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Agriculture and States
Agriculture and States
Undergraduate 1

Additional History Flashcards




What challenges did hunting & gathering people face?
Evolution designed us to be hunter-gatherers.
What are the characteristics of hunting & gathering societies?

Seasonal Movement

o Finding new resources and being mobile with seasons

o Where to be at right time and place to harvest enough food to survive


Small Group Size

o Natural resources are less dense than agricultural resources

 oThe way to adapt was by living in small groups o About 50 people average


Flexible group size

o Map onto resources so when they are abundant groups can be bigger and when they aren’t reduce their group size


Leadership by achievement

o Leaders get people to fulfill important roles

o Leader may lead, but follower doesn’t have to follow

o Need leaders who can lead effectively for the well-being of the group

o No hereditary leadership


Equal access to resources

o Leaders don’t control resources

o All groups have equal access to means of production

• Communal ownership of territory

o Group owns land communally and manages it communally and passes it down to generations


Limited private property

o Not much property to call your own

Low rate of population growth

o Keeping population low

What did hunter-gatherers know about cultivation? Was agriculture an invention?

• They knew how to plant seeds and change the environment to increase yields

• Children go from being a burden to an asset in agriculture o Birthrates skyrocket

• More labor put into agriculture, the more you get out of it

• More labor put into hunting-gathering less output do to decrease in amount of animals

• Burned areas to improve yields

• Burn off area for plants to sprout, which mammals feed on which increases their ability to kill animals Tended stands of nut bearing seeds

• Managing of certain plant resources Irrigated dense stands of key plants Followed migratory herders of mammals and culled the herders

How did health and workload change with the introduction of agriculture?

Increased work load

o   Agriculture is a lot more work than hunting-gathering.

o   Clearing field through slash and burn and then plant seeds.

o   A typical work-week for a hunter-gatherer is about 10-15 hours; simple agriculture takes 30-40 hours


Had to begin clearing fields



    o   Joint pain


Decline in dental health

o   Shorter life span

o   More arthritis

o   More stress related illnesses

o   Ground up rock in flour, grain, etc. broke down teeth

o   Carbohydrates caused caries


 Sedentary life

o   Increased risk of disease

o   Water supply polluted

    §  Intestinal disease


Less diverse diet

o   Eating same thing day in and day out


Fortified villages rose and people fought over resources

Did hunter-gatherers choose agriculture because it improved their lives?


·         Less disease

·         Less scarcity

        §  b/c of lower rate of population growth

        §  Less change for warfare

·         Longer life san

·         Less dental health problems


·         Less productive

·         Less predictability

·         Less defendable

What were the advantages & disadvantages of hunting & gathering?


·         Less disease

·         Less scarcity

        §  b/c of lower rate of population growth

        §  Less change for warfare

·         Longer life san

·         Less dental health problems



·         Less productive

·         Less predictability

·         Less defendable

How did farming & herding develop (what two processes were involved)?

• Genetic Engineering (1): from cultivation to domestication. Selecting seeds from desired traits. Also selectively breed animals. o Teosinte and Corn. Corn and ancient ancestor. Corn has to be grown, there is no such thing as wild corn.


• Environmental Engineering (2). Example, Peru. Prehistoric people completely transform river valley by constructing thousands of terraces. Converted steep environment into lush fields.

What techniques do archaeologists use to study the origins of agriculture?

• Challenges

o Finding earliest domesticates 

o Reconstructing prehistoric food


Ways of Analyzing the health of prehistoric people


• Macrobotanical Analysis : down to stems and seeds again o Collecting flotation samples

 Collect 5-10 liters of dirt. Then you float it. Once the dirt is agitated all the plant material floats to the top and skim it off into a bucket. Light Fraction: the part that floats off the top. Analysis: sorting with a microscope. Seeds from flotation is tiny.

 Key challenge

• Distinguishing wild seeds from domesticated ones


• Microbotanical Analysis: Pollen and Phytoliths. Collect about a cup of soil.


• Faunal Analysis: Animal species at Abu Hureyra. Shift from hunting gazelle to herding sheep o Wild and domesticated Cattle


• Analysis of Human Remains o Health and diet o Infectious diseases

o Teeth and Diet

o Carbon Isotopes

 Tells when peoples diets changed


• Artifact analysis

o Agricultural tools

 Sickle Blades

 o Processing Cooking implements

When and where did domestication begin? What were the main crops domesticated in each of the centers of the origins of domestication?

