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Undergraduate 3

Additional History Flashcards




The Whig Party and National Development


"Jeffersonian Democrats"


-Agrarianism (land owners)

-Weak Federal government

-Federal govt. can only do what the Const. says

-Localism (“States’ Rights”)


-Human nature is a positive thing

-overall feeling of guilt



"Hamilton Federalists"



-Strong Federal government



-Wanted to control the individual

-Can’t have everyone pursuing their own goals

-Believed humans were flawed (calvinistic) 

-Nature of acceptance. not guilt


-Andrew Jackson



-Stood for the “common man”(Craftsmen, laborers, farmers, poor)

-believed in being humble


-Severely opposed to the second bank of the United States

-He wanted more money in the hands of the common man

        movement from Federalist Party into the Whig party[image]

-first economic political planning party

-Idea that the West ought to be free labor

-Created out of the fight between slavery and the split between the North and South

review of political philosophies of Jefferson and Hamilton

-turned into a sectional/regional debate

-West was what everyones eyes were on

-In the beginning, the West and the South were more connected 

-once the western territories were divided into states the west began leaning toward the north

-question of slavery for each new western labor or slave labor?

-this inevitably caused a split to the Whig party

Review of “the Jacksonian persuasion”

-Marvin Myers wrote about the Whigs (Hamilton’s Federalists)

-Whigs were progressive and the Democrats were conservative

-Most Americans wanted to progress

-Cities were florishing 

-The Whigs were actively promoting this "progression" while the Democrats just kind of accepted the change and felt a little guilty about it

-think of once again...Putnams (poor, not prospering so well, jealous) versus Porters (rich)



Figure of the mountain man


-Strong, independent, self-sufficient, fur trappers

-Smart...Made money and then invested it


-irony: double standard of life. Lived as agrarian (jeffersonian democrats), yet invested their money and liked progression( federalist/whigs)


Henry Clay (1777-1852)

maker of Whig political philosophy



Kentucky background: realistic westerner, log cabin school

-Rejected Jeffersonian thought of agrarianism

-Wanted a rigorous way of developing the West and North

-Born in VA

-Studied law in somebody’s office

-Political career began in 1802

-Clay volunteered to be Burr's defense attorney         (treason) after he was arrested, but he didn't 

- Originator of phrase “self-made man”

and more importantly the “American System” (1810-24)


-Aaron Burr



(vice-president under Jefferson, 1807)

killed Hamilton in a duel

-Fled westward and started conspiring and making a small private army (Jackson was a part in it)

-Just wants to show that early on people weren’t sure what would become of the West

-Clay volunteered to be his defense attorney (treason) after he was arrested

“American System” (1810-24)
Protective tariff (passed in 1824) -(only one to succeed)-Set the taxes on imported goods so high that nobody would buy them (target was British textiles) -Aim was for domestic manufacturing

“Internal improvements” -transportation, communication, using high import taxes from tarrifs to fund internal improvements

Strong national bank -micromanagement in all the local banks to maintain a strong national currency -Loan money only to people who know how to use it successfully

Restrictive policy on western settlement -Whigs wanted to avoid any situation that was out of control -Clay wanted a slow, regular development of the West -Promoted high, restricted prices for federal lands -Only the people who are more likely to succeed will be able to buy land -Time to create an infrastructure because settlement will occur more slowly

(create roads and schools)

*****Plan for the future of the US

Opposition of Southerners to "American System"

• Claim that “national” policy favored North and West over South

-Britain had been the southern states major buyer cotton… With the introduction ofthe protective tariffs, which added large taxes on imported goods, Britain began buying their cotton from India... This resulted in a large trade imbalance and extremely inconvenient for the south



Conflict between Clay’s Whigs and the Democrats during Jackson’s Presidency (1829-37)

(time when the Whigs are most actively promoting)


•These were some of the problems jackson faced in his presidency 

Jackson’s opposition  of 2nd Bank of the United States

• Jackson’s opposition to South Carolina’s attempted Nullification (void) of the tariff of 1832 (John C. Calhoun)

-Taxing the South for the benefit for the North

-First real assertion of states’ rights against federal power

-Jackson said it was illegal and they were      overrided by the Const.

