definition
C) Aztec Empire
Term

What were some characteristics of American civilizations during the postclassical period?

 

Definition

-Large cities based on elaborate political and economic organization

-Elaborate cultural systems

-Polytheistic practices

-Highly developed agriculture

Term
The northern nomadic peoples who entered central Mexico following the decline of Teotihuacan 
Definition
Toltecs
Term
Where was the Toltec capital?
Definition
Tula
Term
What is the name of the family units into which Aztec society was organized and accounted for by the state bureaucracy?
Definition
Calpulli
Term

Which of the following best characterizes similarities between Aztec and Incan civilizations?

 

I. Grew out of long development of preceding civilizations

II. Nobility formed the personnel of the state

III. Climatic and topographical setting

Definition

I. Grew out of long development of preceding civilizations

II. Nobility formed the personnel of the state

Term
What was the name of the religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs in the 10th century who dedicated himself the the deity Quetzalcoatl?
Definition
Topiltzin
Term

What was the relationship between the Toltecs and their predecessors in central Mexico?


A) The former residents of central Mexico were wiped out during the Toltec invasions.

B) The entry of the Toltecs into central Mexico marks an abrupt break in the cultural development of the region.

C) The Toltecs adopted the animistic religion of their predecessors, but failed to develop cities or ceremonial centers.

D) The Toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strong military ethic and human sacrifice

Definition

D) The Toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strong military ethic and human sacrifice

Term
How did the Aztecs view the cultural achievements of the Toltecs?
Definition
As the origin of civilization
Term
Who succeeded the Toltecs as the rulers of central Mexico?
Definition
Aztecs
Term
In the period shortly after the arrival of the Aztecs in the valley of Mexico, what was the nature of the political organization of the region?
Definition
City States
Term

What city did the Aztecs establish circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco?

Definition
Tenochtitlan
Term
What Inca city remains an important urban center in Peru today?
Definition
Cuzco
Term

Which of these classical civilizations were most famous for their extensive centrally planned imperial road networks?

 

-Roman Empire

-Aztec Empire

-Inca Empire

-Mongol Empire

Definition
Roman Empire and Inca Empire
Term

The central figure of the cult of human sacrifice and the most sacred deity of the Aztecs was _______________.

Definition
Huitzilopochtli
Term

The Aztec innovation in intensive agriculture in the aquatic environments of the lakes of central Mexico was the development of _______________.

Definition
Chinampas
Term

What was the nature of the Aztec economy?

Definition
The Aztec state redistributed many goods received as tribute, and there was a specialized merchant class
Term
Who were the pochteca?
Definition
Special merchant class in Aztec society that specialized in long distance trade in luxury items
Term
What were the chinampas?
Definition

Beds of aquatic weeds, mud and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"

Was a system of irragated agriculture used by the Aztecs

Term
What was the Andean principle of inheritance?
Definition

Parallel descent: women passed rights and property to daughters, men to sons

Term
What was the nature of the Aztec economy?
Definition
The Aztec state redistributed many goods received as tribute, and there was a specialized merchant class
Term
What was the name of the Aztec clans that formed an organization that they later expanded and adapted to their imperial position?
Definition
Calipulli
Term
What was considered a "flowery death" in Aztec culture?
Definition

Death while taking prisoners for sacrifice 

Was seen as a fitting end and ensured eternity in the highest heavens--> also promised to women who died in childbirth

Term
What was the term for the Inca Empire whose region spread from present-day Colombia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina?
Definition
Twantinsuyu
Term

Who Am I?

-Incan ruler

-Reign 1438-1471

-Launched military campaigns that extended Incan control from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca

-Was followed by his son Topac

Definition
Pachacuti
Term
What was the Inca practice of split inheritance?
Definition
All titles and political power went to successor but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendents for support of cult of dead Inca's mummy
Term
Temple of the Sun
Definition

Inca religious center located at Cuzco

Was the center of state religion and held mummies of past Incan rulers

Term
What wer the tambos?
Definition

Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses 

Supply center for Incan armies

Also relay points for system of runners used to carry messages

Term
What was the quipu?
Definition

System of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of writing system

Could contain numerical and other types of information for census and financial records

Term
What was the Aztec view of history?
Definition
Like other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs believed in a cyclical pattern of repetitive destructions of the world
Term

Which of the following was utilized in the Inca empire, but NOT by the Aztecs?

A) A semi-divine emperor

B) Extensive colonization

C) Use of local rulers in exchange for recognition of sovereignty

D) Elaborate road systems

Definition
B) Extensive colonization
Term

Who Am I?

-Murded my father to gain the throne in China

-Sui Dynasty

-Drove back nomadic intruders 

-Milder legal code

-Restored Confucian exam system

-Construction of Chinese canal system

-Assassinated in 618

-Extended his father Wendi's conquest

Definition
Yangdi
Term
Who was the first emperor of the Tang Dynasy and took the imperial title of Gaozu?
Definition
Li Yuan
Term
Political discord in China from 220-589 CE was known as this...
Definition

Era of the Six Dynasties

 

(Also a time of great Buddhist influence)

Term
What was the capital of the Tang Dynasty?
Definition

Chang'an

 

-Population of 2 million

-Larger than any other city in the world at the time

Term
Who were the Jinshi?
Definition

Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature

Became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office

Term

What Am I?

-Provided a refuge from an age of war and turmoil

-Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism

-Popular among the masses

Definition
Pure Land Buddhism
Term

-Known as Zen Buddhism in Japan

-Stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty

-Popular with members of the elite in Chinese society

Definition
Chan Buddhism
Term

Who Am I?

-Tang ruler from 690-750

-Supported Buddhism to the point of trying to make it the state religion of China, commissioned many Buddhist paintings and sculptures

-Had huge pagodas built

Definition
Empress Wu
Term

Who Am I?

-Ruled from 841-847

-Tang Emperor

-Destroyed monasteries in 840s and persecuted Buddhism

-Reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology

Definition
Emperor Wuzong
Term
What Tang ruler's reign marked the peak of Tang power and the high point of Chinese civilization under the dynasty?
Definition

Xuanzong

 

(Reigned from 713-755)

Term
Who was Yang Guifei?
Definition

Royal concubine who caught the eye of Xuanzong after the death of his second wife

Yang Guifei gained power and arrogance advancing some of her own family members in the government

Revolts occurred resulting in the emperor having to execute Yang

Term
Who was the founder of the Song Dynasty?
Definition

Zhao Kuangyin

 

-Took title of Taizu

-Was orginally a military commander

-Scholarly man

Term
Who were the Khitans?
Definition

The Nomadic people of Manchuria

Superiro in their military to the Song Dynasty but were influenced by Chinese culture

Forced humiliating treaties on the Song Dynasty in the 11th century

-Important was the Liao Dynasty of the Khitan who Emperor Taizu could never take over

Term
Who was Zhu Xi?
Definition

Most prominent neo-Confucian scholar during the Song Dynasty in China

Stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action

Term

Who Am I?

-Originally from Tibet

-Established Xi Xia Kingdom

-Song Dynasty had to pay tribute to them which caused a great drain on the Song's resources

 

Definition
Tangut
Term

Who Am I?

-Confucian scholar

-Chief mininster of Song Shenzong Emperor

-Brought in sweeping reform to try and prevent the collapse of the Song dynasty

-Reform was based on Legalists

-Advocated greater state intervention in society

Definition
Term
Who founded the Jin Kingdom?
Definition
Jurchens
Term
What was the capital of the southern Song dynasty?
Definition
Hangzhou
Term
What was a characteristic of urbanization in China during the Tang-Song era?
Definition
Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities
Term
What made possible the rapid revival of empire under the Tang?
Definition
The rebuilding of the imperial bureaucracy using Confucian ideology
Term
What was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first Sui emperor?
Definition

The creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine

Term

What proved to be the most damaging attack on Buddhism's popularity with the people during the early Tang dynasty?

Definition
The Confucians' campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an economic threat 
Term
What caused the flight of the Song dynasty from its capital in northern China?
Definition

The invasions of the Jurchens who had formed the Qin kingdom

Term

What do all three of these facts represent about the Tang-Song dynasties?

 

-Trade increasingly carried by Chinese ships and sailors

-Enlarged market quarters found in all cities and major towns

 

-Overland silk routes between China and Persia reopened

Definition
 Economic development during the period of commercial expansion during the Tang and Song dynasties
Term

Why was the construction of the Grand Canal necessary?

Definition
The Yangtze River Valley was becoming the major food-producing region of China by the late Tang era
Term
When did construction of the Gran Canal in China begin?
Definition
In the 7th century doing the reign of Yangdi during the Sui Dynasty
Term

What was a primary difference between marriages, families, and households of the upper and lower classes in Tang-Song China?

Definition
Extended family households were more common in upper-class households than in lower-class ones
Term
What were the name for the Chinese ships that were equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, oars, sails, compasses, bamboo fenders and gun-powder propelled rockets for defense?
Definition
Junks
Term
What was the Chinese concept of flying money?
Definition
Credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage thus reducing the danger of robbery
Term
In what way did foot-binding serve to diminish the independence of Chinese women by the end of the Song era?
Definition
Foot-binding sufficiently crippled women that it effectively confined their mobility to their household
Term
Who was the most famous poet of the Tang era?
Definition
Li Bo who was known for blending images of the everyday world with philosophical musings
Term

Which of the following was NOT a technological innovation of the Tang-Song era?

A) Gunpowder

B) Abacus

C) Paper

D) Complex bridges

Definition
C) Paper
Term

What artisan was responsible for the development of movable type?

Definition
Bi Sheng
Term

What group was responsible for the fall of the southern Song dynasty in 1279?

Definition
Mongols
Term

What is the name of the nature spirits of Japan? 

 

Definition
Kami
Term

What religion played a key role in the transmission of Chinese civilization to Japan?

Definition
Buddhism
Term

What Am I?

-Attempt to remake Japanese monarchy into a Chinese-style emperor

-Included attempts to create a professional bureaucracy

-Peasant conscript army

Definition
Taika reforms
Term

What group so threatened the security of the Japanese imperial court in the 8th century that the imperial family moved to Heian?

 

Definition

 

 

 Buddhist monks

Term

What was the first novel ever written?

Who was the author?

What was the story about?

Definition

The Tale of Genji


By Lady Murasaki

 

Tells the story of the life of the son of a Japanese emperor

Term

What was the immediate impact of the imperial move to Heian?

 

 

Definition
The aristocracy was restored to counterbalance the power of the Buddhist monasteries and took over most of the positions in the central government
Term

Who Am I?

-Mid-ninth centry Japanese family that had great influence over imperial affairs

-Filled upper administrative jobs with family members

-Married into royal family

Definition
Fujiwara Family
Term

What was the military organization of the Heian government in Japan?

Definition
Members of the aristocracy were ordered to organize local militia forces
Term
Who were bushi?
Definition
Warrior leaders in the 10th century in Japan who controlled provincial areas and ruled from small fortresses in the countryside
Term
Mounted troops owing loyalty to the military elite were known as the_________________. 
Definition
Samurai
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the relationship of the imperial court to the provincial military elite is most accurate?


A) The provincial military elite was kept in check by the continued development of the imperial peasant-conscript army

B) The provincial military elite was rapidly subjected to the aristocratic armies of the imperial court

C) In the absence of an imperial military force, law and order broke down, leading both the emperor and high officials to hire provincial lords and their military retainers

D) The emperor created an alliance with the Chinese that permitted him to crush the regional military lords 

Definition
C) In the absence of an imperial military force, law and order broke down, leading both the emperor and high officials to hire provincial lords and their military retainers
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the nature of warfare among the bushi is most accurate?


A) The bushi depended on infantry tactics, equipping the samurai initially with long spears

B) The introduction of gunpowder in the 11th century allowed the bushi to rely on cannon and rockets as their primary means of assault

C) Battles depended on the Japanese phalanx of mounted samurai and massed assaults predicated on the willingness of the retainers to sacrifice themselves for their leaders

D) Battles hinged on man-to-man duels of great champions typical of the heroic stage of warfare

Definition
D) Battles hinged on man-to-man duels of great champions typical of the heroic stage of warfare
Term

What was the impact of the rise of the samurai on the peasantry in Japan?