• Middle East: Egypt and Mesopotamia (7,800 BC in Late Neolithic B) o Wheat, Barley, and Goats • Sub-Saharan Africa


• Africa o Cattle, Coffee, Sorghum, & African Rice • China o Yangtze and Yellow Rivers o Rice and Millet


• New Guinea o People and Mountains o Taro Root o Sugarcane > Burning Sugarcane


• Mesoamerica: Highland Mexico o Corn, beans, squash • Andean South America: Peru o Potatoes o Llamas & Alpacas (4000 and 2000BC) o Guinea pig(around 3000BC) o Chili Pepper o Quinoa (high altitude grain)


• Eastern U.S. o Chenopodium, Sunflowers, and Iva

What are the main theories of the origins of domestication?

• Population pressure

o As population grew eventually population in certain areas reached a point where the population could no longer be supported by natural resources


• Climate Change

o In the Pleistocene Holocene transition climate change caused the amount of food that is available from wild resources declined


• Social Theories

o Agriculture is the result of politicians and people striving for power and needing a surplus in order to build their political “campaign”

What crops and animals were domesticated the Middle East?
Wheat, Barley, and Goats
When and where did agriculture first developed in the Middle East?
Fertile Crescent – Earliest date of agriculture comes from Middle East (7800BC)
How did the environment and climate of the Middle East change during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition? How did people cope with those changes?
Cold dry climate to cooler one caused food to decline…led to agriculture: domestication of crops and animals
How did the Kebaran (12000BC) and Natufian (10500BC) people of the Middle East make a living?
Hunting and Gathering; small groups, low pop. Density Natufian – sedentary hunter gatherers; eat medium to smaller game and nuts
How did the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A & B people make a living?
PPNA ( 8500 – 7500) – hunter gatherers, PPNB (7500 – 6000BC) – domestication of plants and animals
How is domesticated wheat and barley different from their wild ancestors? How long did it take to create domesticated wheat and barley?

Replace brittle rachis with semi-tough rachis

• Hangs on when harvested


Increased grain size

• More wheat


How long to produce semi-tough rachis?

• Random mutation introduced semi-tough rachis

• Occurs 1 in every 10 million seeds

• In small plots of land, likely to occur in 2 to 20 years


How long to produce domestic grain?

• With cutting of near-ripe wheat and use of virgin fields o 20-30years

• How?

o Wild seeds were deliberately planted Selection of seeds for replanting led to domesticated grains

Why did some people shift from hunting and gathering to farming in the Middle East in the Early Holocene?
Climate change!!!
What, When, & Where: crops & animals domesticated in the New World?

Three Centers

• North America

   o Eastern North America

       Gourds around 8000bc

       Other crops by 2500 to 2000bc

       Corn introduced AD1 to 400

       Arrived in the Southwest 1200BC


• Mesoamerica

   o Beans

   o Squash

   o Gourds

   o Chiles

   o Avocados

   o Turkeys (Mexico and all around New World)

   o Teosinte and Maize


• Andean South America

  o South America

     Potatoes (Peru and Bolivia)

     Tubers

     Oca (almost like sweet potatoe)

     Ulluco

     Andean Chile Peppers

     High altitude grains (Quinoa)

     Fruits of Peru

        • Chirimoya

        • Pacay

     Wild ancestor

        • Guanaco

     Guinea pig

     Ducks

     Peanuts

     Sweet potato & Manioc

     Cotton

     Avocados (Peru and Mesoamerica)

     Highlands

        • Llamas between 4000 & 2000BC

     Coast

     Guinea Pigs and Crops by 3000bc

What were the results of MacNeish's Tehuacan Valley project?

 Early 1960s

 Goal: To Understand the process that led to the origins of agriculture

 Richard “Scotty” Mcneash did this project

  Tehuacan Valley, Central Mexico

 Surveyed valley and recorded 450 sites

 Selected about a dozen of sites to dig to find progress from first hunter gatherers of valley through to domestication

 Coxcatlan Cave: Excavated 12 sites

 Abejas Cave o Transition to sedentary farming took 1000s of years

 Coatepec

    o Pleistocene big game hunters o Early Holocene mobile foragers

 Wet season, macrobands

 Dry season, microbands

 When did farming begin? (According to project)

    o Gourds 8,000 BC to 6,000BC o Beans and squash 5,000BC

    o Corn 3600BC o Sedentary villages 2000BC to 1000 BC

 Project wrapped up in Mid-1960’s

How did Kent Flannery test theories of the origins of agriculture?

o Did food shortages drive people to agriculture?


