Shared Flashcard Set


black social movements
Undergraduate 1

Additional History Flashcards




Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
a. First black on city council; he served as the representative of Harlem in Congress
b. Started the “don’t buy where you can’t work” campaign against white-owned businesses
i. “black faces must appear on Harlem milk wagon immediately or the milk concerns shall be boycotted
ii. “three hundred and fifty thousand consumers are not anything to be sneezed at and if anyone dares try to sneeze, we are killing him with the worst cold he ever had”—strength in unity
Walter White
a. Executive secretary of the NAACP
b. Half white and black, but his blue eyes and blonde hair masked his African American genes
c. His appearance helped him to investigate lynching and race riots
i. He revealed the Elaine Race Riot of 1919
1. It happened in Arkansas, where black sharecroppers organized a farmer’s union and whites retaliated with violence
2. 12 blacks were sentenced to death for the race riot
3. When White revealed the riot in the Chicago Daily News and the Crisis, the Supreme Court overturned the previous decision
Nedd Cobb
a. He was a hardworking sharecropper who owned his own cotton land, mules and car
b. He was also a fervor fighter for sharecroppers’ rights. As a result for defending his friend, he served at 13-year sentence
Goodman, Chaney, and Schwerner
a. Freedom Summer volunteers who were murdered
b. Many volunteers died as a result of the voter-registration, but this incident had media’s spotlight because it involved two white men
c. They were arrested while they were investigating a church bombing. After they were released from jail, they disappeared. Six weeks later, their dead bodies was found afloat in a nearby dam
Charles hamilton Houston
a. The lawyer who led the case of Brown vs Board of Education
b. The Man who killed Jim Crow
c. He came from a privileged background: father owned a law firm and mother was a teacher
d. He graduated from Amherst College
e. Later as the Vice Dean he reformed Howard Law School
i. He believed that blacks needed more black advocators
Fannie Lou Hamer
a. Female activist; member of the MFDP and SNCC
b. She was not afraid to speak up
c. Often times, she used her anecdotes (Winona incidence and how she was cheated into the sharecropping system as a child) to move her audience
i. During the 1964 Democratic Party National Convention, Hamer brought female attendants to tears
d. She was a victim of white supremacy, sharecropping, and political injustice
e. She is influenced by her mother to be a natural leader and take care of people around her
i. She risked her position as a timekeeper to give sharecroppers better share of their cottons
Rosa Parks
• “Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement”
• Member of NAACP
• December 1, 1955
o Montgomery, Alabama – Parks refused to give up her seat for a white passenger
o Not first of its kind
o Sparked Montgomery Bus Boycott
• Was found guilty; but appealed
E.D. Nixon
• Had previously been leading movements against segregation
• President of local NAACP chapter
o Saw bus boycott as a test for the community
• Organizer ministers
• Boycott to be led by: Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) and King
Jo Ann Robinson
• Head of Women’s Political Council;
• December 1, 1955 – stayed up to plan boycott on the following Monday
o Reverend Abernathy and other clergy helped reach out to community
• Member of MIA
Fannie Lou Hamer
• Voting rights activist, civil rights leader
• Helped organize Mississippi Freedom Summer
o Member of SNCC
o Followed the “Freedom Ballot Campaign”
• Became Vice-Chair of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
o Organized 1964 to challenge white dominated politics
o 1964 Democratic Convention in Atlantic City, NJ
 Challenged Lyndon B. Johnson
 Democrat Party offered 2 seats for concessions – was declined
o Influence of MDFP led to election of black leaders in Mississippi
Ella Jo Baker
• Activist beginning in 1930s
• Worked with NAACP (highest ranked woman)
o Field secretary, then director of branches
o Pushed for decentralization; focused on youth and women
o 1957, moved to Alabama to help organize
o Voter registration
o Left SCLC after Greensboro sit-ins to help student organizers
o “Godmother of SNCC”
o Joined with CORE to organize Freedom Rides
o SNCC split between direct action and voter registration
o Helped create Freedom Summer
o Huge advocate for human rights
o Criticized idea of powerful central leader
• Helped organize MFDP
o Attended conference in Atlantic City, 1964
• Acquired nickname “Fundi”
Martin Luther King
• Pastor – religious link
• Member of NAACP
• Became prominent after Montgomery Bus Boycott
o Took leadership, organized church community
o Stuck to nonviolence (Inspired by Gandhi, black church, and theologians)
• 1957 President of SCLC
• Led protest in Birmingham, voter registration drives in Alabama, etc.