• Jackson’s Maysville Road veto (against internal Improvements)

-Funding for building a road in Kentucky using federal money

Major L. Wilson’s distinction between Democrats (space) and Whigs(time)

-Whigs are obsessed with time/history 

-Democrats are obsessed with space/geography



presidential campaign of 1840

(that choose a candidate solely on image)

(introduction to modern-day politics if you will)[image]


America controlled by Democrats for 12 years

first campaign based on image

people loved Andrew Jackson

Republicans wanted president to be"the new Jackson"

William Henry Harrison-Republican presidential candidate

-Democrats have had 12 years of Democratic rule

-war hero at Tippecanoe

-local rallies, log cabin car

-spiked cider

-largest political promotion of history thus far

-died from pneumonia

-his VP John Tyler took over the house and he was clearly a Democrat so in the end Republicans lost


The South: America’s Minority
• W. J. Cash “The Mind of the South”:

 focused on individualism, romanticism, and religion

-1. South had a lack of government

-2.Overly romantic/sentimental- thinks it comes from the weather

-3.focus on religion-they feel guilty and this feeds the spirit and dedication of religion

• C. Vann Woodward

• Slavery and the Lost Cause; a burden of the South (source of guilt) 

• Limitation, pessimism, defeat

-Most important historian in the south in the years          after WWII

-Burden of Southern History

-South was different because it was more like the           old world (Europe)

-Old, poor, poverty stricken, failure

*was like Europe for two reasons: 

1. Existence of slavery

2. South was the only area of the country that had known serious defeat

Isolated, agrarian, plantation, chivalry, racism (slavery), past/history/tradition
Southern feudalist organicism defended over Northern capitalist Individualism

John C. Calhoun:  Defended rights of the minority

-argued against jeffersonian democracy:The nation should be able to automatically pass laws that wouldn’t just particularly benefit only one state

George Fitzhugh wrote:

1.Sociology for the South; or, The Failure of Free Society (1854)

2.Cannibals All!; or, Slaves without Masters (1857) -Writer, who in defending slavery, compared northern and southern labor systems  




"Defenses" for slavery



• Classical philosophy: Aristotle

• Biblical: the curse of Ham

• Constitutional: the three-fifths compromise

• Racial: multiple creationism Argued that slaves were not descendents from Adam and Eve (monkeys)

• Paternalism


social and economic standpoints of slavery

Sociologically- No matter how far a white man fell in the south, he was better than any black person

-Economically- “chattel” goods (personal possessions)

-Slaveowners as ambitious entrepreneurs (bred slaves to save money)

-Slaves were exploited (importation of slaves                ended in 1808)

-1840-50’s trade from the old south (Virginia)                 down the river down to the new south                              (Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas)

plantation novel

not just popular in the south but also in the north

the grass is always greener approach

Northerners could read a romantic plantation novel about a leisurely form of whites in the South because the North is not losing its traditions Northerners did not feel guilty about slavery because there wasn't really anything wrong with it



*The plantation myth as national fixation




**benefits for Southerners but also appealed to Northerners

-Margaret Mitchell (1930’s) “Plantation myth”: (gone with the wind)--- Justified slavery Plantation novels began to gain popularity Northerners shouldn’t worry about slavery because there’s nothing wrong with it (slaves are fine)


• Stanley Elkins, Slavery (1959):

Asked the question: What if the southern stereotype of the blacks is true? Is there any truth to it? –Well, maybe so

-Tried to explain the stereotype of the typical slave “Sambo”

-Docile but irresponsible

-humble but stole,

-father to chile

-infantlike dependency

  **Compares slavery to concentration camps -Jews would become infantile and rely on their owner ****he argues the point that regardless of race, anyone who is enslaved will become disoriented due to the mental and psychological strain

Eugene Genovese 1974

, Roll, Jordan, Roll (1974) (“The world the slaves made”)  -Argues that the slaves consciously accepted the role of children to their master and used it as a way to make their masters feel guilty when they treated their slaves poorly

-said slaves rivaling Christianity because it had a way of making them turn the cheek... To put up with it because the rewards in heaven not on earth

Slavery in the North
What was it like in the north

-Lincoln’s ancestors owned slaves

-more people owned slaves than in the south

-Skilled, specialized phenomenon -Many would hire out their slaves (some actually had an income)

-Craftsmen were the largest group of owning slaves in NY

-Less plantation-like, more domestic slaves

-Somewhat more of a class distinction between the slaves inside and the ones who work on the plantations 

-Large-scale movement in the North to send their slaves to fight (south was terrified of arming their slaves)

-Mass desertion of slaves to fight for the Loyalist cause because Britain promised their freedom

-How was slavery justified? (Republican stance) in the north

 -believed slaves were slaves not by their race, but by the virtue of having already been slaves for so long

-they wouldn’t know how to handle citizenship because they don’t have the right criteria ...(Not independent -Don’t own property -No sense of how to sacrifice for the common whole)


 - slaves fought for independence from England yet they werent freed in the U.S. (VT was the only one in 1777 to abolish slavery from the very beginning)