Site: Guila Naquitz


 Did climate change cause the shift to agriculture?

• Foragers re-adapted to the early Holocene long before the shift to agriculture

• The Process: Four stages of Development

o 1) Adaptation to Holocene climate

o 2) Modification of environment

o 3)Genetic manipulation of weedy annuals

o 4)Sedentary agriculture


• How to investigate this Question?

o 1) Computer landscape (GIS)

 Abundance, density, and yields of food

o 2) Computer simulation of a hunter-gatherer population

 Capable of learning and experimenting

 Capable of evaluation efficiency of seasonal schedule

 Results of simulation

• Resulted in hunter-gatherers exploiting same resources as Guila Naquitz hunter-gatherers

• Took 200 annual cycles to achieve this schedule o Seasonality and Schedule

 How did early agriculture fit into seasonal schedule of the mobile foragers?

 Adding agriculture to the schedule

• Added cultivation to the choices available at Guila Naquitz

• Simulated hunter-gatherers choose cultivation of weedy

• Easily fit into annuals schedule

• Why add Agriculture to the seasonal schedule? o Cultivation reduced search time and increased predictability

How did the transition to agriculture differ in Mesoamerica & the Middle East?
Took thousands of years in Mesoamerica and also was more out of convenience. In Middle East was forced by climate change
How did the Pleistocene environment of east Asia (China, Korea, and Japan) differ from the Holocene environment?
Pleistocene environment had boreal forests, no islands, and a tundra type environment
How did humans make a living during the Pleistocene in east Asia?
Small campsites, hunting one or two species, small groups
How did people in Japan respond to Holocene climate change?
Jomon Culture
Describe the settlement & subsistence practices of the Jomon of Japan.

 10,000 to 300 BC

 Early ceramic styles

• Jomon earliest ceramics in the world (10,000BC)  Equivalent to Mesolithic in Europe and Archaic in North America

 Jomon Pottery

• Source of South American pottery?

• Betty Meggars proposed that Jomon fisherman went to Ecuador and learned pottery. Not widely accepted…Could have happened the other way around

 Nittano (Jomon Village)

• Turned to villages with global warming

• All nearly located near ocean

• Consist of mounds of trash

• Make use of hardwood

 Seasonal-Round

• Marine resources

o Fish large part of diet

 Freshwater, near shore, offshore

• Plants o Identified 180 different edible plants

o Nuts, seeds

• Wild game

o Deer, wild boar

 Stone Artifacts

• Used baited pits to lure boar into pits

• For hunting and butchering wild game

 Polishing stones and wooding tools

• Grinding stones for grinding nuts and seeds

• Wedges

 Canoes

• Offshore fishing

What crops and animals were domesticated the east Asia?

Rice (7500BC) – Yangtze River Valley

Millet – Yellow River

When and where did agriculture first developed in the east Asia?
Rice (7500BC) – Yangtze River Valley; Millet – Yellow River
When did rice cultivation reach Taiwan, southeast Asia, New Guinea, the Philippines, and Japan?
Taiwan – 3000, New Guinea – 2000BC, Philippines and Japan – 1000 BC
When and where did taro, yam & sugarcane cultivation begin?
New Guinea (5500BC)
How do archaeologists reconstruct the function of ceramics artifacts? What are the main uses of pottery?

o    Technological and morphological descriptions

·         four steps

§  Selection of raw materials

§  Manufacture

§  Decoration

§  Firing

Typologies (standardized)

Basic forms of bowls or cups for example

Can tell how used


Way the artifacts relate to each other/are positions

Things found in association with each other

Artifacts can also tell us about the people

Residue analysis

Use-wear analysis


Pictures that tell how pots were used 


                                  Looking at modern day and historic decedents and seeing how they use pots

What are the four steps in the manufacture of pottery?

 Selection of raw materials: Clay, Tempering, Preparation of clay


 Manufacture: Coiling, Modeling, Paddle & Anvil, Molding, Wheel.