Definition
Japanese peasants were reduced to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked
Term

In the 11th and 12th centuries, what was the status of the Japanese court aristocracy?

 

Definition

 

Aristocratic families at the court depended on alliances with the provincial warrior elite in order to exercise any power

Term
What wars between 1180 and 1185 decided the struggle between the two major provincial families—the Taira and the Minamoto?
Definition
Gempei Wars
Term

The victory of the Minamoto in 1185 led to the creation of

the ________________, or military government at Kamakura.

Definition
bakufu
Term

The victory of the Minamoto marks the beginning of what period in Japanese history?

Definition
Japanese Feudal Age
Term

In what year did the Japanese cease to send official embassies to the Chinese emperor?

 

 

 

Definition
838 CE
Term

What title was given to the military leader of the bakufu at Kamakura?

Definition
Shogun
Term
Following the death of Yoritomo, what family dominated the military government of the bakufu at Kamakura?
Definition
Hojo
Term

What government replaced the Kamakura regime in the early 14th century?

A) Tokugawa Shogunate

B) Ashikaga Shogunate

C) Bushido Shogunate

D) Onin Shogunate

Definition
B) Ashikaga Shogunate
Term

What was the political result of the wars that destroyed the Ashikaga Shogunate?

A) Restored authority for the emperor

B) Restored authority for the court aristocracy

C) Division of Japan into 300 little states under the daimyos

D) The rise of four large aristocratic states under powerful bushi

Definition
C) Division of Japan into 300 little states under the daimyos
Term

[image]

What famous Japanese landscape is pictured?

Definition

Himeji Castel

Famous fortress and focal point of Japanese landscape during the era of the Samurai

Term
How did the principles of warfare change under the daimyos?
Definition
Warfare based on spying, timely assaults, wise command, and organization of massive armies replaced heroic combat
Term

Which of the following statements concerning the society and economy of the warlord or shogun era in Japanese history is most accurate?

A) Due to the incessant warfare, the Japanese economy was reduced to barbarism

B) The peasantry were further reduced in status as the agricultural economy experienced rapid reductions in the acreage under production

C) Despite political chaos, incentives and improvements in agricultural techniques led to occupation of previously uncultivated areas

D) The frequent combat of the warlord era suppressed the development of artisan or merchant classes in Japan

Definition
C) Despite political chaos, incentives and improvements in agricultural techniques led to occupation of previously uncultivated areas
Term
In what year did the Han emperors conquer the first Korean kingdom of Choson?
Definition

109 BCE

 

Choson was the earlier Korean kingdom

Term
Name the kingdoms of the Korean Peninsula during the Three Kingdoms Era
Definition

Koguryo (in the north)

Paekche (in south)

Silla (in the south)

Term
Define sinification
Definition

Extensive adaptatin of Chinese culture in other regions

Typical of Japan and Korea

Term

Which of the following lists gives the correct chronological sequence for the Korean dynasties?

A) Silla, Mongol, Koryo, Yi

B) Silla, Yi, Mongol, Koryo

C) Silla, Yi, Koryo, Mongol

 

D) Silla, Koryo, Mongol, Yi

Definition
D) Silla, Koryo, Mongol, Yi
Term
What was the religious preference of the Korean elite?
Definition
Buddhism
Term
What was the political result of the Vietnamese drive to conquer regions south of the Red River basin?
Definition

The division of Vietnam into two kingdoms with capitals at Hue and Hanoi

Term

What were some cultural traits introduced into Vietnam from China following the Han conquest of 111 B.C.E.?

 

Definition

-Chinese examination system and bureaucracy

-Chinese agricultural cropping techniques and irrigation technology  

-Chinese military organization

Term
What was a critical factor in the failure of the Chinese to conquer or assimilate the Vietnamese?
Definition

Vietnamese resistance to the Chinese crossed both class and gender barriers

Term

Who Am I?

-Today would be the Cambodians

-Rivals of the Vietnamese who moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese desire to move south

 

Definition
Khmers
Term
Who were the sisters that were part of the frequent peasant rebellions in Veitnam against Chinese rule?
Definition
Trung Sisters
Term
The main adversaries of the Vietnamese were the Khmers and the __________ who the Vietnamese drove into the highlands.
Definition
Chams
Term

Who Am I?

-Rival Vietnamese dynasty

-Challenged the Trinh in the north at Hanoi

-Their kingdom centered on the Red and Mekong Rivers

-Capital at Hue

Definition
Nguyen
Term
Chinggis Khan died in 1227, who was named his successor as khagan?
Definition
Ogedei
Term
What was the kuriltai?
Definition
Meeting of all Mongol chieftains at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected
Term
What was the title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes?
Definition
Khagan
Term

What Am I?

-Basic fighting units of the Mongol forces

-Consisted of 10,000 cavalrymen

-Each unit was further divided into units of 1000, 100 and 10

Definition
Tumens
Term
What was Chinggis Khan's capital (1162-1227)?
Definition
Karakorum
Term

Who Am I?

-Chinggis Khan's grandson

-Responsible for invasion of Russia beginning in 1236

-Ruler of the Golden Horde

Definition
Batu
Term
What were the names of the Four Khanates that arose following Chinggis Khan's death?
Definition

1. The Golden Horde

2. Ilkhan Empire

3. Chaghatai Empire

4. Empire of Kubilai Khan

Term
What battle saw the Russian army victorious over the forces of the Golden Horde that would also help break the Mongol hold over Russia?
Definition
Battle of Kulikova
Term

Who Am I?

-Legend popular from the 12th-17th centuries

-Mythical Christian monarch

-Kingdom was cut off from Europe due to Muslim conquests

-Some believed Chinggis Khan was this mythical ruler

Definition
Prester John
Term

Who Am I?

-Ruler of the Golden Horde who converted to Islam

-Was seen as a threat to Hulegu (Chinggis Khan's grandson who ruled the Ilkhan portion of the Mongol Empire)

-Combined with the growing power of the Mamluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East

Definition
-Berke
Term

Who Am I?

-1215-1294 CE

-Grandson of Chinggis Khan

-Commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China

-Became Khagan in 1260

-Established Yuan Dynasty in China in 1271

 

Definition
-Kubilai Khan
Term
What was present-day Beijing known as during Kubilai Khan's rule?
Definition
Dadu
Term
What was the name of the influencial wife of Kubilai Khan who promoted the interests of Buddhists in China?
Definition
Chabi
Term
What was the name of the most famous Chinese dramtic work during the Yuan period?
Definition
Romance of the West Chamber
Term
What was the White Lotus Society?
Definition
Secret religious society dedicated to the overthrow of the Yuan Dynasty in China and was an example of typical peasant resistence to Mongol rule
Term
Who founded the Ming Dynasty?
Definition

Zhu Yuanzhang

(from a poor peasant family)

Term

Who Am I?

-Leader of Turkic nomads

-Starting in 1360s launched a series of attacks in Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India and southern Russia

-Empire was disintegrated after his death in 1405

Definition

Timur-i-Lang

(aka Tamerlane)

Term

Who Am I?

-Chinese Muslim Admiral

-Commanded series of Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf and Red Sea trade expeditions under third Ming emperor Yunglo between 1405-1433

Definition
Zheng He
Term

What Am I?

-Cultural and political movement in western Europe

-Began in Italy c1400 BCE

-Rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce

-Literature and art more secular priorities than those of the Middle Ages

Definition
Renaissance
Term

Who Am I?

1304-1374 CE

One of the major literary figures of the Western Renaissance

Italian author and humanist

Definition
Francesco Petrarch
Term
What was the name of the two regional kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula that developed a vigorous military and religious agenda and pressed for reconquest of the peninsula from Muslims?
Definition
Castile and Aragon
Term
What was the last name of the two Genoese brothers who attempted to find a western route to the "Indies" and disappeared in 1291?
Definition
Vivalidis
Term
Who was the Portuguese captain who sailed for India in 1497 and helped establish Portuguese dominance in the Indian Ocean?
Definition
Vasco da Gama
Term

Who Am I?

-Portuguese Prince

-Series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15th century

-Helped mark the beginning of western European expansion

Definition
Henry The Navigator
Term

What Am I?

-Southern tip of Africa

-First circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India

Definition
Cape of Good Hope
Term

Who Am I?

-Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Spain

-Successfully sailed to the New World in 1492

-Initiated European discoveries in Americas

Definition
Christopher Columbus
Term

Who Am I?

-1480-1521

-Spanish captain

-In 1519 initiated first circumnavigation of the globe which allowed Spain to claim the Philippines

Definition
Ferdinand Magellan
Term
What were the joint stock companies that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia and acted as virtually independent governments in regions it claimed for both the British and the Dutch?
Definition

Dutch East India Company (Asia)

British East India Company (India)

Term
What was the naval battle between the Spanish and the Ottoman Empire resulting in a Spanish victory in 1571?
Definition
Lepanto
Term
What is mercantilism?
Definition

Economic theory that stressed government's promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues

Popular during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe

Term

Who Am I?

-1457-1519 CE

-First Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509

-Initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains

Definition
Vasco de Balboa
Term
Who led the conquest of the Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535?
Definition
Francisco Pizarro
Term
What area in the new world was known as New France?
Definition
French colonies in North America extending from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River Valley System
Term

What Am I?

-Fought both in continental Europe and alos in overseas colonies

-From 1756 to 1763

-Resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria,and English seizures of colonies in India and North America

Definition
Seven Years War
Term
The Treaty of Paris arranged in 1763 following the Seven Years War, granted New France to England in exchange for what?
Definition
In exchange for return of French sugar island in Caribbean
Term
What was the name for Dutch settlers in the Cape Colony in southern Africa?
Definition
Boers
Term

What Am I?

-Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal

-Located on Ganges

-Captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years War

-Later became administrative center for all of Bengal

Definition
Calcutta
Term
What was the Cape Colony?
Definition
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652
Term
What was humanism?
Definition

Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavors; looking back to classical past, study of texts, especially ancient, including ancient languages

Term

Who Am I?

Author of The Prince which emphasized realistic discussions on how to seize and maintain power; one of the most influential authors of the Renaissance

Definition
Niccolo Machiavelli
Term

        What Am I?

-Focused on France, Low Countries, England, Germany

-Then diffused to eastern European areas like Hungary and Poland

-More concerned with religious matters than Italian counterparts

              -Greek and Latin literature; also wrote in native languages

Definition
Northern Renaissance
Term

Who Am I?


-Ruler of France

-Ruled in the 16th century,

-Patron of the arts

-Imposed new controls on the Catholic Church

-Allied with Ottoman sultan (in name only) against the Habsburgs (Holy Roman Emperor) 

Definition
Francis I
Term

Who Am I?

-Introduced movable type to western Europe in 15th century

-Credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets

Definition
Johannes Guttenberg
Term

Who Am I?

-German Monk; 95 Theses

-Attacks Catholic Church institutions and practices (i.e. indulgences, certain sacraments, monasticism was wrong, etc.)

-Believed Bible was the only authority (questioned Pope’s authority)

-Believed Bible should be translated from Latin to other languages, priests should be married, etc.

-Didn’t want to break Christian unity but wanted the church to be on his terms (what he saw as True Faith)

-His movement was known as the Protestant Reformation-95 Theses

 

Definition
Martin Luther
Term

What Am I?

-Originiated in 15th Century among peasants and artisans of Western Europe

-Featured late marriage age

-Emphasis on the nuclear family & a large minority who never married

Definition
European-Style Family
Term

Who Am I?

Ruler of England; establishes Anglican Church where he was in charge; broke from Catholicism because Pope would not grant him a divorce from Catherine of Aragon who failed to produce a male heir; he was traditional Catholic in practice, just didn’t recognize Pope, when his daughter Elizabeth becomes queen she will bring the church to more Protestant followings 

Definition
Henry VIII
Term

Who Am I?