How did it end? judicial, legislative



-Judicial Approach: MA had courts on the side of abolition, and a public that was overwhelmingly opposed to slavery (Quock Walker Case, name of slave in MA, 1754) -Was purchased and his master died and the widow remarried to Jennison -He ran away but Jennison found him and beat him -Walker filed suit in a court of law for assault and battery -Jury finds that Walker was a free man because his deceased master had granted him freedom at 25 years -Jennison appealed and then Walker appealed to the Supreme Court -Lincoln was Walker’s defense and appealed on a religious stance and won (1783)

-Legislative Approach:  gradual emancipation (how most northern states did it)

-1.)Set a certain age: Anyone who is already a slave is forever a slave -Any new person afterwards born will be a slave until a certain age and then you’ll become free (usually mid 20’s) -Put off the hard part of actually dealing with the abolition of slavery until the next generation -Doesn’t see the freedom of their last slaves until 1840

-New York attached two stipulations

o NY pushes a bill through state legislature to end slavery over time – in 1785 –

1.)no interracial marriage with out a hefty fine

2.)they can’t vote b/c they are black


***= council of revision says you can’t with hold the right to vote based on their race and send it back

– this puts a stop to this free the slaves movement 

        – 1789 NY passes a bill similar to PA

Slavery in New York

-By 1810, 65% of the slaves are already free (first people to free aren’t even old enough)

-By 1820, 95% of the black population is free

-Slaves in NY begin to start a long tradition of negotiating their freedom with their masters

-Slaveholders knew the institution was dying (start drawing up contracts)

-Started to become indentured servants

-Was becoming less cost efficient

-However, there was a huge spike in runaways to NY after the gradual emancipation was passed

-Acceleration of guilds, pre-unions, and associations formed around that whites maintain a united

-Vast majority of free slaves continued to work in the same place as wage-laborers

-Economy: City was becoming a huge commercial center (trade)  

-Slaves out of skilled labor to working for the rich

-Creation of black neighborhood

-Asserting their rights and fitness for citizenship and right to vote

-Resentment resulting in a massive backlash -1811, Democrat-Republicans take office and require all free blacks that want to vote to obtain a certificate that costs a large sum of money which Stripped blacks their right to vote and obtain citizenship

Drive in the North to Abolish Slavery in the South (1830’s)


1793 – 1st Fugitive Slave Act - fugitive slaves can be captured in the entire US for the rest of their lives and can be returned 

* says that states have a right to demand that          states return the slaves they know are in that state

*also makes it a crime to assist a slave who is a      fugitive 



Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 – any federal marshal or other official who does not arrest an alleged runaway slave is liable himself (up to $1,000)

– this is done just by taking an owners word – suspected slave could not have a jury trial or testify on his own behalf

– any person aiding were subject to 6months in jail and $1,000 fine – results in 100s of free black men being conscripted into slavery





-William Lloyd Garrison:

Late 1820’s founded the newspaper, “The Liberator” -**Fervent Christian whose paper was all about abolition -One of the most radical and articulate proponents of slavery

-Hated the idea of gradual abolishion...only ways was immediate and efficient

-Saw the Constitution as a pro-slavery doctrine

-1844 he publicly burned a copy of the Constitution -Huge supports of women’s suffrage and women’s rights -1850 as part of the Compromise, Congress passes the second law


Wages of Whiteness


David Roediger's Wages of Whiteness -- a psycho-cultural investigation of the development of "white" identity among European-American workers in the North
4 parts
part 1

Roediger poses a set of questions he has found Marxist labor historians to have ignored


1) defining how white workers look not only at Blacks but at themselves";

2) "the generalization of race";

3) "the complex mixture of hate, sadness and longing in the racist thought of white workers";

4) the relationship between race and ethnicity.

Part II
introduces white identity in "the language of class," wherein the European-American artisans responded to the threat of extinction by capitalist enterprise by an appeal to a "whites-only" republicanism.
Part III
relates the growing industrialization in the u.s. to the development of  "the emergence of "whiteness."
Part IV
argues that in the Civil War and Post-Emancipation periods there was a degree of moderation of "white" workers' with a "tendency to equate Blackness with servility."
The bottom rung

– hierarchy of social groups

– whiteness and blackness

an attracter used by those in power all the way from this time period into the 20th century

Populist movement

– poor whites and poor blacks worked together and helped make railroads Eventually the wealthy white families who were the leaders in the communities went to the poor whites and said to them why are you working with the blacks when you are white and like us


-They divided them and put the whites at war with the blacks

Populist movement ended b/4 WWI

The white hireling had to option of social mobility while the black slave did not (pg 46)

Farming workers began to identify themselves as not slaves, they were doing white work

Lots of examinations of words in the book

– compares the word slavery to the American colonists before the revolution

– the way colonists felt towards the British Someone working in the house were originally called servants and then it was changed to help (servant was to close to slave) another shift from Master to Boss

