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11th Grade

Additional History Flashcards




John Peter Zenger
German American newspaper publisher and printer
His acquittal of libel charges in New York City (1735) established a legal precedent for freedom of the press
The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Warren reinvigorated free press rights; the case of New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) strengthened the protection of the press against libel cases brought by public figures
The First Great Awakening 
A series of emotional religious revivals occuring throughout the colonies and prevalent in New England
Preachers proclaimed a message of personal repentance and faith to avoid hell
Suggested an equality between an authority (God) and a fixed standard (the bible)
Helped lay the foundation for a written “contract,” Which would be important to the establishment of the future United States Constitution
Effects of the Great Awakening 
America’s religious community came to be divided between those who rejected the Great Awakening and those who accepted it
More denominations of Christianity were formed
While the Awakening created conflict among those who argued the points of religion, its ideas helped build connections between people living in different colonies
A number of colleges were founded by those who accepted the Great Awakening, including Princeton, Brown, and Rutgers
Jonathan Edwards
Preacher of the Great Awakening who emphasized personal religious experience, predestination, and dependence of man upon God and divine grace
One of his well-read sermons was “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
While Edwards is known for being one of the most prominent Calvinists, the Great Awakening was partially responsible for spreading the idea that salvation was possible without predestined election, an important Calvinist belief
French and Indian War
Rivalry between France, Britain< and various Native American tribes over land in the Ohio region
It was one of a series of wars fought between France and England throughout the world at the time
Battles continued on European and American fronts until Britain gained control of Canada
It was in these conflicts that George Washington first appeared as an able military leader
William Pitt
Britain’s capable and energetic prime minister
After several humiliating defeats, he led Britain to virtually destroy the French empire in North America by focusing on the French headquarters in Canada
Th treaty of Paris o 1763 ended hostilities
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Ended Seven Years War
From France, Britain took Canada and some of what would become the United States east of the Mississippi River
France lost all of its North American holding
Spain took the Louisiana Territory
Treaty marked the end of salutary neglect, a relationship in which the British Parliament had somewhat ignored the colonies, allowing them to develop their character without interference
George Grenville
British Prime Minister who set out to solve the large national debt incurred in recent English wars
Created a series of acts that raised taxes on American goods, leading to the rebellious activities
Grenville's acts included the proclamation of 1763, Sugar Act (1763), Stamp Act (1765), And Quartering Act(1765)
Benjamin Franklin
Was a colonial writer, scientist, diplomat, printer, and a philosopher
Published the Pennsylvania Gazette wrote  Poor Richard’s Almanac
Served in the Second Continental Congress and was a drafter and signer of the Declaration of independence
Writs of Assistance
Court orders that authorized custom officials to conduct non-specific searches to stop colonial smuggling
Allowed for the searching of homes, warehouses, and shops
James Otis served as a prosecutor in a failed Massaschusetts legal case; he argued these searches were contrary to natural law
Later, the Fourth Amendment would protect citizens against “unreasonable searches and seizure”
Proclamation of 1763
Was a result of Pontiac’s Rebellion, a Native American uprising against the British for their mistreatment
Forbade white settlement west of the Appalachians to reduce friction between Native Americans and the settlers
Stated that Native Americans owned the land on which they were residing
Outraged colonists believed that the successful outcome of the French and Indian War should have allowed settlement in the Ohio Valley
Sugar Act
It taxed goods imported to America to raise revenue for England after it incurred debt during the French and Indian War
Strictly enforced, unlike the Molasses Act of 1733
Taxed goods included imports such as wine, cloth, coffee, and silk
Quartering Act
Act that required the colonies in which British troops were stationed to provide soldiers with bedding and other basic needs
Colonists reacted negatively, fearing a standing army and disliking the additional costs
After the emergence of the United States Constitution, the Third Amendment protected citizens against the stationing of troops in their homes
Declaratory Act
Act giving Britain the power to tax and make laws for the Americans in all cases
Followed repeal of the Stamp Act
Colonists ignored the wording of the Declaratory Act
Samuel Adams
Revolutionary resistance leader in Massachusetts
Along with Paul Revere, he headed the Song of Liberty in Mass.
Worked with the committees of correspondence, which provided communication about resistance among colonies
Attended both the First and Second Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence
Stamp Act Congress
Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for defense
Adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated that freeborn Englishmen could not be taxed without their consent
Townshend Acts
Created by British Prime Minister Charles Townshend (Greenville’s replacement)
Formed a program of taxing items imported into the colonies, such as paper, lead, glass, and tea; it replaced the direct taxes of the Stamp Act
Let to boycotts by Boston merchants, a key contributor to the Boston Massacre
Virtual Representation
English principle stating that the members of parliament represented all of Britain and the British Empire, even though members were only elected by a small number of constituents
This idea was meant to be a response to the colonial claim of “no taxation without representation,” meaning that parliament was itself a representation of those being taxed
Boston Massacre
Occurred when the British attempted to enforce the Townshend Acts
British soldiers killed five Bostonians, including CrispusAtticks, an American patriot and former slave
John Adams provided the legal defense for the soldiers
Though the British soldiers acted more or less in self-defense, anti-Royal leaders used the massacre to spur action in the colonies
Tea Act and the Boston Tea Party
Concession allowed the British East India Company to ship tea directly to America and sell it at a bargain; cheap tea undercut the local merchants
Colonists opposed these shipments; they turned back ships, left shipments to rot, and held ships in port
Led to Boston Tea Party in December of 1773, where citizens, dressed as Native Americans, destroyed tea on the British ships
Intolerable Acts and Coercive Acts
Name given by the Quebec Act (1774) and to a series of acts by the British in response to the Boston Tea Party
Acts closed Port of Boston to all trade until citizens paid for the lost tea
Acts increased the power of Massachusetts’ Royal governor at the expense of the legislature
Allowed Royal officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts to be tried elsewhere
Methods of Colonial Resistance
Americans reacted first with restrained and respectful petitions, suggesting “taxation  without representation is tyranny”
Colonial merchants then boycotted British goods (non-importation)
Colonists of the Revolution finally turned to violence
Crowds took action against customs officials and against merchants who violated the boycotts
Some colonists continued to follow British command and became English “Loyalists”
First Continental Congress
Meeting in Philadelphia of colonial representatives to denounce the Intolerable Acts and to petition in the British Parliament
A few radical members discussed breaking from England
Created Continental Association and forbade the importation and use of British goods