• Manufacture Techniques o Modeling – shaping clay o Coiling – coil shapes into worm-like shape and add to pottery

o Paddle & Anvil – Using a tree stump or another shape (anvil) to hammer (paddle) the clay into its shape

o Molding – put wet clay inside of already hardened mold to create a shape o Wheel – using a wheel to move clay and hands to shape clay


 Decoration: Punctuated, Incised, Painted, Stamped, Engraved.

• Incised or engraved – take a stylus to create a small design on the clay

• Stamped – use a pattern or paddle pattern to stamp clay

• Painted - paint

• Punctuated -


 Firing: Oxidized, Reduced.

• Oxidized – more oxygen gets to pots (gains electrons)

• Reduced – less oxygen gets to the pots (loses electrons)

What is temper? Why do potters use temper?

• Tempering: mixing sediments in

• Temper: sediments being mixed in

• Temper is used to strengthen the pottery so it is less likely to break

What techniques are used to manufacture pottery?

o Modeling – shaping clay


o Coiling – coil shapes into worm-like shape and add to pottery


o Paddle & Anvil – Using a tree stump or another shape (anvil) to hammer (paddle) the clay into its shape


o Molding – put wet clay inside of already hardened mold to create a shape


o Wheel – using a wheel to move clay and hands to shape clay

What techniques are used to decorate pottery?

 Decoration: Punctuated, Incised, Painted, Stamped, Engraved.

• Incised or engraved – take a stylus to create a small design on the clay

• Stamped – use a pattern or paddle pattern to stamp clay

• Painted - paint

• Punctuated -

What can we learn about prehistoric people from the analysis pottery?

o Chronology.

o Human activities in specific contexts (specific association with ceramics).

o Scale of the social composition of human groups (scale of production).

o Dietary characteristics of human groups (residue analysis).

o Trading networks.

o Sourcing.

o Styles.

What are the 3 regions of the Pacific?
o Melanesia o Polynesia o Micronesia
When did each of the 3 waves of colonization of the Pacific occur and what areas were colonized?

First wave of colonization of the Pacific

 60,000 to 40,000 BC, first people came by boat from Indonesia

 New Guinea, Australia, & Solomon Islands

 First wave of colonization ends at the Solomon Islands


Second wave of colonization of the Pacific

 1600 and 1000 BC

 Eastern Melanesia and Fiji

 Western Micronesia, by various groups

 Ends at Mariana Islands, Western Carolina Islands, and Fiji


Third Wave of colonization

 AD 400 to 1000, Polynesia and Micronesia

 Hawaii, AD 600

 Tahiti and Marquesas Ad 500-600

 Easter Island AD 500

 New Zealand AD 1000


• ALL Pacific colonized by AD 1000

Where did the Polynesian people come from?

o Best estimate is Taiwan, an island off of China

o Polynesians were farmers and sailors

o Polynesian brought banana to Madagascar and spread to Africa

o Different culturally, genetically, and linguistically o Group of Polynesians sailed to west and ended up in Madagascar

How did Pacific islander make a living?

o Series of crops and animals allowed them to survive

    Taro, yams, breadfruit, bananas, pigs, chickens, dogs, fishing

    Rich in marine resources (farm fishing)


o Boats

    Used stone tools to cut down hardwood trees

    Used chisels and axes to cut out hardwood planks

    Drill holes in hardwood planks and take a rope and sew the planks together

    Sails were woven from shredded Palm fibers sown together


o How fast were their sailboats?

    12-24 nautical miles an hour


o Types of boats

   Micronesian

      • Micronesian Outriggers: canoe built out of planks tied together by ropes; with a buoy; has a single sail

    Polynesian

      • Polynesian Outrigger

      • Double canoe boats o Larger number of passengers

      • Double-canoe cargo ships o Used to haul cargo out of Pacific

      • Double haul war canoes o 118ft double canoes holding up to 50 soldiers

How did native sailors in the Pacific navigate between islands in the Pacific?

o Sixty minutes in a degree

o If you are slightly off by a degree you miss the island completely


o How did they gain a sense of direction?

   Navigation by stars

     • Know what star rises over the island and how  it relates to the degree the sun is at

   Navigation by sun

o How do they compensate for currents that push them off track?

