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anatomy chapter 2
anatomy chapter two
167
Anatomy
Undergraduate 1
09/19/2010

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Term
What is matter?
Definition
matter is anything that occupies space and has mass (weight)
Term
what states does matter exist is?
Definition
solid(bone), liquid (blood), and gaseous states(air)
Term
What is energy?
Definition
energy is massless and does not take up space. It has the ability to do work.
Term
All forms of energy have these types of energy
Definition
potential and kinetic
Term
what is kinetic energy
Definition
when energy is actually doing work
Term
potential energy
Definition
when energy is stored or inactive
Term
Name the different types of energy
Definition

chemical energy

electrical energy

mechanical energy

radiant

Term
what is chemical energy?
Definition

stored in the bonds of chemical substances

when the bonds are broken energy is released

Term
what is electrical energy?
Definition
results from the movement of charged particles (nerve impulses)
Term
what is mechanical energy?
Definition
energy directly involved in moving matter(pedaling a bike)
Term
Radiant energy
Definition
travels via waves (x-rays)
Term
all matter is formed by what?
Definition
from a limited number of elements 
Term
What are elements
Definition
unique substances that cannot be broken down further (oxygen,carbon)
Term
where can you find a list of elements
Definition
the periodic table
Term
these four elements make up what percentage of the human body?
Definition
96
Term
name the four elements that make up 96% of the human body
Definition

carbon

oxygen

hydrogen

nitrogen

Term
what are elements composed of 
Definition
atoms
Term
why are elements unqiue
Definition
the atoms of each element differ from hose found in other elements
Term
what are elements identified by?
Definition
One or two letter atomic symbol
Term
What are atoms composed of?
Definition
Atoms are comprised of different numbers of subatomic particles
Term
what many types of subatomic particles are there and name them
Definition

protons

neutrons

electrons

Term
what type of charge does a proton have and were is it found?
Definition
positive charge, found in the nucleus
Term
what type of charge does a neutron have and where is it found?
Definition
it has a neutral charge and it is found in the nucleus
Term
what type of charge does an electron have and where is it found?
Definition
it was a negative charge equal in strength to the proton in orbit
Term
what is the electrical charge of an atom?
Definition
it is always neutral. This means that the number of electrons is always equal to the number of protons.
Term
what do we call an atom that has lost or gained an electron
Definition
an ion
Term
the electrical charge of a particle is its ability to what
Definition
attract or repel other charged particles
Term
two positive charges will
Definition
repel
Term
a positive and negative particle will
Definition
attract
Term
a neutral particle will 
Definition
not attract or repel
Term
what does an atom look like?
Definition
a miniature solar system
Term
where are the protons and neutrons found in an atom
Definition
the center of the atom with the nucleus (thus the nucleus is positively charged)
Term
where are the electrons found in an atom?
Definition
they orbit the nucleus jumping around continuously (the orbit is negatively charged)
Term
what determines the unique properties of an element ?
Definition
atom of different elements have a different number of protons, neutrons and electrons.
Term
What is the atomic number equal to?
Definition
the atomic number is equal to the number of protons that the atom contains, each element has a unique atomic number.
Term
what does the atomic number tell us?
Definition
the atomic number tells us how many electrons an element has (protons=electrons)
Term
what is the atomic mass number?
Definition
sum of protons and neutrons contained in the nucleus (ex hydrogen has one proton and no neutrons thus it's number is 1)
Term
how is the atomic number written
Definition
it is written as a superscript to the left of the atomic symbol
Term
Istopes have the same number of what?
Definition
they have the same number of protons
Term
isotopes vary in the number of what they have
Definition
they very in the number of neutrons
Term
You should keep this in mind when examining the atomic weight of an element
Definition

there are more than one type of atom representing each element (there are structural variations)

these are called isotops

atomic weight reflects natural isotope variation

Term
eventhough isotopes have the same number of protons and electrons, but a different number of neutrons they have the same atomic number but a different...
Definition
atomic mass
Term
the atomic weight of an element's mass is closest to what
Definition
the number of most abundant isotopes
Term
what is a radioisotope
Definition

these are the heavier isotopes of certain atoms

tends to be unstable

decomposes to more stable isotope

Term
what is radioactivity?
Definition

process of spontaneous atomic decay

this involves the ejection of particles from the atoms nucleus. these particles are dangerous to tissue