– trying to get away from a word that has a racial connotation 3 words

– coon, buck, mose – Mose referred to gang members, Buck referred to a man about town a dandy – Coon was a country bumpkin - all of these words shifted from referring to whites to referring to blacks (pg 68) 

– a black face – appealed to the Irish –they would blacken there face and sing and dance to african american style music---they had a small sense of empathy – blacks and Irish were a long way from home and they could never go back sense of nostalgia



not white because they were seen as primitive – peasants,forigen – then forced to live by the bell of factory Irish become white – (pg 133)Being called an "Irishman" as bad as being called a "nigger"
The Scientific Defense of Racism
General themes

• Relationship between “objective” science and cultural bias

• Clash between religious orthodoxy and racial policy

-Pseudo Science

highly respected men of science that base their data on unfactual evidence 

aslong as it promoted their social agenda they didn't care about anything else



-Race and Creation


the key issue of a

single creation



separate creations



  Were members of all races descended from Adam and Eve, or did God create each race separately?


-Bishop Usher:

Creation 4004 BC Thomas Jefferson’s concept of human equality and natural rights Wrote about the self-evident truth that all men are created equal

---Equality of opportunity ...Equality concerning the law...  Equality because we’re all created by God and equal in his eyes

Wondered if Africans were the same as whites

Benjamin Rush and John Locke agreed with Jefferson’s viewpoint about God

The key issue of a single creation (monogenesis) vs. separate Creations (polygenesis):
goes against the Bible Were members of all races descended from Adam and Eve, or did God create each race separately? If we considered Africans inferior, we would degrade a whole race The major question in racial thought of the time: how to account for differences between the races?
Samuel Stanhope Smith and the “environmental” explanation of racial differences?

Samuel Stanhope Smith and the “environmental” explanation of racial differences


climate causes differences in color

social conditions cause differences in intellect

problem: how did environmental effects become hereditary?

o Argued that color comes from a difference in climate

– argued that dark skin was one large freckle – to       protect against the sun

o That all humans could intermingle and have babies that would be a viable human

o African’s are dull (not as bright) – b/c they had lived under conditions of savagery and then were brought to US as slaves and lived under brutal conditions and there is really no time for people to develop finer points of intellect

o Speculated that white people in southern climates –that their off-spring would eventually turn black


Samuel Morton

The “American School” of anthropology:

(skull collector)



• Dr. Samuel Morton, Crania Americana (1839)

• Collected and measured human skulls

• Claimed different cranial volume for different races

• God gave each race its special characteristics after Noah’s flood -God intervened and gave each their characteristics based on the climate where they were headed -Climate didn’t determine the races, God did

• Use of Morton’s relatively neutral findings for racist purposes


George Gliddon

(egypt-helped morton)


George Gliddon

o U.S. consular official in Cairo(1832)

o collected skulls for Morton in Egypt – by 1839 he had     93 skulls

o lectured on Egyptology in the U.S.


has a financial crisis and so he goes on lecture tour to

talk about Egyptology had a panorama behind him – huge canvas scroll painted with scenery

Nile – he called it a grand moving transparency he had 2 tables – one of his Egyptian collectibles the other

of the skulls

o Crania Aegyptiaca (1844)

-pure blacks in Egypt had been slaves and the lighter

skinned Egyptians had enslaved them

Dr. Josiah C. Nott

(prominent physician in Alabama)

• Claimed his medical practice revealed whites and blacks as separate species so we have to except the idea of polygenesis

• The Bible limited to the human knowledge of its day

• Egyptian monuments depicted whites and blacks in Master/slave relationship within 72 years of Noah’s flood

• Two Lectures on the Natural History of the Caucasian and Negro Races (1845)  -Rejected the theory of environmentalism, and supported that each species had been created separately in the beginning by God -Mostly focused on Morton and Gliddon’s Egyptian work -Problem with his work was that he mostly looked at Egypt and whites and blacks, needed to explore other races

• E. G. Squier

found American mound builders: as old as the pyramids?

• Founder of American archaeology

• Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1848): first publication of the Smithsonian Institution (funded his excavations)

-Self-educated, son of a minister, interested in burial ground in Ohio

-First American archeologist -Friends of Morton also helped to fund his work

-Tried to avoid the theological controversies

-By 1850, polygenesis had a widespread notion in the South

Nott’s popularization of polygenesis

• Articles in Southern Quarterly Journal and DeBow’s Review

• Nott and Gliddon, Types of Mankind (1854) -Viciously attacks the North by magazines, ministers, etc.

-Attacked because it was being used as a defense against slavery

• Racism trumps religious orthodoxy

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