   As you go from one current to another you have to shift to another star

   To remember this they gave each island its own song; each navigator has a different song, and the song tells you when to shift and what star to shift to

   Developed maps

      • Palm and Shell Map

      • Navigation Schools

    Maps are used to teach students how to navigate to different islands

    Older, more experienced men would teach younger students how to navigate (songs, maps, stars, etc.)

    Only men could become navigators

    Reading Swells

      • Sometimes, the clouds block out the stars, then they used transatlantic swells

      • When swells hit coastlines they turn into waves

      • Dock your boats at an angle across a swell and put your foot in the water to feel the swells

     • The Blind Navigator

   Lay down on platform and close eyes to try to feel swells

    Penis Navigating

    Navigators would use mental device like medication

    Had to stay awake and be alert whole time

How did native sailors find unknown islands?

o Used clouds and birds that were about 20-40 miles from islands

o Transatlantic swells hit coastlines and coast causes disturbance in wave

o They read disturbances

What techniques do scientists use to reconstruct the impact of human populations on the environment?

 Coring of floodplains and basins

§  Take out cores and get history of environmental change

§  Pollen analysis

  ·         Farmers cut down trees

  ·         Slash and burn reduce pollen

          Rise in density of charcoal

§  Charcoal analysis

§  Sediment analysis (soil erosion)


Faunal remains from archaeological sites

§  Looking at series of trash deposits

§  Can monitor species extinction

§  Can see change in frequency of other species

§  Presence of extinct species

§  Changes in frequency of species


What is the history of human environmental impact and social change on Mangaia & Tikopia?


 Surrounded entirely by a reef

 Sustains a much lower population density

 256 people per square mile of farmland

 Did the environmental change in Mangaia occur throughout the Pacific

   o Easter, Pitcairn, & Henderson Islands

   o Overpopulation, deforestation, species extinction

   o Population collapse, cannibalism, & social chaos



 Recent volcano, in which peak of volcano collapsed

 More than 800 people per square mile of farmland

 Shellfish, bird, fish extinction… but recover

Why was the ultimate fate of human society so different on these two islands?

What happened to Tikopia?

• Initial period similar to Mangaia

• Population growth

• Deforestation

• Soil erosion

• Switched to tree crops: systematically reforested the land

• What happened next?

• Shift to orchard crops

• Reef management by chiefs

• Population control

• Ideology of zero pop. growth

• Achieved sustainable production


What happened at Mangaia

• Colonization

• Rapid population growth

• Slash and burn farming

• Start agriculture

• Deforestation

• Soil erosion, large areas unproductive for crops

• Because of deforestation

• Shift to irrigation farming

• Because of soil erosion

• How did the environment on Mangaia change

• Extinction of many speices, land birds

• Extinction,13 of 22 bird species

• Decline in fishing yields

• Population collapse

• Political chaos, warfare, cannibalism

• Fighting for areas of resources


Why was history of these two islands so different?  Tikopia

• Smaller size may have helped create a cooperative ethic

• Avoided notion of “us and them”

• Human actions & decisions matter

What do these two case studies tell us about our future on Earth?
We’re the first generation with the tools to see how the Earth is changed by human activity; we’re the last generation with the opportunity to affect the course of many of those changes
Define political power?

• Ability to influence daily lives of people

• Small group of people in society gain power and use resources to keep power

• Everyone (except a few thousand) are under control of state

How do leaders get people to do things?

• Convinces through educational systems and media
• Fear of punishment
• Coercive (power/sanction)
    Threat of a sanction
    Control of police and military
    Jail
    Fine
• Economic power
    Control of resources
    Tax money
    Property
• Use resources

What are economic, coercive, and ideological power bases?

·         Ideological

§  Media

§  Schools/education system

·         Coercive

§  Military

§  Police

§  Threat of a sanction

§  Jail

§  Fine

·         Economic

·         Resources

·         Tax money

·         Property

What are the traits of chiefdoms and states?


o Regional

   Prior to chiefdom villages were scattered across landscape

   With chiefdoms, one village controls other villages

   Hereditary positions of leadership (ex. Samoan child chief)

       o Many chiefs in a Cheifdom

   Hierarchy of leaders

      • Top: paramount chief --- Below: Sub-chiefs

      • Sometimes 3 level of chiefs

   Paramount chiefs, district, and local chiefs

      • Kaua’I: A Hawaiian Chiefdom

      • Political Hierarchy of Chiefs

  o Chiefdoms have social hierarchies (inequalities)  

   Elites and Commoners

      • Chiefs collect tribute from commoners and lowers level chiefs

      o Ex. Temple mound, Oaxaca

      o Mounds and Plaza at Cahokia (East Saint Louis)

   o Chiefs do not retain a lot of their tribute for their own use

   o They use it usually for public work


What are the traits of states?

