Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Bacteriology Final
na
67
Veterinary Medicine
Professional
11/03/2010

Additional Veterinary Medicine Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

Blastomyces dermatitidis

Definition

- Eastern and central US

- natural reservoir in soil

- in dogs and humans, sometimes siamese cats

- inhalation of conidia

- grows in lung in yeast form, spread via hematogenous

- bone can become infected

- chronic cough, shortness of breath

-  Dx by culture

- Tx antifungal agents

- frequently will recur

Term

 

 

 

Histoplasma capsulatum

Definition

- midwestern US

- in soil, associated with bird and bat droppings

- conidia are inhaled, yeast form grows in lungs

- granuloma formation, disease similar to blastomyces

Term

 

 

 

Coccidioides immitis

Definition

- in hot desert soils of Southwest US

- " Valley Fever"

- inhalation of arthroconidia

- in sheep, cattle, dogs, and humans

- fatal

- lymph nodes- granulomas, can go to liver, brain, spleen, bones and kidneys

Term

 

 

Aspergillus

opportunistis mycoses

A. fumigatus

Definition

- most common in poultry and caged birds, sheep, calves and horses also involved

- can cause abortions

- inhalation of conidia

- grow in animal as hyphae

- hematogenous spread-inflammation of bld vessel, emboil

- blood stained sputum-frequently observed

-can cause hypersensitivity reactions

- AFLATOXINS--cause necrosis, cirrhosis, carcinomas in liver---don't sniff on a plate!

Term

 

 

Candida

opportunistic myocoses

Candida albicans

 

Definition

-yeast form infective and found in animals

-starts as commensal-->overgrowth-->cutaneous mucosal surfaces- GI and genital, can become systemic

- also normal flora of oral cavity, GI, and genital tracts

- immunosuppressed individuals predisposed

- Virulence factors: adhesins, extracellular proteases, lipases/phospholipases

-white stuff on tongue!

Term

 

 

Crytpococcus neoformans

Definition

- in pigeon droppings

- in soil as mold form, yeast form is in infections, capsule

required for disease

- inhalation of mold form, or direct invasion of skin poss.

- hematogenous spread

- DOGS AND CATS infection in pharynx and paranasal sinuses

- lesion on head and neck

-CNS common site, low MW nitrogen containing compounds needed for growth

- little inflammation, capsule in tissue-inhibits phagocytosis

-produces melanin--protects fungal cells

Term

 

Streptococcus

Definition

-Gram (+), facultative anaerobe, chains of cocci

-catalase (-)

-opportunistic pathogen by commensal microflora and cause suppurative infection

Term

 

Streptococcus

Definition

Pathogenesis:
-Capsule - hyaluronic acid (a polysaccharide polymer)
-Complex, heterogeneous, dynamic cell envelope
-Surface fibrils for host cell attachment (M protein)
-easily spread thru tissues due to Streptokinase which digests fibrin cots and inhibits walling off of bacteria
-produce cytotoxins—streptolysins, form membrane pores and lyse PMN’s
-but doesn’t survive within phagocyte, inhibits uptake via M protein and hyaluronic capsules

Term

 

 

 

Streptococcus

Definition

Virulence Factors—Insoluble:adhesins

- F protein and M protein

Term

Streptococcus agalactiae (C)

Definition

 

-common cause of bovine mastitis, colonize milk duct, persistent infection

-Beta hemolytic

-treat with antibiotics parenteral or intrammammary route

Term

 

 

Streptococcus zooepidemicus (C)

Definition

-commensal in many animal species

-Most common cause of wound infections in horses

-can localize to joints and cause stiffness and pain

-Frequently a 2ndary invader following URI in young foals

Term

 

 

Streptococcus equisimilis (C)

Definition

-freq cause of suppurative arthritis in young pigs

-transmitted from genital tract of sow thru umbilicus

-Causes: anorexia, fever, swelling of joints, lameness

Term
Streptococcus equi (C)
Definition
aka strangles
Term
Streptococcus equi (C)
Definition

-important in horses

-suppurative infection of the URT and draining lymph nodes

-very contagious

Transmission: horse to horse via oral/nasal, ingestion, inhalation

Term
Streptococcus equi (C)
Definition

Multiplication and spread: attaches to epithelial cells after entry via oropharynx, invades thru mucosa, spread via lymph (submandibular and retropharyngeal) causing abscess formation

-streptolysins kill phagocytes, and Hyaluronic acid capsules and M proteins are antiphagocytic factors