French Protestant who stressed doctrine of predestination; encouraged ideas of wider access to government and wider public education; his religion spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and then North America

Definition

Jean Calvin

(Created religion of Calvinism)

Term
What was the Catholic Reformation?
Definition
Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century) and it established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs; religious order of the Jesuits founded during the Reformation who were active in politics, education and missionary work; the Jesuits will sponsor missions to South America, North America and Asia
Term
What was the Edict of Nantes?
Definition
Grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598 and was granted only after lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions
Term
What treaty ended the Thirty Years War in 1648? And what did it grant?
Definition

Treaty of Westphalia

Granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion of either Protestant or Catholic

Term

What Am I?

-Conflict from 1640-1660

-Featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy

-Ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following the execution of the former king

Definition
English Civil War
Term
What was the proletariat?
Definition
Class of working people without access to production property; usually manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agriculture or urban poor
Term
What was the Scientific Revolution?
Definition
Culminated in the 17th century and was a period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations and resulted in change in traditional beliefs of the Middle Ages
Term

Who Am I?

-Polish Monk & astronomer

-16th century

-Disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was the center of the universe

Definition
Copernicus
Term

Who Am I?

-Astronomer and mathematican

-Studie planetary motion

-Also worked on optics

-One of the leading figues in the Scientific Revolution

Definition

Johannes Kepler

 

 

Term
Who was Galileo?
Definition
In 17th century published Copernicus's findings and added his own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; he was condemned by the Catholic Church for his works and placed under house arrest
Term
What was William Harvey known for?
Definition
He was an English physician who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals and the function of the heart as a pump
Term

Who Am I?

-English philosopher, statesman, author and scientist

-Influential member of the scientific revolution

-Best known for his work with the scientific method

Definition
Francis Bacon
Term

  Who Am I?

Skepticism; argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature

Definition
René Descartes
Term
Who was Isaac Newton?
Definition

English scientist, author of Principia; drew together astronomical and

 

physical observations and wider theories into a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity

Term
What was Deism?
Definition

While there may be a divinity, its role is only to set natural laws in motion;

God does not intervene with nature

motion; defined forces of gravity

 

Term
Who was John Locke?
Definition

Use of reason; English philosopher who argued that people could learn

everything through senses and reason and that power of government came from the

 

people, not divine rights of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrant

Term
Who personified in the late 17th century the idea of the absolute monarch?
Definition
King Louis XIV of France
Term

                            What Am I?

    English overthrow of James II in 1688 CE in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king

 

  Parliament triumphant

Definition
Glorious Revolution
Term
The idea of a parliamentary monarchy where the monarch is partially checked by significant legislative powers originated in England and where else?
Definition
Holland
Term

Who Am I?

Prussian Kind of the 18th century

Attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany

Religious freedom

State regulates economy

Overseas commercial networks

Definition
Frederick the Great
Term
What was the Enlightenment?
Definition

intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured

                scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; belief that

 

                rational laws could describe social behavior

Term

Who Am I?

Established liberal economics

wrote the Wealth of Nations

Argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces


Definition
Adam Smith
Term
Who was the French Enlightenment thinker best known for his work on the first encyclopedia?
Definition
Denis Diderot
Term
She was a famous Enlightenment feminist thinker in England who argued that new political rights should extend to women.
Definition
Mary Wollstonecraft
Term
What is mass consumerism?
Definition

Refers to the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods and services spreading below elite levels, along with a growing economic capacity to afford some of these goods

 

Term

Who Am I?

1440-1505 CE

Prince of Duchy of Moscow

Claimed descent from Rurik Dynasty 

Responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462

Took title of Tsar (or Caesar) equivalent of emperor

Definition

Ivan III

(Aka Ivan the Great)

Term

Who Am I?

-1530-1584

-Confirmed power of tsarist authority by attacking authority of boyars (aristocrats)

-Continued policy of Russian expansion

-Established contacts with western European commerce and culture

-Murder his own son in a drunken rage which was followed by a deep religious repentance

Definition

Ivan IV

(Aka Ivan the Terrible)

Term
Who were the cossacks?
Definition

Peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia

Particularly in the south

Combined military conquests with agriculture and pushed for additional frontier conquests and settlements

Term

What Am I?

Ivan IV leaves no heir

Boyars attempt to take power

Ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613 CE

Definition
Time of Troubles
Term
How long did the Romanov Dynasty rule?
Definition
Elected in 1613 until the Russian Revolution in 1917
Term

What Am I?

-Dissident religious conservatives

-Reused to accept reforms by tsar Alexis Romanov (17th century)

-Many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia where they became part of Russian colonization

Definition
Old Believers
Term

Who Am I?

-Ruled from 1689-1725

-Continued growth of absolutism and conquest

-Reforms by fiat (authoritative order)

-Secret police

-Conflict with Ottomans

-Baltic port achieved

-Capital to St. Petersburg

-Economic development  focused on metals and mining

Traveled to the West to “westernize” Russia 

 
Definition

Peter I

(Aka Peter The Great)

Term

Based on the preponderance of archeological evidence, which region of the world saw the development of the earliest civilizations?

A) Northern Eurasia

B) South America

C) The Middle East

D) North America

Definition
C) The Middle East
Term
Which people are generally credited with founding Mesopotamian civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley?
Definition
Sumerians
Term

Which of the following is NOT true of the ancient Egyptian pyramids?

A) Served as tombs for pharoahs

B) Were built by slave and corvee labor

C) Are reflective of advanced geometric knowledge

D) Were built under the influence of Chinese advisors

Definition
D) Were built under the influence of Chinese advisors
Term

Which choice best characterizes the relationship between early civilizations and writing?

A) Writing permitted record keeping for trade and governments

B) Writing led to the development of civilization more than sedentary agriculture

C) Most civilizations developed without writing systems

D) No sophisticated civilization developed without a system of writing

Definition
A) Writing permitted record keeping for trade and governments
Term

Which of the following was true for all early agricultural systems?

A) Domestication of perennial plants in each region

B) Wheat and barley cultivation

C) Economic activity based on raising a combination of domesticated plants and draft animals

D) Primary reliance on pastoral forms of social organization

Definition
A) Domestication of perennial plants in each region
Term

Which of the following is most accurate regarding Jewish monothesism?

A) It traces its origins to Abraham

B) It was spread by missionaries in the Ganges River Valley

C) It appealed mainly to wealthier people

D) It incorporated the idea of reincarnation

Definition
A) It traces its origins to Abraham
Term

Which of the following did ancient Egyptian, Shang and Sumerian civilizations all have in common?

 

A) Pyramid-shaped monumental architecture

B) River Valley location

C) Acceptance of Buddhism

D) Pastoral-based economy

Definition
B) River Valley location
Term

The perios 8000 BCE to 600 CE saw all of the following EXCEPT...

A) Birth of major world religions

B) Origin of agriculture

C) Use of gunpowder

D) Urbanization

Definition
C) Use of gunpowder
Term

Which of the following classical societies was based in the eastern Mediterranean Sea?

A) Greek

B) Mauyan

C) Han

D) Mayan

Definition
A) Greek
Term

Which of the following were important impacts of the rise of metalwork in the ancient world?

I. Metal tools for farming

II. Metal arms revolutionized war fighting

III. Metalic coins facilitated trade

IV.Metal ships revolutionized trade and naval warfare

Definition

I. Metal tools for farming

II. Metal arms revolutionized war fighting

III. Metalic coins facilitated trade

Term

What do early Confucianism, Hindusim and Christianity have in common?

A) They directed attention to the afterlife & reincarnation

B) They helped justify and preserve social inequality

C) They urged the importance of political activity

D) They incorporated a strong missionary drive

Definition
B) They helped justify and preserve social inequality
Term

Which example from the classical world best characterizes the principle of cultural diffusion?

 

A) Preference for silk garments among the Roman elite

B) Victory of Sparta in Peloponnesian War

C) Conversion of Asoka to Buddhism

D) Growing influence of Confucianism in China during the Han Dynasty

Definition
A) Preference for silk garments among the Roman elite
Term

What society created an alphabet around 1300 BCE which was the predecessor of Greek and Latin?

a. Sumerians

b. Babylonians

c. Shang 

d. Phoenicians

Definition
d. Phoenicians
Term

What additional challenge do historians studying the Harappan civilization of the Indus River Valley face that does not exist when studying Sumerian or Egyptian civilizations?


A) Artifacts lie under layers of Earth that must be carefully excavated by archaeologists

B) Religious prohibitions on interfering with the burial places of the Hindu dead slow excavation projects

C) Historians rely entirely on legends and oral history as no archaeological record of Harappan civilization exists

D) Harappan writing has never been deciphered

Definition
D) Harappan writing has never been deciphered
Term

What conclusions can we draw about Babylonian society from the following excerpt from Hammurabi’s Code?

 #221: If a physician heals the broken bone or diseased soft part of a man, the patient shall pay the physician five shekels in money. #222: If he were a freed man he shall pay three shekels.

#223: If he were a slave his owner shall pay the physician two shekels.


A) Babylonian medical practice was informed by study of microscopic germs

B) Babylonian physicians attended formal medical school for many years of training similar to doctors today

C) Babylonian physicians healed most cases of broken bones in Mesopotamia 

D) Babylonian medical practices reflected prevailing patterns in social status

Definition
D) Babylonian medical practices reflected prevailing patterns in social status
Term

Which set of Paleolithic practices would prove most durable as humans entered the Neolithic era?

A) Generally egalitarian principle in social organization

B) Metallurgical expertise

C) Domestication of animals

D) Nomadic lifestyle

Definition
C) Domestication of animals
Term

Which of the following was NOT a unique advantage agricultural people enjoyed over hunter-gatherer groups as a sedentary lifestyle began to confront nomadic lifestyles after 8000 BCE?

A) Immunities built up to new diseases spawned in denser nodes of population

B) Regular armed forces capable of sustained offensive and defensive campaigns

C) Greater ability to store food in preparation for times of scarcity

D) Higher levels of social equality and group cohesion

Definition
D) Higher levels of social equality and group cohesion
Term

Which of the following is associated with teh "Out of Africa" thesis on human origins?

I. Origin of anatomically modern humans in Africa

II. Separate origins of anatomically modern humans across the Old World

III. Evolution of Homo neanderthalensis into Homo sapiens

Definition
I. Origin of anatomically modern humans in Africa
Term

Broadly speaking, which choice places the developments associated with the Neolithic Revolution in the correct chronological order?

A) Specialization in labor, social stratification,surplus food production

B) Surplus food production, specialization of labor, social stratification

C) Social stratification, specialization of labor, surplus of food production

D) Speicalization in labor, surplus of food production, social stratification

Definition
B) Surplus food production, specialization of labor, social stratification
Term

Hellenistic culture brought together the traditions of which of the following regions?

 

A) Mediterranean, Mesoamerican, Sub-Saharan Africa

B) Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Scandinavian

C) Eastern Asia, South Asian, Eastern European

D) South Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern 

Definition
D) South Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern 
Term

Which of the following is a sacred and classical Indian language?

A) Hindi

B) Varnas

C) Sanskrit

D) Aryan

Definition
C) Sanskrit
Term

Which of the following political practices remained continuous form the period of the Republic into the period of the Roman Empire?

A) Strict rules separating military service and political leadership

B) Dominant involvement of the plebian classes in state affairs

C) Primacy placed in a Senate where state affairs were debated

D) Recruitment of local elites in recently conquered areas to represent the interests of the imperial center

Definition
D) Recruitment of local elites in recently conquered areas to represent the interests of the imperial center
Term

What was a common feature of classical civilizations in India, China and the Mediterranean?

A) Agricultural systems dependent on monsoon rains

B) Social hierarchy

C) Absense of coerced labor

D) Elimination of patriarchy over time

Definition
B) Social hierarchy
Term

. "If the Qin should ever get his way with the world, then the whole world will end up his prisoner."

                -Quote by famous historian Sima Qian

 

How does Qian’s statement reflect China’s first emperor Shi Huangdi?