 States have governments

    • Permanent Institutions of leadership and rule

    • At least 4 levels of rulers (hierarchy)

 States independently formed from chiefdom

 In chiefdoms leaders have some amount of power but not the power leaders do in states

 Ex. Settlement Hierarchy: Zapotec State, Oaxaca, Mexico (transformation from chiefdom to state)

 State Capitals

    • Monte Alban – ceremonial government center created as capital : Built by leaders of state

 States are Bureaucratic

    • Specialized administrative structures

    • Use of systems of record keeping

o Tax keeping

o Law keeping

 Most written languages have their origins from creation of a state

 States create laws

    • Rulers use positive and negative sanctions to maintain control

    • Regulations about your life enforced by political leadership

    • State could punish you if you do not follow laws

 With first states around the world accounts of violence are found

 Human sacrifice

 States have territories

    • They are organized on the basis of land, not just kinship

   • Boundaries form

 States have standing armies or police forces

   • To apply and enforce sanctions

   • States conquer and control territory by force

 State tax people

    • States collect goods and labor 

    • Rather than paying tribute to chief

    • Paying percentage of harvest or waiver (one family member works for state)

 States have class

    • States are socially stratified

    • Rich people and poor people

What are pristine states and secondary states?

• Pristine state emerges from an existing chiefdom without the interaction of other states


• Secondary states emerge around a pristine state in reaction in order to protect themselves from the expansion of those pristine states

Where did pristine states develop?

Seven major centers of early state formation

 Mesopotamia - pristine– gave rise to other states of region

   • Present day Iraq

   • Zaggarut at Ur-namma

 Egypt - Pristine

   • Pyramids at Giza (2589-2532 BC)

   • Hieroglyphic writing

 Africa – Secondary State

 Indus Valley – based on control of trade routes

   • Harappan Ship

   • Urban Centers

 China – Pristine

   • Great wall of China

   • Emperor Zheng’s Tomb, Qin Dynasty (First Chinese Emporer)

      o 1,000s, terra-cotta statues o 700,000 laborer worked on tomb, palace, & temples

 Mesoamerica (Mexico)

   • Teotihuacan

 Andean South America – Pristine - (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia)

What are the three main theories of state formation presented in the lecture?

Functionalist Theories - Chiefdoms & states were solutions to social or environmental problems o


Internal Conflict Theories – States developed from class conflict

 Needed to protect wealth so created states to maintain states and class structure


Warfare Theories – States developed by conquest  Ex: village conquers one village then the conqueror goes on to conquer another

What are the main techniques that archaeologists use to study prehistoric states?

o Settlement Pattern Analysis

 Cheifdoms and states are regional

 Ex: Middle Uruk Phase Settlements: Distribution of sites by size and type

 Ex: Susiana Settlement Hierarchy

 Ex: Rosario Phase


o Analysis of Monumental Architecture

 States collect tax to build temples, palaces, and monuments


o Household archaeology

 Chiefdoms and states are socially stratified

 Ex: Emperor Zheng’s Palace, feline mural, mural of Quetzal, Zolalpan Apartment Complex: occupied for 100s of years


o Analysis of craft production and exchange

 States control the economy: Workshops, sourcing raw material, trade networks

 Ex: Tripod vessel, fineware pottery, flint knives, stone mask, ceramic molds and adornos


o Iconography and Writing

 States kept records and used propaganda

 Iconography: artwork that expresses ideas that can be read

 Ex: Hieroglyphics, proto-siva seal, early writing, murals


o Bioarcheology and Mortuary Analysis

 Analysis of burials and grave goods

 Ex: Tomb of King Khaswkhemwy Abydos, 2686 BC, Emperor Zheng’s tomb, sacrafices at An-yang,


o Cities and Ceremonial Centers

 Urban Planning

 Mapping urban centers and studying their layout  Ex: Teotihuacan

What was the environment of Mesopotamia like in the period of chiefdom & state formation?

