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APUSH Final 1
Objective Terms
10th Grade

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Puritan motives for settlement

-religious freedom: King Charles I was making things difficult in England, both religiously and politically

-came in families, not only males, to build a "city upon a hill":

  • deeply religious, socially tight-knit, and politically innovative culture
  • attempted to create a "nation of saints": an intensely religious, thoroughly righteous community designed to be an example for all of Europe
Differences between motives of Virginia and Massachusetts for settlement
-Massachusetts=religion, Virginia=capitalism (get rich quick)
-M=families, V=single males who could handle wilderness
-M=aristocrats created working democracy, V=local aristocracies
-M=strict about religion
Anne Hutchinson

-against the staunch religious orthodoxy of Puritanism

-her popularity and charisma created a schism in the Boston church which threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England

-hosted women at her house once a week, provided commentary on recent sermons, and shared her religious views, including criticism of many local ministers

-eventually banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony and went to Plymouth Colony


Roger Williams

-early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state

-wanted to be a minister but didn't like the churches in America--they followed the Anglican Church too closely

-began colony of Providence Plantation in R.I. as refuge for religious minorities

-started first Baptist Church in America, but left it soon after, saying "God is too great to be housed under one roof"

-became a seeker--person with no official religion

a system of political and economic policy, evolving with the modern national state and seeking to secure a nation's political and economic supremacy in its rivalry with other states.
import a little, export a lot--establishes a favorable balance of trade
-Britain's system of trade with the colonies in order to improve their own economy
-didn't work for colonists because they lost a lot of money
Navigation Acts
-all of colonies' trade must be done with British ships
-all foreign trade between colonies and any country besides Britain must be done through Britain--so things must be shipped from colonies-->Britain-->destination
Penn's Holy Experiment
-William Penn's term for his ideal government
-Quakers, Jews, Lutherans, Anglicans, etc.=almost complete religious freedom/tolerance
-utopian dream
John Peter Zenger trial
-American publisher/journalist, published newspaper called the "New York Weekly Journal"
-published articles that complained about governor William Cosby and claimed he was corrupt
-was put in jail for publishing articles even though he didn't write them
-lawyer for trial was Andrew Hamilton, convinced jury it was obstruction of liberty (prerequisite to freedom of press)
Religious Toleration in different colonies
-New England colonies: Puritanism, little religious tolerance
-Middle Colonies: religious freedom/tolerance
-South: Mostly Anglican or Baptist, religion wasn't strongly enforced because people were too spread out to go to church, had a lot of religious freedom
-Colonies without religious freedom: Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut
Colonial attitude towards Britain in 1750's
French and Indian War
-War in Europe spread to America--Britain was trying to take over French land
-Indians allied with France because they were scared Britain would try to take over their land
-War ended when British General Wolffe conquered Quebec
-Treaty of Paris=peace treaty, gave most of French land to England
Proclamation of 1763
-restricted expansion of colonial territory--colonists weren't allowed to settle west of Appalachians, and settlers were removed from Indian land
-claimed it was to prevent war between Indians and colonists, really it was just to ensure that Britain could maintain control over the colonies--if people started moving west, they would become self-sufficient and no longer depend on Britain and would break away
Stamp Act
-first direct tax imposed by Britain on the colonies--imposed to pay for war damages
-passed in 1765
-Every newspaper, pamphlet, and other public and legal document had to be printed on stamped paper
-stamped paper cost money
-colonies got upset and boycotted British goods and attacked the people sent to enforce the tax
-it was repealed in 1766
Boston Tea Party
-Britain imposed tax on tea, so Sons of Liberty boarded three British ships and tossed 342 crates of tea into Boston Harbor in 1773
-similar things happened in other colonies
-colonies ended up boycotting tea
Thomas Paine, Common Sense
-Thomas Paine wrote pamphlet called Common Sense:
-demanded complete independence from Britain
-strong case against monarchy and inherited privelege
-most widely distributed pamphlet in American history at that time--read by rich as well as common people
Declaration of Independence
-written in 1776 to declare their independence and to explain why they were fighting for it
-signed July 4, 1776
-refrained from citing specific acts because otherwise other countries would have to find out what those acts were to realize Britain was being unfair
-all men are created equal, all men have certain God-given rights, including life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness
-if government gets in the way of these rights, the people have the right to change or abolish it
England won't let colonies pass laws, won't allow colonist representation in gov, won't let us choose judges and won't let us have jury, quartering act, won't let us trade with other countries, taxation without representation, etc.
-written by Thomas Jefferson, signed by Founding Fathers
French Treaty of Alliance, 1778
-France and colonies formed alliance against Britain
-US would help France if England attacked
-France nor the United States would make peace with England until colonies gained recognized independence
Source of colonial army, American Revolution
-local militias and other troops under control of individual states
-led by George Washington
Battle of Saratoga
-turning point in Revolutionary War