Term
what is a molecule?
Definition
two or more like atoms combined chemically to form an element molecule
Term
what is a compound?
Definition

two or more different atoms combined chemically

 

Term
when do chemical reactions occur?
Definition

occur whenever atoms combine with or dissociate from other atoms

atoms are united by chemcal bonds

atoms dissociate from other atoms when chemical bonds are broken

Term
electrons occupy energy levels called
Definition
electron shells
Term
electrons closest to the nucleus are
Definition
most strongly attracted
Term
each shell has distinct properties name them
Definition

the number of electrons has an upper limit

shells closest to the nucleus fill first

shell one closest to the nucleus can hold only 2 electrons, but shell two can hold a maximum of eight

Term
those further away from the nucleus are
Definition
less securely attached there are most likely to attracted other atoms
Term
the outer most shell is called
Definition
the valence shell
Term
why is the valence shell so important?
Definition
it is the outer most shell electrons will only react here
Term
when the valence shell contains less than 8 electrons the atom has to do what
Definition
trade, gain or lose an electron in order to become stable(a chemical bond forms)
Term
When do you  get an inert element?
Definition

when atoms are stable this means that the outer most shell is complete

 

how to fill an atom's sells

shell 1 can hold a maximum of 2 electrons

shell 2 can holt a maximum of 8 electrons

shell 3 can hold a maximum of 18 electrons

Term
my valence shell is not full and is unable who am i 
Definition
a reactive  element
Term
what does a reactive element do
Definition

Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons 

Allow for bond formation, which produces stable 

valence 


Term
when does an ionic bond form
Definition

 Ionic bonds 

Form when electrons are completely transferred 

from one atom to another 

Term
i am negative and have an extra electron and few protons?
Definition
Anion
Term
what is an anion?
Definition
negatively charged particles that have an extra electron and fewer protons
Term
when do covalent bonds occur
Definition

atoms become stable through shared electrons

single covalent bonds share one pair of electrons

double covalent bonds share two pairs of electrons

Term
i share one pair of electrons
Definition
single covalent bond
Term
i share two pairs of electrons
Definition
double covalent bond
Term
what are chemical reactions?
Definition

the making or breaking of chemical bonds between atoms


Term

A+B--> AB what type of reaction is this?


Definition
synthesis
Term

 

Describe a synthesis reaction

w

 

Definition

when two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a more larger complex molecule

energy must be absorbed to create this bond thus these are energy absorbing reactions

these types of reactions are important growth and maintanence of tissues

Term

I occur when two or more atoms combine to form large more complex molecules

Definition
synthesis reaction
Term

Energy must be absorbed to create the bond thus these are energy absorbing reactions

Definition
synthesis reaction 
Term

I am important to the growth and maintenance of tissues what type of reaction am i


Definition
synthesis
Term
describe decomposition reactions
Definition

Molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, 

atoms or ions 

 

Chemical energy is released 

 

Processes that use this are digestion and 

breakdown of glycogen 

 

Term

I am AB-> A+B

Definition
decomposition
Term

I happen when the molecule is broken down into smaller molecules , atoms or ions


Definition
decomposition
Term

I am a type of reaction that releases chemical energy

Definition
decomposition
Term

processes that use this type of reaction are digestion and breakdown of glycogen


Definition
decomposition
Term

 

I help digestion and breakdown of glygcogen

Definition
decomposition
Term

give an example of a synthesis reaction

Definition

amino acids are joined to form a protein molecule


Term

give an example of a decomposition reaction

Definition

 break down of glycogen to release glucose units

 

Term

(AB+C-->AC+B)

Definition

exchange reaction

Term

I involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions, bonds are made and both broken