 Hot, dry desert

 Swamps & rivers

 No forests

 Flood & mud: Floods deposit mud on land

 Absence of stone, metal, hardwood: Any rock found has been carried there by humans

 Change in Sea level: Ocean rising, polar ice caps melting o Susiana Plains

 Mountain valley

 Arid

How did the environment influence the development of chiefdoms & states?

o Irrigation, high productivity: a lot more can be produced out of irrigated land


o Arid


o Circumscription: resources are highly bounded: if you lose the irrigated land you are forced out into the desert: as important as surplus: raises control


o Agricultural surplus & political control: needed surplus to support political control

When did chiefdoms and states form in Mesopotamia?

Ubaid Period, 5500 to 3800 BC

 No evidence of occupation before ‘Ubaid

 Introduction of irrigation

 Formation of first chiefdoms

 First settled by small villages around 5500BC o Uruk Period, 3800 to 3100 BC

 Formation of first states

 First writing

What social & political changes occurred in Sumeria in the Ubaid Period?

o Major Ubaid Phase Sites

o Rise of Towns

    Two towns, Ur and Eridu

       • Several thousand people

    Many small villages

       • Few hundred people

    Two-tier settlement hierarchy


o Rise of Temples

    Development of temple complexes in towns (ex. Temple Sequence, Eridu)

    Record keeping Systems

       • Development of “tokens”, prewriting (ex. Tell Abada Artifacts)

    Emergence of elites

       • At Erida and Uruk, several larger residences around temples (ex. Large residence at Tell Abada)

       • No elaborate burials

    Finance and Control

       • System of “staple finance”


o Pay tax in form of food

• Ideological power

• Control of agricultural land and temples


o Record Keeping

o Emergence of Elites

o Finance and control

What social & political changes occurred in Sumeria in the Uruk Period?

·         First writing

·         Social and political changes

·         Formation of first states

·         Ur and Eridu continue to be occupied

·         Large towns, small towns, & villages

·         Priest residences & palace

·         Center of government

·         Hereditary leaders

·         Royalty and mobility

·         Development of classes

      ·         Rulers, priests (probably hereditary), traders (brought in raw materials), craftsmen (turn organic materials into fine objects)

·         Inventions, writing (Cuneiform) & copper (artifacts; source in Turkey, brought in by traders)

     ·         System of seals from Tepe Gawra into wax or clay

     ·         Means of recording transactions

       ·         Currency in grain and beer

       ·         bartering

    ·         Developed into pictograms & script

    ·         Fist written documents 3,400 BC, Uruk Phase

·         Means of maintaining state record

When did writing emerge in Mesopotamia? What were the stages in development of writing? What was writing used for during the Uruk Phase (in the period of the first states)?

o Began as tokens and seals; means of recording transactions (ex. Jar Seal and Stamp Seal)

o Development of Sumerian Writing

    Developed into pictograms & script

    First written documents 3,400 BC, Uruk Phase

    Means of maintain state record (ex. Clay tablets from Uruk)

    Record of Sale of land


o The Rise of Literature

    Developed into a means of recording stories and poetry

    World’s first literature, Sumeria (Gilgamesh Epic)

    600-700 symbols First alphabet, by 1,000 BC

What changes in settlement patterns occurred in the Susiana Plains in the Susa & Uruk Periods?

Susiana Plain Chronology

o Susa A, 4400 to 3800 BC

 First chiefdoms (same time as Ubaid)


o Uruk, 3800 to 3100 BC

 First states

   • Summerian Civilizaton (3000BC)


o 10 to 15 city-states (Sumeria and Susiana Plains)


o Trading colonies in upper Tigris and Euphrates Rivers


o Development of a “world economic system”

   • Akkadian Kingdom (2500 to 1990 BC)


o Conquered Sumeria in 2112BC

 North of Sumeria

 Early leader of Sargon


o Established far reaching trading empire o Ur – capital of Sargon

   • Babylon and the Assyrian Empire


o Babylon

 City state conquers Ur in 1990 BC

 Hamurabai


o Assyrian Empire (1356-539BC)

 Conquer fertle crescent

 Defeated by Persian Empire

What factors caused the formation of chiefdoms & states in Mesopotamia?