A) Built a formidable army and mobilized the Qin for war and territorial expansion

B) Wanted to control his subjects by forcing them all to convert to Confucianism using its teachings to solidify his power and role as emperor

C) He forbad foreigners from trading along the Silk Road so his state could be the most powerful in terms of trade and riches

D) Sponsored naval campaigns to conquer parts of the Indus River Valley and thus expand Qin influence into South Asia

Definition

A) Built a formidable army and mobilized the Qin for war and territorial expansion

 

Term

Which pair of rulers underwent a religious conversion process that had a broad-based impact on the lands under their control?

A) Julius Caesar & Shi Huangdi

B) Hammurabi & Julius Caesar

C) Tutankhamen & Pericles

D) Asoka and Constantine

Definition
D) Asoka and Constantine
Term

Why did the western portion of the Roman Empire suffer so much more in breakdown of Roman imperial unity than the regions of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium)?


A) The feudal system in the west relied on a trade system made unreliable by harsh weather

B) The Eastern Roman world had traditionally been more economically vibrant due to more active trade links with East

C) The Eastern Orthodox Church attracted more followers than the Roman Church

D) Germanic peoples migrated to Byzantium after fleeing nomadic attackers

Definition
B) The Eastern Roman world had traditionally been more economically vibrant due to more active trade links with East
Term

Before 600 CE, nomadic peoples of the Eurasian landmass...

A) Lived in a state of constant warfare with neighboring civilizations

B) Were dependent on teh camel for covering large distances

C) Maintained strict isolation from nearby civilizations

D) Interacted intermittently with civilizations often through trade

Definition
D) Interacted intermittently with civilizations often through trade
Term

Which of the following is the most accurrate statement about ancient Roman trade routes?

A) On every trade route enslaved persons were the chief commodity being transported

B) Most trade routes were focused around the Mediterranean Sea

C) Roman ships dominated the trade of the Indian Ocean

D) Western Europe was the most profitable trade destination of the empire and had the most trade routes

Definition
B) Most trade routes were focused around the Mediterranean Sea
Term

Which neighboring power posed the greatest military threat over the course of classical Greek civilization?

A) Egyptian

B) Mongol

C) Perisan

D) Islamic

Definition
C) Persian
Term

Which of the following is a famous example of "cultural diffusion" in early Chinese history?


A) The spread of paper-making technology from the Middle East

B) The use of the iron plow from Rome

C) The development of written Mandarin Chinese characters

D) The introduction and spread of Buddhism from India

Definition
D) The introduction and spread of Buddhism from India
Term

In Chinese tradition, what did the Mandate of Heaven refer to?

 

A) Chinese ethnocentric tendencies

B) The law that all citizens must convert to Buddhism

C) Eternal divine blessing of the rule of an emperor

D) Belief in many gods

 

 

Definition
C) Eternal divine blessing of the rule of an emperor
Term

What did Emperor Ashoka hope Buddhism would bring to his empire?


A) A common link to unite with China and thus improve trade between the empires

B) Would unite & discipline the diverse people under his rule

C) An escape from the caste system of Hinduism

D) Would be transformed into a political ideology that he hoped his subjects would support

 

Definition
B) Would unite & discipline the diverse people under his rule
Term

Which of the following correctly lists the countries to which Buddhism spread from India in chronological order from earliest to latest?


A) Korea, Japan, Cambodia

B) China, Korea, Japan

C) Thailand, Korea, China

D) China, Thailand, Japan

Definition
B) China, Korea, Japan
Term

Which statement comparing classical Chinese civilization with contemporary Western civilization is most accurate?

A) China set an enduring pattern of more sophisticated agricultural, metallurgical, and textile production techniques than Western civilization

B) The Chinese economy relied on slavery to a greater extent than Western civilization did

C) Women had markedly greater maneuverability within Chinese civilization to achieve positions of high social status

D) The Chinese developed a simplified phonetic writing system similar to Hebrew

Definition
A) China set an enduring pattern of more sophisticated agricultural, metallurgical, and textile production techniques than Western civilization
Term

Which of the following was NOT a tactic used by Shi Huangdi to unify China into one empire?

A) Relying mainly on diplomacy and not military force to achieve territorial expansion

B) Employing legalism as the state political philosophy

C) Building the Great Wall to guard against invasion

D) Establishing a uniform currencey and measurement

Definition
B) Employing legalism as the state political philosophy
Term

With which early Chinese emperor and dynasties do we most closely associate non-Confucian worldviews?

 

I. Wu Ti of the Han Dynasty

II. Shi Huangdi of the Qin Dynasty

III. Empress Wu of the Tang Dynasty

Definition

II. Shi Huangdi of the Qin Dynasty

III. Empress Wu of the Tang Dynasty

Term

Which of the following events hurt Buddhism popularity in India?


A) Emperor Ashoka adopted the religion and made it more like Shintoism

B) The conversion of the Kushan king, Kanishka, made the religion become associated with foreign rule

C) The Gupta raid on Hindu temples was seen by many as a ploy by Buddhist sympathizer to end Hindu dominance in India

D) Many didn’t want to adopt a religion that was associated with Chinese warlords

Definition
B) The conversion of the Kushan king, Kanishka, made the religion become associated with foreign rule
Term

Which of the following when compared to China reflects Indian social and economic structures?


A) Made it easier for a peasant to rise to higher status

B) Relied on conquest of foreign territories

C) Gave a stronger role to merchants

D) Tended to discourage commerce

 

Definition
C) Gave a stronger role to merchants
Term

In which of the following periods of Chinese history did Confucius live?

A) Qin Dynasty

B) Late Zhou Dynasty "Era of Warring States"

C) Han Dynasty

D) Shang Dynasty

Definition
B) Late Zhou Dynasty "Era of Warring States"
Term

Which of the following is true for both the Qin and the Han dynasties?

 

A) State policy was shaped by Confucian preceps

B) Imperial authority was strong in the opening years of each

C) Merchants were held in high regard

D) Nomadic invaders toppled each one

Definition
B) Imperial authority was strong in the opening years of each
Term

The main pattern in Chinese art established by the close of the classical era was...

 

A) A focus on monumental building

B) High levels of craftsmanship and attention to detail work

C) Preference of marble over jade in small sculptures

D) Representation of the peasantry

Definition
B) High levels of craftsmanship and attention to detail work
Term
What long distance trade netword was stabilized in the period historians term the Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace)?
Definition
Silk Roads
Term

How were individuals selected for leadership in traditional Mongol society?

A) Hereditary warrior lineage

B) Long established aristocractic status

C) Merit system based on demonstrated battlefield bravery

D) Divine revelation of chosen ones

Definition
C) Merit system based on demonstrated battlefield bravery
Term

Which of the following does not belong in a list of military tactics or equipment employed by the Mongol armies?

 

A) Combination of light and heavy cavalry

B) Use of the crossbow and short bow

C) Phalanx infantry formation

D) Extensive spy network

Definition
C) Phalanx infantry formation
Term

Which of the following was the most decisive change Mongol rule brought to Russia?


A) Emancipation of the serfs

B) Migration to the center of power from Kiev to Moscow

C) Permanent separation of Russian culture from the West

D) Abandonment of the Cyrillic alphabet

Definition
B) Migration to the center of power from Kiev to Moscow
Term

Which of the following dealt the most devastating blow to the Abbasid caliphate in particular and Islamic civilization in general?

 

 

A) Christian crusader incursions in the Near East

B) Ottoman Turkic conquest of Constantinople

C) Mongol invasion of Mesopotamia

D) Portuguese defeat of the Ottoman navy

 

Definition
C) Mongol invasion of Mesopotamia
Term
What group benefited from newfound higher status in the period of Mongol rule in China?
Definition
Peasants
Term

Which practices were employed by Kublai Khan and later Yuan dynasty rulers to ensure Mongol dominance in China?

 

I. Refusal to adopt Chinese civil service exams

II. Dependence on Muslims and nomads, not Confucian bureaucrats as next in command in the exercise of power

III. Stubborn clinging to nomadic habits and refusal to settle down and administer the new dynasty from one imperial city

Definition

I. Refusal to adopt Chinese civil service exams

II. Dependence on Muslims and nomads, not Confucian bureaucrats as next in command in the exercise of power

Term

Which indigenous African ethnic group adopted and vigorously spread Islam?

A) Khoisan

B) Zulu

C) Berber

D) Bedouin

Definition
C) Berber
Term

Since the classical era, which African region most accurately fits the description "gateway to the Middle East"?

A) Ghana

B) Zimbabwe

C) Egypt

D) Congo

Definition
C) Egypt
Term

Which of the following was the common unifying feature of sub-Saharan African societies in the postclassical era?

 

A) Adoption of Islam by elites

B) Broad-based expansion of literacy among the masses of the people

C) Common Bantu linguistic roots

D) Matriarchal political power

Definition
C) Common Bantu linguistic roots
Term

Which military innovation did the Mongols expose Europeans to for the first time?

 

A) The catapult

B) Cavalary units

C) The battle ax

D) Gunpowder

Definition
D) Gunpowder
Term

Which set of practices carried out by devout Muslims in West Africa set their society apart from patterns established in the greater Islamic world?

 

A) Ongoing practices of ancestor worship

B) Preference of the spoken over the written word in religious and state affairs

C) Fewer restrictions on female dress code

D) Substitution of Timbuktu for Mecca and Medina as a pilgrimage destination

Definition
C) Fewer restrictions on female dress code
Term

Which choice best describes the origins of the Swahili language?

 

A) Bantu-Yoruba mix

B) Arabic-Berber mix

C) Arabic-Bantu mix

D) Berber-Bantu mix

Definition
C) Arabic-Bantu mix
Term

Which of the following does not belong in the list of Sudanic states?

 

A) Ghana

B) Mali

C) Songhai

D) Congo

Definition
D) Congo
Term

What West African leadership figure is best known for his lavish 14th century pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina?

 

A) Kwame Nkrumah

B) Mansa Kankan Musa

C) Sunni Ali

D) Leopold Senghor

Definition
B) Mansa Kankan Musa
Term

Which of the following materials is most associated with premodern sub-Saharan African artistic expertise?

 

A) Marble

B) Oil paints

C) Jade

D) Ivory

Definition
D) Ivory
Term

Which religious schism stemmed from disputes over legitimate succession of leadership after the death of its key or founding figure?

 

A) Sunni and Shia

B) Mahayana and Zen

C) Catholic and Protestant

D) Eastern Orthodox and Catholic

Definition
A) Sunni and Shia
Term

Which neighboring empires faced the challenge of Umayyad expansion?

I. Roman

II. Gupta

III. Sassanid Persia

IV. Byzantine

V. Han

Definition

III. Sassanid Persia

V. Han

Term

Who would not have qualified as part of the group labeled the "dhimmi" in the Abbasid caliphate?

 

A) Jews

B) Catholics

C) Hindu

D) Animist

Definition
D) Animist
Term
What Muslim group overthrew the Umayyad dynasty and set up a new caliphate?
Definition
The Abbasids
Term
What city became the capital of the Abbasid Empire and a center of what has been termed an Islamic Golden Age?
Definition
Baghdad
Term

The proliferation of technical advances and growing wealth of cities in the Abbasid Middle East was most closely matched by which contemporaneous area of civilization?

 

A) Mississippian North America

B) Song China

C) Greater Zimbabwe

D) Western Europe

Definition
Song China
Term

Which of the following European regions felt the influence of Byzantine civilization in the postclassical era?

 

A) Russia

B) The Balkans

C) Ukraine

D) All of the Above

Definition
D) All of the above
Term

Russian civilization emerged nearest to what modern-day city?

 

A) St. Petersburg

B) Kiev

C) Moscow

D) Warsaw

Definition
B) Kiev
Term
What ideology gained influence in the period of disorder that followed the collapse of the Han Dynasty?
Definition
Buddhism
Term

Which of the following statements best describes the status of Buddhism in China after the persecutions of the Tang era?

 

A) Chinese emperors continued to practice Buddhism

B) Buddhism grew rapidly as a form of rebellion against a hated imperial bureaucracy

C) Buddhism disappeared completely from Chinese society

D) Buddhism continued to exist but on a much reduced scale

Definition
D) Buddhism continued to exist but on a much reduced scale
Term

Which of the following is not a nomadic group that pressured dynastic rule at some point over the course of Chinese history?