Definition
exchange reaction
Term

 

A switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made

Definition

exchange reaction


Term

An example of this is the breakdown of ATP to ADP when glucose enters a body cell


Definition
exchange reaction
Term

Explain a exchange reaction

Definition

(AB+C-> AC+B)

involves both synthesis and decomposition reactions, bonds are made and broken

switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made

an example of this is the breakdown of ATP to ADP when glucose enters the body

 

Term

 

describe and example of an exchange reaction

Definition

ATP transfers its terminal phosphate group to glucose to form glucose phosphate


Term

name the factors that increase the rate of chemical reaction

Definition

1.)increased temperate

2.)increased concentration of reacting particles

3.) Decreased particle size

Term

how does temperate increase the rate of chemical reaction?

Definition

 

increased temperate causes molecules to move more quickly and collide more rapidly

 

Term

how does increased concentration of reacting particles increase the rate of chemical reaction?

Definition

increased concentration of reacting particles increases the number of collisions

Term

ow does decreased particle size increase the rate of chemical reaction?


Definition

smaller particles have more kinetic energy and move faster thus having more collisions

Term

All chemicals in the body are classified as either:


Definition

organic or inorganic

Term

When we classify a chemical as inorganic or organic, what do we base it on?


Definition
whether or not they contain carbon
Term

Explain an organic compound

Definition

contain carbon

most are covalently bonded

example C6H12O6 glucose

important ones in the body are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids


Term

name the important organic compounds in the body

Definition

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids


Term

describe inorganic compounds

Definition

lack carbon,

tend to be simpler compounds

examples H2O water, salts, acids and bases

Term

give some examples of inorganic compounds

Definition

H2O water, salts acids and bases

Term

I am the most abundant inorganic compound

Definition

water

Term

 

Accounts for 2/3rds of the bodies weight 

Definition
water
Term

What are the vital properties of water


Definition

high heat capacity: absorbs temperature changes (regulates body temperature)

polarity/solvent properties: liquids and gases can be dissolved and suspended in it, transport and chemical reactions

chemical reactivity: an important reactant in some chemical reactions (digestion)

cushioning


Term

 

 

Describe the importance of salt

Definition

-an inorganic compound

-easily dissociate into ions in the presence of water

vital to many body functions (found in bones and teeth)

-include electrolytes which conduct electrical currents (sodium and potassium ions)

-ions are charged particles so they are electrolytes (substances that conduct electrical current in solution

Term

 

Name the importance of acids

Definition

release hydrogen ions (H+)

are proton donors

an electrolyte (conduct electrical current in water)

Term

 

I release H + ions,  i donate a proton and i am an electrolyte who am i?


Definition

 

I am an acid


Term

Name the importance of bases

Definition

release hydroxyl ions (OH-)

are proton acceptors

Term

 

I release hydroxyl ions (OH-) and i am a proton acceptor who am i?


Definition

I am a base

Term

This type of reaction occurs when an acid and base react to form water and a salt

Definition

neutralization reaction

Term

 

explain a neutralization reaction

Definition

when a base and an acid react to form water and a salt

Term

 

What does pH measure?

Definition

 

pH measures relative concentration of hydrogen ions

 

Term

what does pH 7 mean?

Definition

 

neutral (the number of hydrogen ions equals the number of hydroxyl ions)

Term

 

what does pH below 7 mean?


Definition

acidic (hydrogen ions out number the hydroxyl ions)

Term

what does a pH above 7 mean?

Definition

basic (hydroxyl ions out number the hydrogen ions)

Term

how does the body monitor pH?

Definition

the pH in the body is very carefully monitored by the kidneys, lungs and chemicals called buffers 

Term

 

what are buffers?


Definition

buffers are chemicals that can regulate pH change, they maintain pH stability by taking up excess hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

Term

if pH is not kept within________________death can occur

Definition

7.35-7.45

Term

 

is a carbohydrate an inorganic compound or an organic compound?

Definition

organic

Term

 

what do carbohydrates contain?