Functionalist Theories

o Chiefdoms & states were solutions to social or environmental problems


Internal Conflict Theories

o States developed from class conflict

   • Warfare Theories o States developed by conquest

How were the pyramids constructed? What technological, logistical, & social challenges did the Egyptians meet in order to construct the pyramids?

       o  Logistical challenge: location; getting right amount of materials/supplies/resources at the right time (tools; food; housing; manpower)

o    Engineering challenges

        must be completed before the pharaoh dies


o Social challenges

o    How did everyone agree to do this?

o    Question of power

·         Ideology

·         Reason

·         Religion

§  Pharaoh is a god

·         Economic power

§  To obtain logistics

o    Technical knowledge & logistics (management)

o    System of taxation

·         Economic control (to collect resources and labor)

o    System of laws and police

·         Coercive power (in order to force taxation)

·         Punishment/threat

o    Divine kingship & cults of the dead

·         Belief system that makes building pyramids necessary

·         Not slaves; hired/paid by state

·         Worship of dead Pharaoh

§  Pharaoh needed tombs for afterlife

What are the main characteristics of the environment of Egypt?

o More than 95% of Egypt is desert

o Irrigation farming

 River fed by monsoon rains

 Rains for 6 months a year

 Nile: Annual flooding

 Floods bring sediments from Africa and renew soil every year: results in high yields year in and out o Lower (Nile delta) and Upper Egypt (rest of Nile)

 Nile Delta and the Mediterranean

   • Fishing and trade very abundant at one point

   • Fishing good source of protein

   • Seaports facilitated trade Delta is now retreating because it isn’t being renewed

How did the environment influence the development of chiefdoms & states in Egypt?

·         Surplus

·         Sustainability

§  No fall off in production

·         Control

§  In desert

§  Irrigation systems

·         Can shut people's water off

§  Circumscription

·         Resources highly bounded

·         Irrigated land next to deserts

·         Ability for control

·         Those who can control agricultural system can control water


What was the environment of Egypt like in the Pleistocene?

·         Arid desert

·         Annual floods

·         Narrow zone of forest & marsh along river

How did people make a living in Egypt in the Pleistocene?

·         Small camp sites located along the river

·         Small family bands

·         Living on wild resources

·         Moving with flood

§  Water rises/sets; 6 month fluctuations

§  Ponds and lakes

§  Result: very easy to catch fish

·         River fish/catfish

·         Aquatic plants

·         (edible roots; nut grass)

How did the environment of Egypt changed at the beginning of the Holocene (8,000 BC)?

·         Increased moisture (seasonal rain)

·         Savana became area of grassland, lakes, & river valleys

·         Herds of gazelle & wild cattle

When did herding and farming begin in Egypt?

o    8,000-6,000 BC

o    Western desert

o    Domestication of herd animals

·         Cattle

·         Sheep and goats from middle East

How did the environment of Egypt changed after 6,000 BC?

·         Weather shift (after Yunger Dryas)

·         6,000-5,000 BC

·         Sahara begins to dry

·         Many hunter gatherers abandon area, head east to Nile or to sub-saharan Africa

·         Onset of modern climate conditions

                                ·  Early farming villages on Nile by 5,000 to 4,500 BC

How did Egyptian society change in the Predynastic Period and the Early Dynastic Period?
  • Predynastic - from villages to chiefdoms. 
  • Small states by 3100BC. 
  • Formation of political centers. 
  •  Emergence of Elite. 
  • Economic specialization - trade and craft

Dynastic - unification of upper and lower Egypt

  • First Pharaoh
  • State of religion - pharaoh represents God on earth
What roles did irrigation, warfare, and social stratification played in the formation of early states in Egypt?

·         State as a solution to overpopulation

o    State needed for irrigation?

·         NO, Egypt based on simple, small scale irrigation systems that could be easily maintained

o    War and conquest

·         Possibly, but not definitely

o    Social stratification/economic control

·         Ex: modest tombs to elaborate funerary complexes and then temples/pyramids

·         Public architecture celebration of leadership


Nabta Playa (6,000BC)???

Community of 15 families

Domestication of the cat

Early Pottery


What are economic, coercive, and ideological power bases?


·         Ideological

§  Media

§  Schools/education system

·         Coercive

§  Military

§  Police

§  Threat of a sanction

§  Jail

§  Fine

·         Economic

·         Resources

·         Tax money

·         Property

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