 

A) Jurchen

B) Mongol

C) Turk

D) Tibetan

Definition
D) Tibetan
Term

Which of the following statements concerning urbanization in China during the Tang-Song era is most accurate?


A) Chinese urbanization was more pronounced in northern China, but lagged in southern China

B) The imperial capitals were enormous, but there were few other Chinese cities of size

C) The degree of urbanization reached during the Han dynasty was never achieved during the Tang-Song era, although some recovery of cities accompanied the commercial revival

D) Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities

Definition
D) Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities
Term

Who was the founder of the Tang dynasty?

Definition
Li Yuan
Term

What caused the flight of the Song dynasty from its capital in northern China?

A) The invasions of the Jurchens who had formed the Jin kingdom

B) The Huang-chao rebellion

C) A rebellion led by a nomadic general, An Lushan

 

D) Attempted takeover by the Khitans

Definition
A) The invasions of the Jurchens who had formed the Jin kingdom
Term

What was the impact of the rise of the samurai on the peasantry in Japan?

A) Japanese peasants were reduced to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked

B) The samurai were critical to the development of a free peasantry on which the warriors depended for supplies of food and arms

C) The creation of the samurai created a period of great social mobility in Japan during which people rapidly moved out of the peasantry and into the class of warriors

D) Although separated from the warriors by rigid class barriers, the peasantry achieved greater levels of personal freedom and economic prosperity

Definition
A) Japanese peasants were reduced to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked
Term

What was created as a result of the victory of the Minamoto in 1185CE?

Definition
The bakufu, or military government at Kamakura 
Term

Which practice dates from the Song era?

 

A) Foot binding

B) Arranged marriage

C) Concubinage

D) Divorce rights

Definition
A) Foot binding
Term
The Silla capital at Kumsong was modeled after what Chinese dynasty?
Definition
Tang
Term

Following the assertion of Vietnamese independence from China in the tenth century, what aspects of Chinese culture were retained by the Vietnamese rulers?

A) Chinese family organization

B) The Chinese administrative system based on the Confucian examination system

C) A highly centralized administrative system manned by a powerful scholar-gentry

D) The successful suppression of the peasantry

Definition
B) The Chinese administrative system based on the Confucian examination system
Term

The Turkic expansion from the 1360s to 1400CE compares to the Mongol expansion in what way?


A) The Turkic expansion, although briefer in duration, actually covered greater territory

B) The Turkic expansion, like the Mongol conquests, provided a period of peace and commercial expansion

C) The Turkic expansion covered less territory, failed to increase trade and provided no internal peace 

D) The Turkic expansion, unlike the Mongol conquests, resulted in the creation of a lasting kingdom based on the capital at Samarkand

Definition
C) The Turkic expansion covered less territory, failed to increase trade and provided no internal peace 
Term

Which best characterizes the impact of the Magna Carta?

 

A) The principle of limited monarchy and representative bodies was established

B) More accurate maps were produced

C) Univeral manhood suffrage became the norm in feudal societies

D) Parliamentary rule replaced monarchy across the West

Definition
A) The principle of limited monarchy and representative bodies was established
Term

Which of the following possessed the greatest unified organizational capacity across the largest land area in Western Europe in the centuries immediately following the fall of the Roman Empire?

 

A) Holy Roman Empire

B) Islamic caliphates

C) Catholic church

D) Mongol Empire

Definition
C) Catholic Church
Term

Which term do historians assoicate with medieval Western inquiry that sought to reconcile reason and religious faith and is most closely associated with the thinking of St. Thomas Aquinas?

 

A) Existentialism

B) Scholasticism

C) Eclectricism

D) Marxism 

Definition
B) Scholasticism
Term

Along with Venice in Italy, what other postclassical city is famous for its dependence on boats and canals as the primary means of urban transport?

 

A) Chang'an

B) Tenochtitlan

C) Samarkand

D) Timbuktu

Definition
B) Tenochtitlan
Term

Which classical civilizations were most famous for their extensive and centrally planned imperial road networks?

 

I. Roman Empire

II. Aztec Empire

III. Inca Empire

IV. Mongol Empire

Definition
I. Roman Empire and III. Inca Empire
Term

How did the Aztecs view the cultural achievements of the Toltecs?

A) As barbarians who lacked culture

B) As slaves, fit only for conquest

C) As the origin of civilization

 

D) As heretics, who practiced a forbidden religion

Definition
C) As the origin of civilization
Term

What was the nature of the Aztec administration of subject territories?


A) The Aztecs placed members of the Aztec nobility as rulers over subject peoples

B) All territories conquered by the Aztecs became part of a singular administration run by a trained bureaucracy located in Tenochtitlan, much like the Byzantine Empire

C) Conquered territories were often left relatively unchanged under their old rulers as long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid tribute 

D) The Aztecs established a military administration with subject territories controlled by regional generals

Definition
C) Conquered territories were often left relatively unchanged under their old rulers as long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid tribute 
Term

What was the Inca practice of split inheritance?

A) On the death of the previous ruler, the throne passed to two descendants from the ruler's family

B) On the death of the previous ruler, the family's wealth was equally divided among all male heirs

C) On the death of the previous ruler, the inheritance passed through the family of the senior wife to her oldest brother

D) All political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead Inca's mummy

Definition
D) All political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead Inca's mummy
Term

Which was the most densly populated region of the America's by the end of the postclassical era?

 

A) Eastern woodlands region of North America

B) Valley of Mexico in Mesoamerica

C) Southern cone of South America

D) Amazon River Basin of South America

Definition
B) Valley of Mexico in Mesoamerica
Term

Which European power was first to establish large-scale slave trading operations on the African continent for the purpose of export to plantations in the Americas?

 

A) Spain

B) England

C) Portugal

D) France

Definition
C) Portugal
Term

Which of the following does not belong in a list of factors preventing European powers from establishing anything more than a limited coastal settlement on the African continent in the period 1450-1750?

 

I. Climate

II. Disease

III. Impassable rivers

IV. Stiff organized African resistance

V. Inferior weapons technology

 

 

Definition
V. Inferior weapons technology
Term

Which trend was most typical in slave-capturing coastal West African kingdoms such as Dahomey, which supplied the Atlantic slave trade?

 

A) Mass conversion to Christianity

B) Increasing hierarchy, centralization, and importance of military capacity including use of firearms

C) Depopulation as younger generations were shipped away

D) Development of representative democracy

Definition
B) Increasing hierarchy, centralization, and importance of military capacity including use of firearms
Term

Which of the following best describes the attitude of Peter and Catherine the Great towards adopting change along Western lines?

 

A) Its harmless influence was allowed to spread without interference

B) It was a source of new ideas and methods to increase the power of the ruling family at home and abroad

C) It was a key step on the road to Russian democracy

D) Emulation of Western gender roles but not economic practices would be pursued

Definition
B) It was a source of new ideas and methods to increase the power of the ruling family at home and abroad
Term

How was racial hierarchy on the North American continent different from racial hierarchy in Spanish Latin America?

 

A) Intermarriage among Native American, African and European populations was much less common

B) Enslaved Africans could as a rule look forward to manumission upon the death of his or her owner

C) Native Americans were preferred over Africans to perform slave labor

D) Native American leaders enjoyed equal political and social status as European elites in colonial society

Definition
A) Intermarriage among Native American, African and European populations was much less common
Term

What was the key theme of Polynesian culture from the 7th century to 1400CE?


A) The adoption of Japanese civilization in the island societies

B) Large-scale expeditions of discovery that were aimed at establishing colonies in South America

C) Contraction as a result of the world-wide epidemic of the 14th century

D) Spurts of migration and conquest that spread beyond the initial base in the Society Islands

Definition
D) Spurts of migration and conquest that spread beyond the initial base in the Society Islands
Term

The practice of judging other peoples by the standards and practices of one's own culture or ethnic group is called…

 

 

Definition
Ethnocentrism
Term

Which of the following is true of the Bubonic Plague or Black Death?


A) It never reached China and thus its people were spared from its devastation

B) The plague’s worst European impact occurred between 1348 and 1375 CE

C) It had little impact on the peasant classes

D) It only occurred in the Americas and never came to Europe and or Asia

Definition
B) The plague’s worst European impact occurred between 1348 and 1375 CE
Term

Which of the following statements best accounts for the Spanish failure to hold a position of dominance in world trade?


A) The Spanish withdrew voluntarily from the race for world trade dominance and established a policy of international isolation

B) The Catholic Church that dominated Spanish society argued against the establishment of a commercial mentality in Spain

C) Spain's interests were increasingly directed toward the destruction of the Ottoman Empire

D) Spain's internal economy and banking system were not sufficient to accommodate the bullion from the new world and lacked significant manufacturing capability

Definition
D) Spain's internal economy and banking system were not sufficient to accommodate the bullion from the new world and lacked significant manufacturing capability
Term

Which of the following kingdoms serves as an exception to the rule of the growing power of absolute monarchies in the West in the period 1450-1750?

 

A) Spain

B) France

C) Austria-Hungary

D) England

Definition
D) England
Term

The factories of the Industrial Revolution depended heavily on the labor of which of the following groups?

 

A) Landed peasantry

B) Aristocracy

C) Proletarians

D) Merchants

Definition
C) Proletarians
Term

Which of the following effects best captures the impact of the Mongol Empire on world history?

 

I. Spread of bubonic plague across Eurasian landmass

II. Stabilization of long-distance trade routes, which sparked greater demand for goods from distant lands

III. The exposure of old centers of civilizations to new religious and intellectual trends

Definition

 

I. Spread of bubonic plague across Eurasian landmass

II. Stabilization of long-distance trade routes, which sparked greater demand for goods from distant lands

III. The exposure of old centers of civilizations to new religious and intellectual trends

Term

We associate the Maori people with which of the following locations?

 

A) Tasmania

B) Azores

C) Hawaii

D) New Zealand

Definition
Term

Which events outside the West contributed to creating an opening for the West to move to the core of a global maritime trade network?

I. Ming reversal of treasure ship voyages in 1433

II. Fall of the Byzantine Empire after the Ottoman sacking of Constantinople in 1453

III. Mongol destruction of Abbasid power in 1253

IV. Collapse of Mongol power in the mid-fifteenth century 

Definition

I. Ming reversal of treasure ship voyages in 1433

II. Fall of the Byzantine Empire after the Ottoman sacking of Constantinople in 1453

III. Mongol destruction of Abbasid power in 1253

IV. Collapse of Mongol power in the mid-fifteenth century 

Term

What was the demographic impact of the Columbian Exchange on the population of the Old World?

A) Population growth across the Old World based on New World crops such as corn and the potato

B) Massive depopulation of Western Europe due to migration to the Americas

C) Sharp increase in the West African population to furnish individuals for the slave trade

D) Sharp decrease in male populations as many sailors died at sea

Definition
A) Population growth across the Old World based on New World crops such as corn and the potato
Term

What common characteristics can be ascribed to the key cash crops of the period 1450-1750, sugar, tobacco and coffee?

 

A) They required temperate climate to grow

B) European indentured servants performed the labor involved in their cultivation

C) Revenues from the sale of these goods did not cover the costs of production and transportation

D) Each one has addictive qualities

Definition
D) Each one has addictive qualities
Term

Which of the following regional civilizations was least able to control and regulate trade relations with the West in the period 1450-1750?

 

A) Safavid Persia

B) Tokugawa Japan

C) Ming China

D) Kongo Kingdom

Definition
D) Kongo Kingdom
Term

Which was the first Asian commodity Western merchants were able to gain control over in terms of both production and trade?

 

A) Spices

B) Cotton

C) Opium

D) Silk

Definition

A) Spices

 

(The Dutch)

Term

The rule of which Chinese dynasties overlap with the time period 1450-1750?

 

I. Yuan

II. Ming

III. Qing

IV. Song 

Definition

II. Ming

III. Qing

Term

Which three Muslim empires emerged from the wreckage left behind after the Mongol invasions?