• Directed March on Washington, D.C.
o 250,000 + people
o “I Have a Dream” speech
• Arrested and assaulted numerous times
• 1964 awarded Nobel Peace Prize
• Became increasingly radical later in life – turned to democratic socialism
o Focused on economic exploitation
o Felt U.S. needed a “revolution in values”
o Against U.S. occupation in Vietnam
• April 1968 assassinated in Memphis, TN
• Founder of SCLC
• Used nonviolence to pursue racial justice and equality
• Delivered the famous speech, “I have a dream” in 1963 during the March on Washington
John Lewis
• Influential SNCC leader
• As a student, organized sit-ins at segregated lunch counters in Nashville
• 1961 joined SNCC through Freedom Rides
• 1963 elected as SNCC chairman (held until 1966)
• 1963 helped plan and took part in March on Washington
• 1965 led marches across Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, AL
o “Bloody Sunday”
• 1987 assumed office in Congress (Georgia)
Stokely Carmichael
• 1960 took part in Freedom Rides
• 1964 joined SNCC
o Freedom Summer
o SNCC field organizer in Lowndes County, AL
 Blacks were majority
o 1966 replaced John Lewis as chairman
o 1967 severed ties (due to increasing black power movement)
• 1966 Meredith March
o Carmichael was arrested
 When released, gave a speech - coined term “Black Power”
 Began the fuel of separatism with civil rights leaders
• Honorary prime minister of Black Panthers
• Advocated Pan-Africanism
• 1969 moved to Guinea
• Changed name to Kwame Ture
Huey P. Newton
• Organized Black Panther Party for Self Defense (BPP) October 1966 with Bobby Seale
o Heavily influenced by Malcolm X
Bobby Seale
• Organized BPP with Huey P. Newton
• Part of “Chicago Eight”
o 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago
 Prior to and during convention, there were rallies, demonstrations, marches, etc.
 All in protest to President Johnson’s policies regarding Vietnam
o Large rally – 15,000 people at S. end of Grant Park
 Only anti-war assembly with permit from Chicago
 Clashes with police – use of mace, tear gas, batons
o Labeled as “police riot” – indicted 8 demonstrators, 8 police officers
o August 28, 1968
 Group attempted to march from Grant Park to convention center
• Relying on rumors that delegates were at Hilton, began marching there instead
• Police began to beat/arrest demonstrators and bystanders
o “YIPpie” demonstrator leaders incited
Bobby seale trial
 Seale verbally attacked judge – was bound and gagged
 Was severed from case, sentenced 4 years for contempt in court
 Became Chicago Seven – most mocked court decorum
• All found not guilty of conspiracy
• 2 acquitted, 5 convicted of crossing state lines with intent to riot
• Overturned in 1972
Malcolm X
• Chief spokesman of the Nation of Islam (NOI)
• Preached that whites are devils and advocated use of violence as a means of self-protection
• Met Fidel Castro when Castro visited Harlem in 1960
• Assassinated in New York in 1965 when he was delivering a speech
• The X in his last name replaced his slave master’s last name; it symbolized the African family that he never came to know
Elijah Muhammed
• Leader of NOI
• Preached that whites are devils
• Converted Malcolm X
• Later split with Malcolm X because Malcolm had too much spotlight on him
Shirley Chisholm
• Congresswoman 1969-1983
o First black woman in Congress
o Hired only woman, half back – felt more discrimination based on gender
• 1972: first major-party black candidate for President & first woman to run for Democratic candidacy
o “new era of political history”
• Wallace campaign
o 1971 presidential primary – Wallace was shot
o Chisholm visited him; he later helped her pass legislation to give domestic workers right to minimum wage
Assata Shakur
• Congresswoman 1969-1983
o First black woman in Congress
o Hired only woman, half back – felt more discrimination based on gender
• 1972: first major-party black candidate for President & first woman to run for Democratic candidacy
o “new era of political history”
• Wallace campaign
o 1971 presidential primary – Wallace was shot
o Chisholm visited him; he later helped her pass legislation to give domestic workers right to minimum wage
angela davis
• Member of Communist Party
o Fired from UCLA 1969
• On trial 1970-1972
o August 7, 1979 – Superior Court Judge Haley was abducted and murdered for trying to free a convict
o Firearms were used in Davis’ name – charged her as accomplice
o Fled California for 2 months but was caught in New York
 3rd woman on FBI’s Most Wanted
 Initially segregated from other prisoners
o 1972: found not guilty
• Involved in radical groups
o Still part of fight against prison industrial complex
anita hill
• 1991 Accused Thomas of sexual harassment
• Law professor at University of Oklahoma
• Had previously worked for Clarence Thomas when he headed the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission
• Became labeled as “nutty and slutty”
• Issue of sexual harassment came to the forefront after trial by the Senate
• Influenced African American Women in Defense of Ourselves
clarence thomas
• 1991 Thurgood Marshall retired from Supreme Court
• Conservative Thomas was chosen by President Bush
o Immediately controversial; NAACP and other organizations opposed the nomination
o Proceeded to Senate Judiciary Committee (vote split 7-7, nomination then continued on to the Senate)
• Moved to floor of Senate – Anita Hill came forward