Clinical signs: about 3-14 days post exposure

-loss of appetite, fever, purulent nasal discharge, pharyngeal area is painful, pharyngeal swelling--inflammation is so bad it obstructs the airway it causes noisy, rapid, dyspnea---“Strangles”

Treatment: Penicllin, drain lymph nodes

Term

 

 

 

Streptococcus Suis (D)

Definition

* zoonotic in pig farmers—meinigitis, vertigo, permanent hearing loss

-causes meningitis and septicemia in young pigs

-colonize the tonsils, nasal mucosa

-predisposing overcrowding in cold weather and poor ventilation

-Type 1 in baby pigs, more invasive

-Type 2 in older pigs

Treatment: Penicillin

Term

Condidia

(Macro or Micro in Dermatophytosis)

Definition
An asexual spore produced at the tip or side of the hypha
Term

 

 

Chlamydia felis

 

 

Definition

 

 

-Gram negative rod

-causes conjunctivitis in cats, pneumonitis in kittens

 

Term

 

 

Chlamydia psittaci

 

Definition

- gram negative rod

- causes anorexia, depression, nasal and ocular discharge, greenish yellow diarrhea in Turkeys!

- Necropsy: lung congestion, air sacculitis, pericarditis, hepatomegaly, spleenomegaly

- # 1 zoonotic problem in Turkeys

- people inhale dust/ aerosol droplets

Term

 

 

Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum

Definition

- enzootic abortion in sheep

- damage of placenta causes late stage abortion in sheep, retained placenta, vaginal discharge, fever, thick and clay colored cotolydons

- can also cause polyarthritis in sheep

-lambs can get pneumonia and CNS disease

Term

 

 

R. rickettsia

Definition

- Causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

- dogs and humans

- Clinical Signs: high fever, hemorrhagic mm's, painful joints and lymph nodes, CNS sxs, Kidney and heart failure

Term

 

 

Coxiella burnetti

Definition

- Causes Q fever

- Ruminants and humans

- inhale, ingest, or arthropod (tick bite)

- can be in mammary gland (zoonotic) up to 32 months

- can cause abortions

Term

 

Rickettsia

pathogenesis

Definition

- hematogenous entry

- proliferates in endothelial cells and phagocytes

- escapes the phagolysosome

- causes cell lysis resulting in vascular damage

Term

 

Coxiella

Pathogenesis

Definition

- hematogenous entry

- proliferates in endothelial cells and phagocytes

- proliferates in phagolysosome

- causes cell lysis resulting in vascular damage

Term

 

 

 

Ehrlichia canis

 

Definition

- monocytic ehrlichiosis

- long incubation up to 3 weeks, remain carriers 29 mths

- fever, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia

Term

 

 

Neorickettsia helminthoeca

Definition

- salmon poisoning disease

- from liver fluke infestation of nanophytes salmoncola

Term

 

 

Anaplasma marginale

Definition

- bovine anaplasmosis

- can see anaplasma in RBCs it forms an occlusion along the margin of the cell

Term

 

 

Mycoplasm hyopneumoniae

Gram (-)

Definition

 

Sxs: dry hacking cough, few mortality, 25-30% morbidity,  slow growth rate

- lesions are cranioventral in lung—primary infection

- bacteria adhere to tracheal cilia & destroy via oxidases

-stimulates cytokines and draws in immune cells, causes peribronchilymphocytic hyperplasia, the nodules around the bronchi compress the

Sampling: from lung, tracheal/bronchial swabs, nasal swabs

Transmission: spread in the air


Term

 

 

Mycoplasm hyopneumoniae

Definition

 

Testing: PCR to check for antigen look for mycoplasm DNA in sample or ELISA shows exposure not if the animal has developed immunity or not.

 

Treatment: Macrolides (lincomycin) to inhibit protein synthesis, prevent with vaccine or decrease severity of infection.

Term

 

 

 

Brachyspira hyodysentarie

Definition

-Gram (-) spirochete, obligate anaerobe but oxygen tolerant

- “Swine Dysentery”

- pig with bloody diarrhea, results in death or chronic form of inflammation of mucosa of LI, cecum, and rectum, stops at the ileocecal junction, edematous colon, petechia in mucosa only affecting the Large intestines---results in malabsorption disease

Transmission: fecal/oral, fomites, mice, flies?