 

A) Umayyad, Safavid, Mughal

B) Mughal, Safavid, Ottoman

C) Abbasid, Ottoman, Umayyad

D) Ottoman, Umayyad, Safavid

Definition
B) Mughal, Safavid, Ottoman
Term

Religious tolerance, Hindu-Muslim intermarriage and abolition of the jizya head tax are all most closely associated with which Mughal ruler?

A) Selim II

B) Akbar

C) Babur 

D) Shah Jahan

Definition
B) Akbar
Term

Which destabilizing influence did the Ottoman, Mughal and Safavid empires face in the period 1450-1750?

 

A) A growing influx of silver through trade with the West leading to widespread inflation

B) Revived threats from Central Asian nomads

C) Western siege and occupation of their capital cities

D) Bubonic plague outbreaks that reduced populations by one-third

Definition
A) A growing influx of silver through trade with the West leading to widespread inflation
Term

How did rulers of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires respond to the rising influence of the West in world affairs after 1500?

 

A) A tendency to underestimate Western capacities led to a failure to adopt Western military, technological and scientific advances

B) Highly centralized drives to confront the West on the high seas thwarted Western encroachment on trade routes and port cities

C) They pursued increased diplomatic and military dependence on Ming and Qing dynasties in China to organize resistance to Western domination

 

D) Adoption of firearms and artillery enabled coordinated assaults on the homelands of the Western merchants

Definition

 

A) A tendency to underestimate Western capacities led to a failure to adopt Western military, technological and scientific advances

Term

Which of the following empires in the period 1450-1750 ruled the territory with the greatest degree of religious homogeneity?

A) Mughal

B) Spanish

C) Safavid 

D) Holy Roman Empire

Definition
C) Safavid
Term

By 1750 what was the most populous region on the globe?

A) Sub-Saharan Africa

B) Western Europe

C) East Asia 

D) South Asia

Definition
C) East Asia
Term

Aside from the Yuan, which other Chinese dynasty was founded by nomadic invaders?

 

A) Qing (Manchu)

B) Han

C) Song 

D) Qin

Definition
A) Qing (Manchu)
Term

In which non-European society did the conversion of the local population to Christianity reach hundreds of thousands before there was a state crackdown on the new religion that accompanied a more comprehensive move toward isolation from the West?

 

A) Kongo kingdom

B) Ming China

C) Ottoman Empire 

D) Tokugawa Japan

Definition
D) Tokugawa Japan
Term

Which best explains the Ming decision to bring a brief period of extensive overseas exploration guided by admiral Zhenghe in the early fifteenth century to a halt?

 

A) Grievous naval defeats at the hands of Portuguese maritime power

B) Attitudes toward the expeditions within the imperial bureaucracy that ranged from indifference to hostility

C) Growing preference of Chinese merchants and elites for goods produced in foreign lands, undermining customary notions of the superiority and centrality of China in world affairs 

D) A rare suspension of monsoon winds that made long distance voyages impossible

Definition
B) Attitudes toward the expeditions within the imperial bureaucracy that ranged from indifference to hostility
Term

What significance did Nagasaki Bay hold in Japanese history before the United States dropped a second atomic bomb there?

A) Western trade was restricted to contact with the Dutch only at Deshima Island, allowing for limited exposure to European ideas during a period of isolation

B) Matthew Perry’s gunboat visit to Japan occurred here

C) Invading Mongol navy was wreaked by a typhoon in a failed invasion attempt there

 D) It was the imperial capital of the Tokugawa regime

Definition
A) Western trade was restricted to contact with the Dutch only at Deshima Island, allowing for limited exposure to European ideas during a period of isolation
Term

 

How did the Dutch gain control of Java?
A) Massive emigration from the Netherlands to Indonesia gave the Dutch a demographic advantage

B) Rapid industrialization and urbanization allowed for management of the majority of the population at work and at home

C) Shrewd exploitation of existing political divisions on the island resulted in territorial concessions 

D) Supremacy in military technology resulted in direct rule after an initial period of warfare

Definition
Shrewd exploitation of existing political divisions on the island resulted in territorial concessions
Term

 

Which rival European power did the British defeat in the 18th century in its drive to control the Indian subcontinent?

 

A) Netherlands

B) France

C) Spain

 D) Portugal

Definition
D) Portugal
Term

Which event highlighted widespread corruption and mismanagement among British East India Company administrators?

 

A) Robert Clive’s victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757

B) Chaotic departure of British forces in 1947

C) Decision to fire on unarmed crowds at Amritsar in 1918 

D) Famine in Bengal in the 1770s

Definition
D) Famine in Bengal in the 1770s
Term

 

Which answer choice contains the major rivals to British industrial and imperial supremacy that emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century?

 

A) China, Belgium, Germany and the United States

B) The United States, Brazil, France and Germany

C) China, Brazil, Germany and Belgium

 

D) The United States, Belgium, France and Germany

Definition
D) The United States, Belgium, France and Germany
Term

 

Which of the following factors best describes international relations among the Western powers in the decades leading up to 1914?

 

                I. Rivalry involving colonial spoils, arms races, and alliance formation

                II. Major direct military clashes in colonial portions of the globe

 

                III. Mutual disinterest in territorial and military advances

Definition
I. Rivalry involving colonial spoils, arms races, and alliance formation
Term

Which sector of the colonized economy had experienced the least expansion by 1914?

A) Transport

B) Mining

C) Export crop cultivation

 

D) Heavy industrial capacity

Definition
D) Heavy industrial capacity
Term

 

What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference of 1885?

 

A) To negotiate settlements among Western rivalries over the partition of Africa

B) For representatives of colonized people to learn cutting-edge German industrial techniques

C) To set quotas and agreements surrounding the growth of the German navy

 

D) For representatives of Western industry to learn cutting-edge German industrial techniques

Definition

 

A) To negotiate settlements among Western rivalries over the partition of Africa

Term

Which of the following documents spells out Enlightenment ideas as they were applied to revolutionary France?

 

A) The Declaration of Independence

B) Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens

C) The Social Contract 

D) Second Treatise of Government

Definition
B) Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens
Term

 

Which group emerged at the peak of French social status as a result of the French Revolution?

 

A) Urban proletariat and artisans

B) Aristocracy

C) Clergy 

D) Bourgeoisie

Definition
D) Bourgeoisie
Term

Which tradition of the French Revolution did not survive long beyond the initial and radical phase?

 

A) Equality under the law

B) Attack on feudal privilege and institutions

C) Popular nationalism 

D) Women’s leading role in toppling established political powers

Definition
D) Women’s leading role in toppling established political powers
Term

Which nineteenth-century political ideology stressed principles of laissez-faire and constitutional rule?

 

A)Conservation

B) Liberal

C) Fascist

 

D) Socialist

Definition
B) Liberal
Term

Which of the following best describes China's trade relations with the rest of the world by about 1750?


A) Export of Chinese manufactured and luxury goods in exchange for Western manufactured and luxury goods

B) Export of Chinese manufactured and luxury goods in exchange for silver

C) Import of Western manufactured and luxury goods in exchange for silver

D) Merchantilist expansion colonizing the Philippines, Indonesia and Southeast Asia

Definition
B) Export of Chinese manufactured and luxury goods in exchange for silver
Term

Which of the following Western societies escaped internal disturbances during the Revolutions of 1848?

 

A) Germany

B) France

C) Russia 

D) Austria

Definition
C) Russia 
Term

Among Western settler societies, which had emerged as the leading industrial power by 1914?

 

A) Canada

B) New Zealand

C) The United States

D) Mexico

Definition
C) The United States
Term

Which answer choice best captures the change historians associate with what is termed the “second industrial revolution”?

 

A) Industrialization outside of England

B) Shift to nuclear power in the West after World War II

C) Rapid urbanization associated with factory production

D) Central role of heavy industry and electrical power

Definition
D) Central role of heavy industry and electrical power
Term

 

Which group of formerly colonized nations gained political independence from Western colonialism in the 19th century?

 

A) Ghana, Mexico, India

B) Argentina, Mexico, Brazil

C) India, Mexico, Brazil

D) Brazil, India, Ghana

Definition
B) Argentina, Mexico, Brazil
Term

Which thinker is most closely associated with formulating the theories of “Social Darwinism”?

 

A) Karl Marx

B) Herbert Spencer

C) Thomas Hobbes

D) Charles Darwin

Definition
B) Herbert Spencer
Term

 

Which event in Europe contributed most directly to the wave of independent struggle in early nineteenth-century Latin America?

 

A) Publications of the Gutenberg Bible

B) The Reconquista

C) Napoleon’s invasion of Spain

D) Onset of World War I

Definition
C) Napoleon’s invasion of Spain
Term

 

Which set of opposing political groupings would be most likely to disagree chiefly over the power of local versus national government?

 

A) Fascist and Communist

B) Democrat and Republican

C) Anarchist and Liberal

D) Centralist and Federalist

Definition
D) Centralist and Federalist
Term

Which social practices of the early United States were replicated in newly independent Spanish Latin America?

 

A) Slavery was maintained

B) Women remained subordinate to men

C) Property restrictions were placed on voting

D) All of the above

Definition
D) All of the above
Term

Which independent Latin American nation saw the defeat of the last unassimilated indigenous group willing to take up armed struggle to defend its autonomy?

 

A) Argentina

B) Mexico

C) Cuba

D) Venezuela

Definition
A) Argentina
Term

 

Which best characterizes the rule and impact of Portfirio Diaz in Mexico?

 

A) Sacrifice of liberal political principles in pursuit of industrial and infrastructure modernization

B) Peasant-based populist mandate achieving comprehensive land reform

C) Puppet ruler manipulated by German imperialism bringing little to no economic development

D) Conservative ruler who returned large landowners and Catholic elites to power

Definition

 

A) Sacrifice of liberal political principles in pursuit of industrial and infrastructure modernization

Term

Which Latin American nation lost Panama to a U.S. –backed revolution after it refused to bend to U.S. demands in the construction of a canal there?

 

A) Venezuela

B) Honduras

C) Colombia

D) Mexico

Definition
C) Colombia
Term

 

Which statement best characterizes Ottoman and Qing Chinese relations with the West by about 1750?

 

A) Both empires were in full military retreat and subject to carrying out Western economic demands

B) Both empires were successfully carrying out policies of isolation from the West

C) Qing China pursued a policy of imitation of Western industrial and mercantile practices while Ottoman rulers refused to do so 

D) Qing China was able to strongly regulate relations with the West while Ottoman rulers were less able to repel Western incursions into their territorial waters

Definition
D) Qing China was able to strongly regulate relations with the West while Ottoman rulers were less able to repel Western incursions into their territorial waters
Term

A long period of Ottoman territorial retreat ended with the birth of which modern nation?

 

A) Iran

B) Pakistan

C) Turkey 

D) Egypt

Definition
C) Turkey
Term

Land redistribution, reforms to simplify Chinese writing, equality for women and armed struggle were major features of which pair of Chinese movements?

 

A) Taiping Rebellion, Communist

B) May Fourth Movement, Taiping Rebellion

C) Nationalist, Taiping Rebellion

D) May Fourth Movement, Communist

 

Definition
A) Taiping Rebellion, Communist
Term

Which of the following best explains the reason the British turned to trading opium in China?

 

A) Firsthand experience supplying mass opium addiction in the thirteen colonies proved the profitabilitu of the trade

B) British merchants could find no other commodity the Chinese needed

C) Successful expansion of the opium trade in India proved a model for replication

D) Imperialist design for direct rule in China would be more easily attainable over a population pacified by narcotics

Definition
B) British merchants could find no other commodity the Chinese needed
Term

Which does not belong in a group of nations that had achieved territorial concessions in China by 1914?

 

A) Japan

B) Germany

C) Britain

D) Italy

Definition
D) Italy
Term

Which Chinese imperial bureaucrat wrote a famous letter to Queen Victoria demanding a cessation of British shipment of opium into China?

 

A) Lin Zexu

B) Qianlong

C) Sun Yat-sen

D) Pu Yi

Definition
A) Lin Zexu
Term

How were Qing dynasty era ethnic Han Chinese men forced to show respect for their Manchu rulers?