o Accused of sexual harassment (discussions of sexual acts, pornographic films, etc.) after she had refused to date him
• 52-48 Thomas was chosen as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
o Viewed by many as a defeat
mumia abdul jamal
• Issue of police brutality and unfair treatment
• Age 15 – served as Minister of Information for Philadelphia chapter of BPP
• Then turned to radio broadcasting
• 1981 charged with killing police officer (convicted 1982)
o Had registered gun; never officially linked
o Arguably most debated and most well-known “Death Row prisoner”
• 20 years on death row
o 2001 – life imprisonment
o 2008 – Court of Appeals upheld murder conviction but ordered capital hearing over concerns that instructions to jury were unconstitutional
o 2009 – Supreme Court refused to hear appeal for new trial
jesse jackson
• Candidate for Democratic presidential campaign in 1984 and 1988
• He’s the second African American presidential candidate after Shirley Chisholm
• On his second attempt, he captured more votes but still failed
barack obama
• 2007: young first-term senator from Illinois
o Announced candidacy
o Mother was white; some questioned his racial authenticity
 Modern issue of identity crisis: is so-and-so “black enough?”
o Liberal progressive : emphasized issues regardless of color, class, or gender
• December 2007 – favored Hillary Clinton
• January 2008 – Iowa Caucus; defeated Clinton
o Continued to win – majorities among voters over 30, college-educated voters, and those earning over $50,000/yr
• November 4, 2008: beat Republican senator John McCain (nearly 53% popular vote)
• White majority is set to decline as Latinos, Asians, African Americans outnumber
• Strong belief in the possibilities in America
o Not blind optimism; hope with change and action
o Unyielding faith in decency and generosity of American people
great migration
• About half a million blacks migrated to industrial cities between 1916 and 1919
o Pull factor: loss of foreign laborers and immigrants during World War I, industrial cities like Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Detroit had high demand for African American labor
o Another pull factor: Homestead Acts raised hope for land ownership and new beginning
o Push factor: racism, lynching, mob violence, grandfather clauses in the South reminded African Americans of the bitter pass
o Power dynamics changed as a result of black migration
 Black public schools, communities, representatives appeared
 From communities came representatives that gave blacks unity and political favors
labor union
• African American labors were not organized because
o Of their skin color
o Lack of skills
• Lack of organization means they were used by capitalists as strike-breakers
o Thus create racial bitterness between Negroes and whites
tulsa race riot of 1921
• Tulsa, Oklahoma was home to affluent black citizens
• Dick Rowland—a black teen, was accused of assaulting a 17 year old female elevator operator
• Racial uneasiness set off violence
• 35 blocks were burned to ground because of the riot
fisk university riot of 1921
• A student led protest against president of the university Fayette McKenzie
• McKenzie like other universities that received funds for African American students were abided by those foundations to teach Jim Crow Laws and not to reject white supremacy
• DuBois believed such act was a form of bribery and corruption. When he was invited to give a speech on his daughter’s graduation ceremony, he stated “let no decent Negro send his child to Fisk until Fayette McKenzie goes”
• Students demanded more student administration over school affairs
montgomery bus boycott
• Took place in March 1, 1955
• Rosa Parks was arrested for not yielding her seat to a white man
• Activists of the bus boycott: Rosa Parks, E. D. Nixon, Jo Ann Robinson
o Nixon was the president of the NAACP in Alabama
o Robinson was a school teacher; she helped designed the flyer
• Martin Luther King Jr., was not involved in the boycott, but he helped organized people in Montgomery after Parks’ arrest
o He was the president of Montgomery Improvement Association
brown vs board education
• Charles Hamilton Houston is the man who killed Jim Crow when he brought the case to the Supreme Court
• The Supreme Court’s decision not only dismantled racial segregation in public schools but also other public areas, such as cinema, restroom, drinking fountain
• The 14th Amendment guaranteed that every citizen has equal rights
• Milestones that led to the success of this case:
o Gaines vs Missouri: States that have white schools must either integrate their public schools or establish a second school for blacks in that district
o In the 1940s, Robinson integrated baseball, Truman integrated the army in WWII
freedom summer
• Voter-registration campaign co-sponsored by CORE, NAACP, MFDP, and SNCC in Mississippi
• Many people who registered also joined the MFDP
o As a result of that, the MFDP delegation challenged the seating of the all white Democratic caucus. Though it failed to seat in more African American representatives, the MFDP put a ban on a racially discriminatory delegation in future Democratic party conventions
• Significance of Freedom Summer: led to the 1965 Voting Right Bill, which outlawed any tactics, such as Grandfather clause, literacy test and poll tax, that prevented people from voting