-US troops led by General Gates and General Arnolds
-upon US victory, France declared recognition of USA as independent country and fully supported the war
Treaty of Paris, 1783
-officially ended the Revolutionary war
-signed in Paris by Franklin, Adams, and Jay
-under treaty, Britain recognized US as independent country and agreed to remove all troops
-set new borders for USA
Social Results of American Revolution
-got rid of English land-inheritance laws
-eliminated strict classes--social mobility
-more people could vote
-more people could own land
-most states abolished import of slaves
-English-born people were no longer seen as "higher class" than American-born people
Articles of Confederation--weaknesses
-no national gov--became every state for themselves
-no federal courts=couldn't fairly solve inter-state issues
-no national currency=trouble trading and inflation
-no national army
-no taxes=government and colonies are broke and can't pay off debts
Northwest Ordinances
-Land agreement of 1787 that expanded
US territory to include Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota
-first organized territory of USA
Shays' Rebellion
-farmers wanted to be paid for their services in the Revolutionary War
-illustrated that under Articles the national government was powerless to raise money to pay back the debt or pay back the soldiers because needed unanimous vote from all states to pass any law
-convinced people that stronger federal government was needed
State constitutions--main provisions
Constitutional Convention
-held in 1787 to discuss issues with the Articles of Confederation
-wrote new document=the Constitution
-tried to make things fair for small/big states
-led by Washington, Madison took notes
-had to have majority of states approve new Constitution
-held in Philadelphia
- based off Madison's Virginia Plan combined with NJ plan: Senate and House of Representatives
Main Differences between Articles of Confederation and Constitution
-Articles didn't allow national taxes or national army
-Constitution created three branches of gov
-Articles only gave each state one vote
-Under Articles, decisions had to be unanimous, Constitution requires majority vote
-Articles gave state govs almost complete power, Constitution made good balance between state gov and federal gov
3/5 Compromise
-each slave counted as 3/5 of a person when counting people per state for taxation and representation in H of R
-helped South because it increased their population and therefore their representation in the H of R
-compromise because North didn't want slaves to count, so they only counted as 3/5 of a person
Great Compromise
-Compromise between Virginia Plan (which suggested representatives in Congress be based off population of state) and New Jersey Plan (which suggested representation in Congress be equal regardless of state population)
-created Congress with two houses: House of Representatives (based off population) and Senate (two representatives per state)
-people against Constitution because they were afraid of giving federal gov too much power
-included John Hancock and Sam Adams
Federalist Papers
-knew some people would oppose to Constitution and rights it granted the federal government and started campaigning to gain public support for ratification of Articles
-85 letters to NY newspapers to convince New Yorkers to support ratification of Constitution
-written because most people were in doubt
-explained changes that were going to be made
-New York agreed and other states followed
Proclamation of Neutrality
-issued by George Washington in 1793, stated that USA was neutral in war between France and Britain
-opposed by Jefferson/Republicans
-supported by Hamilton/Federalists
Hamilton's Financial Program
-Fund War Debt--should pay debt back in full to establish credit, federal gov should take responsibility for state debts also
-some states opposed because they
had less debt than others so thought
it was unfair for them to have to pay
-National Bank--create national currency, bank can hold gov's money and also people's money, will keep steady currency value, give out loans, etc.
-some people argued it was
-Whiskey Excise--put in place to control people on the frontier who were ignoring laws--ended up leading to Whiskey Rebellion
-Protective Tariff--didn't end up being as high as Hamilton wanted
Pinckney Treaty
-Thomas Pinckney dispatched to Spain
-Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel (the northern border of Florida, a Spanish possession)
-Spain granted Americans the right to deposit goods for transshipment at New Orleans
-Spain agreed to this because they saw USA was developing a good relationship with Britain (one of Spain's rivals) and wanted to keep Britain unbalanced by forming a good relationship with America
Eli Whitney
-created the cotton gin
-didn't get a good school education but for college he went to Yale
-his invention revolutionized the cotton industry: used to take hours to separate seeds from cotton, now machine did a 10x better job in a much shorter time
-also found way to machine-manufacture muskets so that they all had same-sized parts so that parts could be interchangeable
Causes of Federalist Decline
-were unorganized and didn't have a good candidate to run against Jefferson (running for reelection)
-Hamilton died which left Federalists without a strong leader
-opposed to war of 1812, but when Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans they lost support
-Jefferson (Democratic-Republicans) stood up for the commonpeople, and convinced people that Federalists were only helping the rich
-forced to pass the Alien and Sedition Acts which violated first amendment (gave gov right to remove "dangerous" non-americans and made it a crime to write false/scandalous/malicious articles)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
-written by Madison and Jefferson
-wanted to nullify [in their state] laws that were unconstitutional--> mainly Alien and Sedition Acts
-nothing was nullified, A&S Acts were repealed
-South Carolina tried to use their wording later when they wanted to nullify a law in their state
Attitude of Founding Fathers on political parties
-Washington and the Founding Fathers were against political parties:
-thought political parties would take over and get so competitive that they wouldn't do things for the good of the people
-felt you should serve country for a brief period of time to help them and then retire and let someone new come in
-with political parties, even if someone new comes in the ideas are still the same
Revolution of 1800
-Federalists lost control of government when Jefferson was elected
-Jefferson had gathered supporters: farmers, shopkeepers, workers, etc.
-he treated everyone equally, made himself seem like a commonperson
Louisiana Purchase
-made by Jefferson, he was worried it was unconstitutional but bought it anyway using Elastic Clause
-really only wanted to buy New Orleans port but French (Napoleon Bonaparte) offered him all of Louisiana Territory
-Monroe and Du Pont responsible for negotiations
-doubled size of USA
-all or part of 15 different current states
Marbury vs. Madison
-Adams lost election to Jefferson
-appointed "Midnight judges" right before his term ended in order to retain some Federalist power in the government
-Madison was Secretary of State, Marbury was appointed justice of the peace
-Mabury wanted SC to force appointments of Federalist judges to be delivered, went to Supreme Court against Madison
-Marshall ruled in favor of Madison because forcing Secretary of State to deliver appointments was unconstitutional
John Marshall
-Chief Justice
-helped lay basis for American constitutional law
-made Supreme Court a coequal branch of government
-was a Federalist
-served as Chief Justice for over 30 years--longest-serving Chief Justice
-made it the judicial branch's responsibility to decide if a law was unconstitutional
Causes of War of 1812
-Britain attacking US ships in their own territory
-taking American sailor and claiming they're British traitors
-Embargo--Jefferson forbade all trade with Britain=bad for merchants
-British in Canada were supplying Indians with weapons to attack Americans
Consequences of War of 1812
-status quo ante bellum
-psychological independence--Americans gained confidence knowing they won another war against Britain
-stopped British supply of weapons to Indians
Clay's American System
-national bank--foster commerce, maintain stable currency
-tariff--protect and promote American industry
-roads and canals subsidized by government--'internal improvement' to make national trade easier
Missouri Compromise
-Missouri (part of Louisiana Territory) wanted to become a [slave] state
-there were 12 slave states and 12 free states--North opposed to MO because it would give slave states more power in Congress
-Compromised: Maine became a free state and Missouri became a slave state so they didn't upset balance
-drew 36 30' line to divide land between slave and free land
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
-protest against Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations, which hurt South's trade because of tax on international goods)
-stated that if Tariff wasn't repealed, South Carolina would secede from the USA
-started the idea that a state can reject a federal law--based off Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
-written by John Calhoun
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
-1831 Supreme Court Case
-Cherokee brought case to court complaining Georgia was depriving them of rights
-Supreme Court said they have no jurisdiction because Cherokee are a dependent nation on the USA
-lacked standard to sue because they'renot foreign nation
Trail of Tears
-forced relocation of Indian tribes from their homelands(mainly Cherokee Indians from Virginia) to Oklahoma ("Indian Territory")
-supported by federal gov and Andrew Jackson, sent in American troops to force them out
-many died on the way
Monroe Doctrine
-written by James Monroe
-stated that:
-no European nations could try to
colonize anywhere in North America
-any attempt by foreign countries to
interfere in the Western hemisphere
would be viewed as an attack on
-America would not interfere with
European affairs or with preexisting
European colonies
-worried that Spain was trying to take over Latin American colonies, so America allied with Britain: Britain trades with LA colonies so they don't want Spanish to take over, USA owns Latin Colonies so they don't want Spanish to take over
Andrew Jackson
-7th president of the USA
-vetoed Clay's recharter of national bank and ended up destroying USA's economy
-led Democratic Party
-won election of 1824 but not by majority, Adams ended up being chosen by Congress, accused Adams and Clay of Corrupt Bargain
-paid off entire national debt
-created spoils system--leaders were replaced with their friends/loyalists
-got rid of most Federalist government workers and replaced them with his friends
-Nullification Crisis because of Tariff of Abominations
-Indian Removal
-first president from the West
Jacksonian Democracy
-Democratic Party (against Republicans/Whigs)
-believed all white males should be able to vote
-said they should expand all the way from Atlantic Ocean to Pacific
-Spoils System
-president had way too much power=almost not a democracy
-vetoed a lot of legislations
-Force bill-can use whatever force necessary to collect tariff
Bank War and its consequences
-Clay tries to recharter bank 4 years early to make it a factor in the presidential election
-Jackson's friends are the commonpeople--he doesn't want the bank because it doesn't help them, also Jackson had problems paying back loans to bank earlier in life, they reposessed his property=turns him aginst bank
-Jackson vetoes bank for personal reasons, not because it's unconstitutional
-took all the gov's money out of the bank and put it in banks in the west
-used this as backup to make paper money
-caused inflation
-"hard money"--decided any debts less than $20 must be paid in gold or silver
-ruined economy
Seneca Falls Convention
-held in 1848
-first women's rights convention
-started by radical Quaker women in NY along with non-Quaker Elizabeth Cady Stanton
-discussed law and women's role in society
-some men were at convention also
-began campaign for women's right to vote
-Declaration of Sentiments (written by Elizabeth Stanton)--similar to the Declaration of Independence but includes women's rights
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