Agreed to convene an Second Continental 

Battles of Concord and Lexington
Concord- Site suspected by British General Gage of housing a stockpile of colonial weaponry
Paul Revere and William Dawes detected movement of British troops toward Concord and warned militia and gathered Minuteman at Lexington
Lexington- Militia and Royal infantry fought the colonial troops withdrew
The Second Continental Congress
Colonial representative meeting in Philadelphia, presided over by John Hancock
Group torn between declaring independence and remaining under British power
Moderates forced the adoption of the Olive Branch Petition, a letter to King George III appealing one final time for a resolution to all disputes; the king refused to receive it 
Battle of Bunker Hill
Bunker Hill was an American post overlooking Boston; the stronghold allowed Americans to contain General Gage and his troops
The colonists twice turned back a British frontal assault; they held off the British until the Bunker Hill force ran out of ammunition and was overrun
America’s strong defense led to strengthened morale
Common Sense
Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine that called for immediate independence from Britain
Sold largely and carried favor in the colonies
Weakened resistance in the Continental Congress toward independence
Lee’s Resolution
Presented to Second Continental Congress by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
Urged to Congress to declare independence; accepted July 2, 1776
Said, “These Untied Colonies are, and of right out to be, free and independent States”
Declaration of Independence
Document restating political ideas justifying the separation from Britain
Thomas Jefferson and his committee had the duty of drafting for the Continental Congress
John Locke’s influences served as a foundation for the document
The final product lacked provisions condemning the British slave trade and a denunciation of the British people the earlier drafts had contained
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