greensboro sit ins
• Started on February 2, 1960
• Led by Ezell Blair, Jr., Franklin E. McCain, Joseph A. McNeil, David L. Richmond
• Lunch counter sit-in was first started by four students from Agricultural and technical State University in North Carolina
o Purpose: desegregate lunch counters
Selma to Montgomery March
• A march for political freedom—desegregate political system, allow blacks to register and protect their rights with their ballots
• Organized by SNCC and SCLC; led by MLK Jr
• First march was on March 7, 1965 and there were some 600 participants, but they were attacked by local police force six blocks away from their starting point
• Two days later, MLK led a “symbolic” march
• Following MLK’s march, demonstrators secured Federal District Court Judge Frank M. Johnson Junior’s grant to march
• A few days after the March ended in Montgomery, President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965
Freedom Riders
• In May 1961, these riders or Civil Rights activists who rode interstate buses to test if interstate transportation is desegregated
• Previously, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) denounced the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision does not apply to interstate bus travel
• Although what they were doing was legal, they were challenged by Southern white supremacists. Many of them were arrested and harassed
• Famous freedom rider: Stokley Carmichael
• Involved organization: SNCC and CORE
watt riot of 1965
• Took place in Los Angeles
• Participants were protesting against police brutality
• Incident inflicted by Lee Minikus; he was DUI and arrested
• Onlookers increased in number and became violent
• First major violent protest took place on August 11 1965
detroit riot of 1967
• July 23, 1967 police raided an unlicensed after-hour bar on the 12th Street in Detroit
• Vandalism occurred right after police arrested the partygoers in the club. They smashed nearby cloth stores’ windows, looted stores and set fires…
• Michigan National State troops and United States Army were dispatched to put down riots
black radical congress
• March 1, 1997 – 35 veteran political activists met in Chicago
• 1998 – brought together both individuals and labor organizations
o Socialists, Communists, lesbian and gays, feminists, and revolutionary black-nationalists
o Including Manning, Robin Kelley, etc.
• June 19-21, 1998
o 2000+ activists attended meeting
o Established network of local committees, members involved
• No particular radical path
o Recognizes feminism, socialism, etc.
o Rejects black patriarchy and nationalism as a solution
o Believe in global awareness and struggle
BRC 11 Principles of Unity
o Recognize diverse historical tendencies in Black radical tradition
o Increased class polarization requires the need to ally ourselves with the most oppressed sectors
o Gender and sexuality cannot be recognized as solely personal issues
o Reject racial and biological determinism
o Must see through the struggle in global terms
o Need to meet people where they are while pushing for a larger vision that links all the individual struggles
o Must be democratic and inclusive, make room for constructive criticism and honest dissent
o Discussions to be informed not only by critiques of what exists, but with creative vision for the future
o Do not limit to electoral politics
o Must overcome divisions in the Black radical force
o Black radicals must build national congress of radical forces to strengthen radicalism as the voice of Black working and poor people
Freedom Agenda of BRC
o Fight for human rights
o Political democracy
o Advance beyond capitalism
o End super exploitation of southern workers
o Free public education
o End state terrorism
o Clean and healthy environment
Montgomery Bus Boycott
• Began in 1955 to oppose segregation on public transit
• On night of Parks’ arrest, Jo Ann Robinson organized a boycott
• Nearly entire black community supported the boycott
o Black taxi drivers lowered fares
o Mass meetings
• Leaders included: Martin Luther King, Jr.; Jo Ann Robinson, E.D. Nixon
• June 4, 1956
o Federal district court ruled Alabama’s laws unconstitutional
o November 13, 1956 – S. Court upheld ruling
• Provided Martin Luther King, Jr. with national attention
Hip Hop Summit Action
• Founded by Russell Simmons
o In response to critiques rightists and feminists about hip-hop music
• Hip-hop emerged in the Bronx in mid-1970s
o Challenged structural racism
o Rap music has become multimillion dollar business (turned mainstream)
Goals of Hip Hop Summit Action
• Hip-hop activism (term became popular in 1980s)
o Social critique of injustice
o Addresses issues like: poverty, police brutality, incarceration of juveniles, HIV/AIDS pandemic
goals of the hip hop summit action
o Freedom; social, political, and economic development and empowerment of families
o Equal justice without discrimination
o Total elimination of poverty, racism, racial profiling, violence, hatred and bigotry
o Highest quality of public education, health care
o Elimination of police brutality and unjust incarceration
o End and repeal of all repressive legislature
o Reparations
o Transformation into Nu America due to organization and mobilization of the hip-hop community at grassroots level
o Unity, mutual dialogue, program development, etc. – collective action within community through summits, conferences, workshops, etc.