 

A) All Chinese males removed themselves from posts in the civil service bureaucracy to make way for Manchu officials

B) Each Chinese male had to carry out a self-financed pilgrimage to the Forbidden City to pay homage to the emperor

C) Each male sent his first daughter through a selection process for the imperial concubines

D) Chinese males were forced to wear a distinctive queue hairstyle

Definition
D) Chinese males were forced to wear a distinctive queue hairstyle
Term

Which challenge to Manchu ruler is least attributable to changes brought about by the emergence fo the West as a global power and trade intermediary?

 

A) Increased opium addiction

B) Japanese aggression

C) Silver inflation

D) Yellow River floods of unprecedented devastation

Definition
D) Yellow River floods of unprecedented devastation
Term

Which pair of regional powers were able by 1914, to initiate substantial industrialization and resist Western domination?

 

A) Ottoman Empire and South Africa

B) Russia and Japan

C) Ottoman Empire and Japan

D) Argentina and South Africa

Definition
B) Russia and Japan
Term

Which common trait helps explain Russian and Japanese ability to modernize in the 19th century?

 

A) Extensive experience with cultural imitation, Russia imitating Byzantium West, Japan imitating China

B) Royal appreciation of the democractic tradition

C) Presence of abundant natural resources, particularly coal and iron ore deposits, within traditional territorial confines

D) Preexisting traditions of widespread public education and literacy

Definition
A) Extensive experience with cultural imitation, Russia imitating Byzantium West, Japan imitating China
Term

All of the following statements are reasons monarchy survived so much longer in Russia than it did anywhere else in Europe EXCEPT...

 

A) The defeat of Napoleon in 1812 seemd to indicate a royal power could beat a modern one

B) Serfdom continued to provide a stable labor system

C) Czarist autocracy insulated Russia from the uprising of 1830 and 1848 in much of Europe

D) The Romanov dynasty imitated the stable British model of a constitutional monarchy

Definition
D) The Romanov dynasty imitated the stable British model of a constitutional monarchy
Term

Which of the following decisions by Russian czars was motivated by a long-held desire for a warm-water port and access to trade of the Mediterranean Sea?

 

A) Construction of the trans-Siberian railway

B) Launching the Crimean War

C) Construction of St. Petersburg

D) Launching the Russo-Japanese War

Definition
B) Launching the Crimean War
Term

Which of the following choices contains an accurate list of 19th century reforms carried out by Russian czars?

 

A) Collectivization of agriculture, emancipation of serfs, establishment of zemstvos

B) Construction of Trans-Siberian railway, construction of St. Petersburg, establishment of zemstvos, collectivation of agriculture

C) Establishment of zemstvos, construction of Trans-Siberian railway, emancipation of serfs

D) Collectivization of agriculture,  establishment of zemstvos

Definition
C) Establishment of zemstvos, construction of Trans-Siberian railway, emancipation of serfs
Term

Which of the following was the main reform put in place as a result of the 1905 Revolution in Russia?

 

A) Unions were legalized

B) Freedom of the press was established

C) A national representative assembly, the Duma was created

D) Czarism was abandoned in favor of representative democracy

Definition
C) A national representative assembly, the Duma was created
Term

In the decades leading to 1914 how were Japanese imperial designs for Asia, and Russian imperial designs in Eastern Europe similar?

 

A) Each posed itself as the natural leader of a broader and ethnically similar mass of people

B) Both aimed at access to raw materials and/or consumer markets

C) Each had annexed adjacent territory and made it a formal colony

D) Both A and B are correct

Definition
D) Both A and B are correct
Term

In which area did westernization of Japan have the least impact?

 

A) Politics

B) Religion

C) Economy

D) Fashion

Definition
B) Religion
Term

Why was the Russo-Japanese War a significant turning point inworld history?

 

A) It was the first conflict decided by battle at sea

B) It was the first conflict where mass-produced weaponry was employed

C) The rifled musket was used for the first time

D) A non-Western power defeated a modern European power in battle

Definition
D) A non-Western power defeated a modern European power in battle
Term

Which of the following nations pursued a course of overseas territorial expansion only after beginning the porcess of industrialization?

 

A) Netherlands

B) Japan

C) Spain

D) France

Definition
B) Japan
Term

Which of the following regions incorporated Western ideas in the 19th century but did not manage to achieve political independence from the West?

 

A) Russia

B) Mexico

C) Brazil

D) India

Definition
D) India
Term

Which of the following best characterizes developments in the societies of Western Europe in the decades after World War II?

 

I. Expanding welfare state provisions

II. Steady economic growth

III. Broad enthusiasm for expansion of colonial holdings

Definition

I. Expanding welfare state provisions

II. Steady economic growth

Term

Which nation emerged as the preeminent force in the West after World War II?

 

A) England

B) France

C) United States

D) Japan

Definition
C) United States
Term

Which of the following phrases is most closely assoicated with the guarantee of U.S. protection from Soviet aggression offered to Western Europe and Japan during the Cold War era?

 

A) Detente

B) Nuclear Umbrella

C) Isolationism

D) Berlin Airlife

Definition
B) Nuclear Umbrella
Term

What was the Soviet Union's counter to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)?

 

A) Warsaw Pact

B) Glasnost

C) Sputnik

D) Berlin Treaty

Definition
A) Warsaw Pact
Term

Which socialist Eastern European nation was not a Soviet satellite state?

 

A) Romania

B) Hungary

C) Bulgaria

D) Yugoslavia

Definition
D) Yugoslavia
Term

In which of the following cases did teh United States provide aid to break a Soviet blockade?

 

A) U-2 Incident

B) Bay of Pigs Invasion

C) Berlin Airlift

D) Crimean War

Definition
C) Berlin Airlift
Term

On what continent did the United States fight its two largest conflicts of the Cold War Era?

 

A) Europe

B) Asia

C) Africa

D) South America

Definition
B) Asia
Term

Which was true of both the Korean War and the Vietnam War?

 

I. During the war the United States fought a communist North from bases in the U.S. friendly South

II. U.S. opponents received direct aid from the USSR and/or China

III. U.S. forces operated under a UN mandate

Definition

I. During the war the United States fought a communist North from bases in the U.S. friendly South

 

II. U.S. opponents received direct aid from the USSR and/or China

Term

Mao's campaign to infuse industrial development into the national economy at the commune level was called...

 

A) New Democracy

B) The Great Leap Forward

C) The Long March

D) "Hundred Flowers" Period

Definition
B) The Great Leap Forward
Term

The "Great Revolution for a Proletarian Culture" in China is best described as...

 

A) A massive Deng Xiaoping-era program for technical training of peasants in industrial techniques

B) The strategic retreat during the 1930s led by Mao Zedong form southern China to base areas to the north and west

C) A 1960s-era campaign where mass mobilizations of youth were employed to target and repress "capitalist roaders" in positions of authority and continue the violent revolutionary struggle for a communist society

D) Student demonstrations for political reform in 1989 brutally suppressed by Chinese authorities 

Definition
C) A 1960s-era campaign where mass mobilizations of youth were employed to target and repress "capitalist roaders" in positions of authority and continue the violent revolutionary struggle for a communist society
Term

Which goal did nationalist leaders find most difficult to achieve upon independence?

 

A) Economic development and jobs for all

B) Maintenance of territorial integrity of the new nations

C) Participation in world trade

D) Membership in the United Nations

Definition
A) Economic development and jobs for all
Term

Who was the leader of the first sub-Saharan nation to gain independence?

 

A) Jomo Kenyatta

B) Nelson Mandela

C) Gamal Abdel Nasser

D) Kwame Kkrumah

Definition
D) Kwame Kkrumah
Term

Which of the following accurately summarizes developments in India since independence?

 

I. Maintenance of civilian rule and representative democracy

 

II. Growth of the middle class and information technology sector

 

III. Elimination of caste distinctions

 

IV. Penetration of Green Revolution agricultural techniques down to the village level

Definition

I. Maintenance of civilian rule and representative democracy

 

II. Growth of the middle class and information technology sector

 

IV. Penetration of Green Revolution agricultural techniques down to the village level

Term

Which of the following statements about the Iranian Revolution of 1979 is most accurate?

 

A) It marked the end of British colonalism in Iran

B) It overthrew a monarchy and installed a liberal democracy

C) It was guided by non-Western ideology

D) It was welcomed by neighboring nations

Definition
C) It was guided by non-Western ideology
Term

Why was South Africa's independence struggle atypical when compared with most other African nations?

 

A) Few other African nations gained independence in the 1960s

B) South Africa embarked on a program of rapid state directed industrialization soon after achieving independece

C) Independence was negotiated by a South African government that consisted of white settlers only

D) South Africa nationalized gold and diamond mines and directed profits from their operation into development projects to lift the standard of living of the black majority there

Definition
C) Independence was negotiated by a South African government that consisted of white settlers only
Term

Nelson Mandela and Steven Biko are associated with the struggle against...

 

 

A) Soviet socialism

B) South African apartheid

C) U.S. imperialism

D) French colonialism 

Definition
B) South African apartheid
Term

Which West African nation boasts the continent's largest population and substantial oil reserves?

 

A) Sengal

B) Ghana

C) Ethiopia

D) Nigeria

Definition
D) Nigeria
Term

Who was the first fascist dictator?

 

A) Friedrich Nietzsche

B) Adolf Hitler

C) Benito Mussolini

D) Vladimir Lenin

Definition
C) Benito Mussolini
Term

Which was the first 20th century revolutionary movement to successfully topple an existing regime?

 

A) Iranian

B) Mexican

C) Chinese

D) Russian

Definition
B) Mexican
Term

Why did the Bolshevik regime turn to a New Economic Policy in the early 1920s?

 

A) A centrally planned economy was seen as the next logical step after the "War Communism" system employed during the civil war

B) Lenin and leading Bolshevik elements gave up socialism as a long range goal

C) Lenin and leading Bolshevik elements sought to bring back free enterprise and the profit motive in order to jump start an economy

D) Stalin had already replaced Lenin as leader of the Bolsheviks and sought a more rapid push toward communism

Definition
D) Stalin had already replaced Lenin as leader of the Bolsheviks and sought a more rapid push toward communism
Term

How were minority ethnic groups of the Old Russian Empire treated by the new Bolshevik regime?

 

A) Most individuals belonging to minorites experienced forced deportation to Siberia

B) Minority groups were granted semiautonomous republics bound to pursuing a socialist course

C) Minority ethnicities were forciably intermarried with ethnic Russians to breed them out of existence

D) Ethnic minorities were barred from membership in the Bolshevik Party

Definition
B) Minority groups were granted semiautonomous republics bound to pursuing a socialist course
Term

Which factor in the Russian and Chinese revolutions was not present in the French Revolution?

 

A) Rural unrest

B) Urban discontent

C) Military intervention by neighboring or outside powers

D) The ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Definition
D) The ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Term

Which development prompted Chinese nationalists and communists to suspend civil war and form a shaky common cause?

 

A) Death of Sun Yat-sen

B) Japanese invasion of China

C) Massive American investment to build up industrial sectors in Chinese urban centers

D) Communist long march to sanctuary in nationalist base areas in northwest China

Definition
B) Japanese invasion of China
Term

In which nation did parliamentary democracy survive the 1930s?

 

A) Spain

B) Germany

C) France

D) Italy

Definition
C) France
Term

Which of the following terms refers to the need and right of the German people to expand their territory according to Hitler?

 

A) Untermenschen

B) Luftwaffe

C) Lebensraum

D) Blitzkrieg

Definition
C) Lebensraum
Term

Which Soviet leader was a leading force in imposing economic diplomatic, and political reforms after 1985 that contributed directly to the demise of Soviet socialism?

 

A) Nikoly Bukharin

B) Leonid Brezhnev

C) Mikhail Gorbachev

D) Nikita Khrushchev

Definition
C) Mikhail Gorbachev
Term

Which Latin American nation stood apart from a general trend away from authoritarian or military rule that had taken hold across the region by the 1990s?

 

A) Argentina

B) Chile

C) Dominican Republic

D) Cuba

Definition
D) Cuba
Term

The growing integration of all the peoples of the planet into a single economic and political model and accelerating sharing of cultural symbols is termed...