Definition

carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Term

what do carbohydrates contain?

Definition
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Term

 

what do carbohydrates include?

Definition
sugars and starches
Term

carbohydrates are classified according to what?

Definition

according to size

Term

name the carbohydrates from smallest or simplest to largest and most complex

Definition

monosaccharides

disaccharides

polysaccharides

Term

describe a monosaccharide 

Definition

describe a monosaccharide simple sugars, they contain only one sugar(glucose)

Term

describe disaccharides 

Definition
 two simple sugars joined. must be broken down to simple sugars to be absorbed (sucrose and lactose
Term

 

describe polysaccharides

 

Definition

 

-long chains of linked simple sugars (ex starch and glycogen)

 

Term
A lipid is an what type of important compound?
Definition
organic
Term
what are lipids?
Definition
large and diverse group of organic compounds (triglycerides, steroids, phospholipids)
Term
how do we get lipids into our bodies?
Definition
they enter the body through meat, eggs, oils and milk products
Term
What do lipids contain?
Definition
they contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Term
lipids are ____________ in water they form _____________ _____________
Definition
insoluble, fat droplets
Term
what are triglycerides?
Definition
common lipids in the human body
Term
what are triglycerides also referred to as?
Definition
neutral fats
Term
where are triglycerides found?
Definition
in fat deposits
Term
what makes up a triglyceride
Definition

three fatty acids attached to a glycerol (vary in length)

The length determines the solidness of the molecule at room temperature 

Term
what are triglycerides composed of
Definition
fatty acids and glycerol
Term
what are triglycerides a source of ?
Definition
stored energy
Term
What do phospholipids for,?
Definition
form cell membranes
Term
what do steroids include?
Definition
cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D and some hormones
Term
what are proteins made of?
Definition
amino acids (there are about 20 varieties_
Term
are proteins an organic or inorganic compound?
Definition
organic 
Term
what do proteins contain?
Definition
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur
Term
Proteins account for what?
Definition

account for over half the body's organic matter

 

Term
What do proteins provide the means for?
Definition

construction materials for boy tissue

and play a vital role in cell function

Term
what do proteins act as?
Definition
enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
Term
what are proteins classified as?
Definition
fibrous or globular proteins depending on their structure
Term
fibrous proteins are also known as what?
Definition
structural proteins
Term
where do fibrous proteins appear?
Definition
appear in the body structures (bind them together)
Term
give some examples of fibrous proteins
Definition

examples include collagen (bones/cartilage) and keratin (hair/nails)

stable and strong

Term
what are globular proteins also known as
Definition
functional proteins
Term
what do globular proteins do?
Definition
function as antibodies, enzymes and hemoglobin
Term
are globular proteins strong?
Definition
no. they can be denatured (not very strong)
Term
what do enzymes do?
Definition

 These are functional proteins that act as biological catalysts 

• Increase the rate of chemical reactions 

Term
are nucleic acids organic or inorganic
Definition
Organic
Term
why are nucleic acids important 
Definition
they provide the blueprint of live
Term
name the nucleotide bases
Definition

A  adenine

G  Guanine

C   cytosine

T     thymine

U   uracil

Term
I make DNA and RNA who am i
Definition
i am a nucleic acid
Term
what does DNA stand for?
Definition
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Term
how is DNA organized?
Definition
organized by complimentary bases to form double helix
Term
i replicate before cell division, and provide instructions for every protein in the body
Definition
DNA
Term
i am located outside of the cell nucleus and carry out the orders for protein synthesis  given by the dna that is found within the cells nucleus who am i 
Definition
RNA
Term
what does ATP stand for?
Definition
Adenosine triphosphate
Term

I am the chemical energy used by all cells

without me molecules cannot be made or broken down  

energy is released by breaking my highg energy phosphate bond

i am replenished by oxidation of food fuels

ADP is my byproduct

Energy is used to reattach a phosphate group to ADP so it can again become me who ami 

Definition
ATP
Term
what does ADP stand for
Definition
adenosine diphosphate
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