o Advocacy of public polices in interest of hip-hop in front of Congress, state legislature, etc.
o Restoration of voting rights for those with felony convictions
o Awareness about HIV/AIDs
o Clean environment
World Conference against Racism
• World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and other Forms of Intolerance
o August 31-September 8, 2001 in Durban, South Africa
o Sponsored by the United Nations
o 8,000+ people from 160 countries
• Over 1,500 Black Americans; reps from U.S. State Dept. walk out in protest with Israeli delegation
• Escalated social movements by those of African descent in Third World countries
• Vienna Declaration and Plan of Action, 2001
o Acknowledging the Black Holocaust
 African slavery
 White supremacy ideals
 Lower health status – AIDS is human genocide
o Racism is a global phenomenon
 Media and new technologies are anti-black
 Environmental racism
o Restoring Africa, the Motherland
Hurricane Katrina
• Hit southern U.S. coastline on August 29, 2005
o Mississippi, SW Alabama, and Louisiana suffered most devastation
o Property damage, 1,000+ lives lost
• Levees breached, New Orleans was flooded
o Local residents went to Superdome and Convention Center
o Was left without adequate food, running water, or toilets
o Not enough options provided to the people
 Had fair warning; could have organized public transit, etc.
• Media presented racially biased stereotypes
• Homes have yet to be built
• Thousands still unemployed, homeless
o Now considered “lawless looters”
• Good areas are not used to house displaced people
o People are dying due to lack of organization
• Started in the late fifties and peaked in the mid-sixties with the help of Ella Jo Baker
• Goal: teach African Americans how to exercise their political rights
o Held registration campaigns in the black-belt areas of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi
 At Mississippi, Fannie Lou Hamer was moved by SNCC to devote herself into political movements
• Major movement: Freedom Summer of 1964 and Freedom Rides of 1961
• Left wing, radical activists in the Black Freedom movement
o The org believed that “integration was a means, not the end, to the realization of black freedom”
• They believed in encouraging local leaders to speak up
o Hamer was a local leader of the SNCC branch in Mississippi
• Gender issues: female members felt their opinions were not valued and they had little responsibility within the organization
MFDP—Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
• A pro-black political party in Mississippi founded by the SNCC
• The MFDP dismantled discriminatory practice in the Democratic Party. In the 1964 National Democratic Party Convention, the MFDP claimed that the seats for delegates for Mississippi was elected by a Jim Crow primary
o It failed to give MFDP representation, but a compromise was made: MFDP took two seats in the local caucus and no future delegation can be elected from discriminatory basis
CORE—Congress on Racial Equality
• Co-sponsor of Freedom Rides
• Founded in 1941 in Chicago
• Led by James Farmer
• Interracial, middle class members
• Often worked with local organizations
SCLC—Southern Christian Leader Council
• Organized in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr., in the aftermath of the Montgomery Bus Boycott victory
• Objectives: “achieving full citizenship rights, equality, and the integration of the Negro in all aspects of American life”
• Strategies: nonviolence and voter-registration campaign
• Have a predominantly southern black religious membership
Nation of Islam
• Founded by Wallace D. Fard
• Later led by Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X
• Condemned all whites as devils and favored establishment of a black nation
• Black people are the original race of humankind
• Fruit of Islam was NOI’s internal security force
Combahee River Collective
• 1974: formed by group of black feminists in Boston (writers and activists)
• “committed to struggling against racial, sexual, heterosexual, and class oppression”
• Addressed how racism, sexism, classism, and heterosexism perpetuate each other
o “the major systems of oppression are interlocking”
• Barbara Smith
o Author, organized the group
• Members came together to form: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press
o Formed by Smith under suggestion by member AUdre Lorde
o To publish books aimed at promoting writing of women of all color, race, age, class, etc.