 

A) Egalitarianism

B) Simulactra

C) Postmodernism

D) Globalization

Definition
D) Globalization
Term

U.S. forces have seen military action most frequently to which region in the post-Cold War era?

 

A) Pacific Rim

B) Latin America

C) Middle East and Central Asia

D) Western Europe

Definition
C) Middle East and Central Asia
Term

What was the nationality of the majority of September 11th hijackers?

 

A) Iraqi

B) Palestinian

C) Saudi Arabian

D) Afghan

Definition
C) Saudi Arabia
Term

How are the nations of Latin America unique within the "Third World'?

 

A) They have struggled to emerge from a dependent role in the global economy

B) They have experienced civil war in the post WWII era

C) They gained political independence in the 19th century in general

D) They continue to use a language imposed by colonial adminstrators in internal state affairs 

 

Definition
C) They gained political independence in the 19th century in general
Term

How did local Catholic church leaders demonstrate sensitivity to demands of the poor for social justice in 20th century Latin America?

 

A) Demanding special infusions of charity from the Vatican that wiped out poverty in their parishes

B) Formulation of "liberation theology"

C) Reunification of Christianity in favor of orthodox Marxist socialism

D) Entering national elections, winning and implementing land reform policies

Definition
B) Formulation of "liberation theology"
Term

Which of the following nations did not succumb to military rule in post-WWII era?

 

A) Bolivia

B) Mexico

C) El Salvador

D) Argentina

Definition
B) Mexico
Term

Which of the following periods have been grouped together by world historians into a time called an "Age of Catastrophe" lasting from 1914-1945?

 

A) World War I, Great Depression, Cold War

B) Napoleonic Wars, World War I, World War II

C) World War II, Cold War, Post-Cold War era

D) World War I, Great Depression, World War II

Definition
D) World War I, Great Depression, World War II
Term

Which of the following trends were seen in the 20th century?

 

A) Rise and fall of communism and political indepdence for the former colonies

B) Rise and fall of communism and the eradication of global poverty

C) Eradication of global poverty and the onset of human-induced climate change

D) Slowed population growth in industrialized regions and uninterrupted economic growth

Definition
A) Rise and fall of communism and political indepdence for the former colonies
Term

What was the major motive behind the formation of the Triple Entente?

 

A) Free trade and tariff reduction

B) Coordinated efforts to subdue uprisings by colonized people

C) Fear of Germany's growing power, espeically naval power

D) Cultral exchange

Definition
C) Fear of Germany's growing power, especially naval power
Term

Which of the following best characterizes the transfer of power associated with the decolonization process?

 

A) Elite to masses

B) Women to men

C) Religious to secular

D) Elite to Elite 

Definition
D) Elite to Elite
Term

Which result of World War I did the most to spark nationalist movements in the colonized portions of the globe?

 

A) Destruction of European industrial capacity in the war forced colonies towards economic independence

B) British and French promises for self-rule made to colonized elites during the war were broken soon after

C) The Versailles settlement forced colonial powers to agree to timetables for colonial independence

D) Wartime industrial production greatly increased numbers of Western women working in fatories

Definition
B) British and French promises for self-rule made to colonized elites during the war were broken soon after
Term

Which event precipitated the formal creation of the state of Israel in 1947?

 

A) Multilateral U.S.-Soviet-Palestinian-Jewish negotiations

B) The Balfour Declaration

C) Arab League approval

D) UN sanctioned partition of Palestine

Definition
D) UN sanctioned partition of Palestine
Term

What development led to the explosion of electronic communication in the 1990s?

A) Governments in many nations relaxed their censorship of ideas and communication

B) Technology advances made communications devices, smaller, cheaper, and better

C) Many nations implemented huge programs to advance Internet, satellite, and cellular communication

D) Religious and cultural resistance to globalization virtually disappeared

Definition
B) Technology advances made communications devices, smaller, cheaper, and better
Term

Which company, founded in 1955, has been the most striking example of international cultural influence from the 1970s onward?


A) Nike

B) McDonalds

C) Ford

D) GE

 

Definition
B) McDonalds
Term

A new strategic arms treaty called ________ was negotiated between the superpowers in 1979.

A) SALT I

B) SALT II

C) START

D) ABM

Definition
B) SALT II
Term

In protest against the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union, the U.S....


A) boycotted the United Nations until the Soviets withdrew

B) threatened nuclear war and sent aircraft carriers to the Mediterranean

C) invaded Iraq, a staunch ally of the Soviet Union

D) boycotted the 1980 Moscow Olympics 

Definition
D) boycotted the 1980 Moscow Olympics 
Term

What does the term perestroika refer to?


A) A new freedom to comment and criticize the Soviet government

B) Economic restructuring and more leeway for private ownership

C) The Soviet space program

D) The establishment of a liberal democracy

Definition
B) Economic restructuring and more leeway for private ownership
Term

In which of the following nations did outright violence and revolution lead to the overthrow of an authoritarian communist leader?


A) Czechoslovakia

B) Poland

C) East Germany

D) Romania

Definition
D) Romania
Term

In 1988, Gorbachev encouraged a new parliament within his country called...


A) the League of Stalin

B) the People's Domain

C) the Congress of People's Deputies

D) the Duma

Definition
C) The Congress of People's Deputies
Term

This eastern European country pushed for economic liberalization in 1987 but was held back by the Soviet central state.


A) Hungary

B) Bulgaria

C) Albania

 

D) Poland

Definition
B) Bulgaria
Term

German reunification occurred in what year?


A) 1991

B) 1990

C) 1988

D) 1995

 

Definition
A) 1991
Term

Latvia, Estonia and ________ makeup the Baltic states.


A) Moldova

B) Turkey

C) Lithuania

D) Ukraine

Definition
C) Lithuania
Term

In 1991, Boris Yeltsin emerged as head of what major Soviet Republic?


A) Belarus

B) Russia

C) Ukraine

D) Georgia

Definition
B) Russia
Term

The former Soviet Union transformed into the...


A) Soviet Commonwealth

B) United States of Russia

C) Commonwealth of Independent States

D) European Union

Definition
C) Commonwealth of Independent States
Term

Yeltsin was succeeded as the leader of Russia by...


A) Tastin

B) Shovin

C) Putin

D) Tito

Definition
C) Putin
Term

The end of the cold war was associated with what large trend in the world at the end of the 20th century?


A) The rapid industrialization of the third world

B) The spread of multiparty democracy

C) The ending of world hunger 

D) A slow economic decline leading to a depression in 2005

Definition
B) The spread of multiparty democracy
Term

The First Iraq War of 1991 was in response to the Iraqi invasion of...


A) Israel

B) Kuwait

C) Syria

D) Iran

Definition
B) Kuwait
Term

The Persian Gulf War in 2003 was started by the invasion of what country?


A) Iran

B) Iraq

C) Kuwait

D) Afghanistan

 

 

Definition
B) Iraq
Term

In what year was the civil war in China decided by a Communist victory?


A) 1949

B) 1940

C) 1947

D) 1960

 

 

Definition
A) 1949
Term

Who headed the American occupation government of Japan?


A) Hap Arnold

B) Omar Bradley

C) Douglas MacArthur

 

D) Dwight D. Eisenhower

Definition
C) Douglas MacArthur
Term

In what year did the American occupation of Japan come to an end?


A) 1945

B) 1947

C) 1952

 

D) 1960

Definition
C) 1952
Term

In what way was the restoration of an independent Korea complicated?

A) Korea had become a colony of China, which refused to restore independence

B) Korea was divided into separate zones controlled by the U.S. and the Soviet Union

C) Korea's government was claimed by surviving members of the old monarchy

 

D) The former royal rulers of Korea wanted to be restored to power

Definition
B) Korea was divided into separate zones controlled by the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Term

Who was the first political leader of the Soviet-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Korea?


A) Syngman Rhee

B) Lee Ho Park

C) Kim Il-Sung

 

D) So Kim Chung

Definition
C) Kim Il-Sung
Term

Who commanded the United Nations troops who participated in the Korean conflict on behalf of the Republic of Korea?


A) Hap Arnold

B) Douglas MacArthur

C) Dwight D. Eisenhower

 

D) George Patton

Definition
B) Douglas MacArthur
Term

What Chinese leader established an autocratic government on Taiwan in 1948?


A) Sun Yatsen

B) Shi Zilin

C) Kim Il-Sung

 

D) Chiang Kai-shek

Definition
D) Chiang Kai-shek
Term

Which of the following economic powers of the Pacific Rim remained a European colony long after World War II?


A) Malaya

B) Indonesia

C) The Philippines 

D) Hong Kong

Definition
D) Hong Kong
Term

What was the weakness of the leadership of the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan in the 1980s?


A) Inability to provide economic growth

B) Corruption

C) Association with military policies of World War II

D) Adoption of a policy of nuclear armament

 

 

Definition
B) Corruption
Term

What Western label was applied to the close coordination of Japanese government and business for promotion of economic growth and export expansion since the 1950s?


A) Japan, Incorporated

B) Business, Japan

C) Toyota, Inc.

 

D) Sony United

Definition
A) Japan, Incorporated
Term

Hiraoka Kimitoke, popularly known as Yukio Misima, is best known for his...


A) performances on the Japanese zither

B) unique architectural style

C) novels and plays 

D) paintings of flowers

Definition
C) Novels and plays
Term

Which of the following represents a significant difference between Japanese and Western women in the later 20th century?


A) Women in Japan participated actively in leisure activities with their husbands

B) Japanese women had higher rates of divorce than their Western counterparts

C) The Japanese feminist movement was confined to a small number of intellectuals

 

D) Japanese women concentrated less on domestic duties than women in the West

Definition
C) The Japanese feminist movement was confined to a small number of intellectuals
Term

What nation in the Pacific Rim other than Japan was the most obvious example of the spread of new economic dynamism?


A) South Korea

B) North Korea

C) Vietnam

D) Malaya

 

 

Definition
A) South Korea
Term

In 1978 the United States government...


A) recognized Taiwan as a most-favored trading partner

B) severed its diplomatic ties with Taiwan and recognized the legitimacy of the communist government of mainland China

C) offered significant military aid to Taiwan in its continuing opposition to communism in Asia

D) supported Taiwan's invasion of Quemoy and Matsu

Definition
B) severed its diplomatic ties with Taiwan and recognized the legitimacy of the communist government of mainland China
Term

Which of the following statements concerning Chinese domestic policies during the 1950s and 1960s is most accurate?


A) Despite pledges made during the civil war, the Communist Party failed to undertake substantial land redistribution programs

B) With the introduction of the first five-year plan in 1953, the Communist leadership turned away from the peasantry

C) Increasingly Mao came to embrace the old Confucian concept of a bureaucratic elite as the means of government

D) The Chinese Communist leadership began a massive attempt to reeducate the peasantry and create an industrialized class

Definition
B) With the introduction of the first five-year plan in 1953, the Communist leadership turned away from the peasantry
Term

What Argentine revolutionary assisted in the overthrow of the Cuban government in 1956?


A) Carlos Obregon

B) Ernesto Ché Guevara

C) Fulgencio Batista

D) Enrique Ramirez

Definition
B) Ernesto Che Guevara
Term

Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the progress of democratization in Latin America during the 1980s?


A) Despite return to democratic government in many Latin American countries, problems with populist movements, threats from military leaders, inflation, and the drug trade weakened the new regimes

B) Once democratic governments were restored in much of Latin America, the influence of the U.S. in the region began to wane

C) The return of democracy to Latin America was so universal that military governments ceased to exist

D) Democratic governments in the 1980s ceased to be troubled by the existence of leftist, guerrilla movements

Definition
A) Despite return to democratic government in many Latin American countries, problems with populist movements, threats from military leaders, inflation, and the drug trade weakened the new regimes
Term

What Nicaraguan politician led an opposition to U.S. occupation until his assassination in 1934?


A) Augusto Sandino

B) Violeta Chamorro

C) Daniel Ortega

D) Juan Jose Arevalo

Definition
A) Augusto Sandino
Term

What led to the U.S. return to more aggressive policies regarding Latin America including direct military intervention following World War II?


A) The desire to contain communism and the cold war

B) The rise of many military-operated governments in the region.