 

Term

 

 

 Brachyspira Hyodysentariae

Definition

Sampling: feces, fixed tissue and fresh

Treatment: Macrolides---lincomyci, NO vaccine

-clean swine lagoon pits

Term

 

 

Mycobacteria

Definition

-Gram aerobic (+) rod shaped bacteria

-acid fast bacillus within macrophages on stain, saprophytic and pathogenic lifestyles

- has outer mycolic acid in their cell wall  with a little peptidogylcan

-outer mycolic acid retains acid fast stain, and give protection and resistance

Term

 

 

 

Mycobacterium bovis *zoonotic

Definition

-causes bovine tuberculosis

-natural reservoirs are captive elk, deer, bison

-pasteurization may not kill organism

Transmission: most common-- Inhale, ingest

-Organism disseminates via lymph and lodges in lungs, spleen, liver

-Localized lesions of lymph nodes of the head and lungs are also noted

-Progression is slow and requires 1-5 years before clinical

signs become apparent.

Term

 

 

 

Mycobacterium bovis

Definition

Clincal Signs: appear in late stage disease coughing, emaciation, dyspnea, increased respiration, nodules on organs

Term

 

 

Mycobacterium bovis

Definition

Diagnose: culture or impression smear

Tuberculin skin test—caudal fold test followed by comparative cervical test

-          Type IV hypersensitivity reaction


Treatment: none for cattle because it is zoonotic, depopulate

Term

 

 

 

 

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Definition

 

 

 

- Causes Johne’s Disease

- in domestic ruminants, wildlife, and possibly humans (Chron’s disease)

-stimulates growth in the intestines causing malabsorption of nutrients

Term

 

 

 

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Definition

Transmission: Ingestion of contaminated feces is the highest form of transmission but also shed in milk, urine, and semen

Clinical Signs: Takes 1-3yr progression of disease to see CS

– Thickening of the intestinal wall due to epithelial cell proliferation

–SEVERE WEIGHT LOSS, Emaciation despite normal appetite

– Swelling of regional lymph nodes (org within macrophages)

--Lymph nodes show caseous necrosis in goats

– Coat becomes dry and rough

“Bottle jaw”, a mandibular edema caused by protein loss

– Chronic or intermittent diarrhea

Term

 

 

 

 

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Definition

 

Diagnosis: Fecal culture, Serum ELISA, DTH test using johnin, but don’t see accuracy until late stage

Treatment: NONE, depopulate due to poss zoonotic

Term

 

Clostridium perfringens

Definition

 

lamb dysentery

pulpy kidney disease (enterotoxemia/overeating disease)

spore forming Gram (+)

Term
Clostridum Perfringens
Definition

-Causes Gas gangrene

-Yellow Lamb Disease

-depression, pale mucous membranes, anemia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, death 6-12hrs of sxs

-Lamb dysentery

-Pulpy kidney disease—enterotoxemia in sheep and goats, caused by epsilon toxi

-free living in the soil and commensals in GI and oral cavity

Term
Clostridium chauvoei
Definition

In ruminants

-Blackleg (myositis, gas gangrene), muscle necrosis

-in the soil, either thru open wound or ingestion, or as teeth are lost in young cattle

-tissue damage due to alpha toxin

Treatment/control: vaccination and penicillin

Diagnosis: FA of tissue

Term
Clostridium Septicum
Definition

-Malignant edema in sheep

-tissue invading, tissues are filled with gelatinous exudates (dissolved muscle and connective tissue)

-no gas produced

Diagnosis: FA of tissue

Treatment/control: Vaccine and penicillin

Term
Clostridium hemolyticum
Definition

-Red Water Disease—bacillary hemoglobinuria

-associated with liver infarcts from liver flukes

Diagnosis: FA of liver

Treatment: eliminate liver flukes/snails, vaccinate, penicillin

Term
Clostridium Novyi
Definition

-Gas gangrene in man, cattle, and sheep and “Big head” in rams caused by butting

-Black disease (infectious necrotic hepatitis)

-organism in soil and in the intestinal tract of herbivores

Diagnosis: FA of liver

Treatment: Eliminate flukes, snails, vaccination

Term
Clostridium colinum
Definition

-ulcerative enteritis or quail disease

- occurs in birds, quail

-natural infection via oral route

-lodges in liver—diffuse necrosis

Term
Clostridium spiroforme
Definition

- entertoxemia of rabbits and lab rodents

-antibiotic associated

-cecum is massively dilated

Term
Clostridium difficile
Definition

-pseudomembranous enterocolitis, due to pseudomembrane plaques on the colonic mucosa

-lab animals –guinea pigs

-Antibiotic associated

Diagnosis: toxins ELISA test

Treatment: Vancomycin

Term
Clostridium piliforme
Definition

******Gram (-) spore forming*********

-Tyzzer’s disease

- in rodents, due to stress

Diagnosis: Organism in gram stain, liver lesions

Treatment: broad-spectrum antibiotics in the liver

Term