o First publishing company run autonomously by women of color
• Combahee River Collective Statement
o Believe: women are inherently valuable, identity politics, liberation of all oppressed people
o Difficult to organize black feminists: not trying to fight oppression on single front
o Believe in collective process and nonhierarchical distribution of power
o Begin to publicly address racism in white women’s movement
National Black Feminist Organization (NBFO)
• Active 1973-1976
• Purpose: “to address ourselves to the particular and specific needs of the larger, but almost cast-aside half of the black race in Amerikka, the black woman.”
• Reflected many goals of the Combahee River Collective Statement
o Also created by some of the same people
• Felt white women had dominated feminist movement; women in civil rights leadership were downplayed
• Focused on interconnectedness: racism, sexism, classism, homophobia, etc.
• By 1974: 2000 members in 10 chapters
• Million Man March (1995)
o October 16, 1995 in Washington, D.C.
o For black men to atone and move forward
 Unite against economic and social ills
o Criticized – why a male event when planned by both?
o Was a peaceful event
o Followed by Million Mom March, Million Woman March, etc
• March on Washington on Jobs and Freedom
o August 28, 1963
o Over 250,000 demonstrators went to Washington, D.C.
o Largest public protest
o Helped win Civil Rights Act of 1964
o Martin Luther King’s speech “I Have a Dream”
o Symbol of the civil rights movement (unity and strength of numbers)
• Howard University (2005)
o Protest about money for education
o Called for by progressive Black student union
Black Arts Movement
• Art Ensemble of Chicago
o Progressive (avant-garde) jazz group
o Integration of music styles, costumes, face paint – visual spectacle as well as auditory
• Leroi Jones
o February 22, 1965: announced plan to create the Black Arts Repertory Theater and School (BARTS)
o Black art as a vehicle for political expression (not new)
 Harlem Renaissance
o Poetry, prose, plays,
• BARTS drew in young writers and artists that put together “literary pursuits and community activism”
o Ex. Sonia Sanchez, Larry Neal, Rolland Snellings
o Shift in black freedom struggle – creativity to educate and politicize Harlem’s poor
o Music performance, dance, playwriting, etc.
Cosby v. Dyson
• Early 20th century – debate between social policy researchers and educators over “criminalization of black youth”
o Statistics stigmatized African American youth as antisocial, delinquent, and potentially violent
o Affected administration treatment of black youth
• Social conservatives and religious leaders argued social devastation as the result of irresponsible behavior
o Criticized language and elements of black popular culture as nihilistic
• Bill Cosby
o Addressed NAACP-sponsored event celebrating 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Ed
o Attributed socioeconomic inequalities to antisocial behavior, criminality, and absence of parental control
 Ridiculed clothing, language, and hip-hop cultural style
o Conservative and critical
o Personality responsibility and solution comes from same place
• Michael Eric Dyson
o Felt Cosby ignored shifts in economy that suited some better than others
o Admonitions to “stay in school” do not help failing schools
o Responsibility and solution cannot always come from same place
o Brown v. Board of Ed had insufficient change
 Inner cities still fight for funding
 “Ebonics” – advocates claim it helps learn “standard” English while infusing dialects and “native tongues”
o Structural barriers hinder educational experiences of poor blacks
Black Power
• Various organizations
• Individuals
• Continuation from civil rights
• Break from civil rights traditions
• Attica Prison Riots (1971)
o Inmates in Attica Correction Facility in New York took over the prison
o They demanded better prison treatment
 They were given only one roll of tissue paper per month
 Allowed one shower per week
• Prison Industrial complex
all businesses related to correction facility, such as construction and security companies, vendors, and labor contractors
o Profit is destroying the goal of ‘correcting’ inmates as private companies only seek to lock people in instead of making them into useful people and releasing them afterwards
o Prison labor= third world labor; they are both cheap and easy to attain
 No worry of health insurance, union, strike
Supporting users have an ad free experience!