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African ch 12-15
Study guide
7th Grade

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Ch 12.2


In west africa there was desert, semi desert, forest, and savanna. The vegatation zones had many different reources which led to trade with other people from diffrent vegatations zones. Several majorrivers wedre good for trading, kind oflike a tradsing highway. Some traders crossed the desert like the Sahara.


ch 12.3

Each community produced most of the things they needed. Family worked to together to clear fields, plant seed, and harvest crops.Small communities trade. Family communites -> Villages becasue they want help from each other and plus for protection. Early villages might have had homes close together for prtection.





Exteded family


an immediatly family plus other close relatives, might have 15-20 members

ch 12.4

 Villages go to towns and citys because of trade and the introduction of ironworking.Ironwoking spread quickly,it made axes, hoes, and weapons such as spears, plus farming tools. Made lots of more food and goods so tose extra goods could be traded. It grew richer due to this.Jenno-jeno built in third century, existed more than 1600 years.Where the niger and bani river meet is where jenno-jeno was built. It was an ideal location for farming, fishing, and trade.They lived in circular houses, worked on many carfts, and the most respected peoplewere the black smiths. West african people valued iron more than gold. Scientist found evidence of trade, craftmenship, and wealth.


Ch 12.5

 Towns and cities go to kingdoms because of trade, rulers of some west african citiesbecame wealthy because they collected taxes. Rulers also collected a tribut or a payment made by one ruler or country to another for protection or as a sign or submission.

-obligation to pay tribute
-men had to serve in an army
-kings provided protection for the conquered territory
-Armies made sure trade routes were safe, and kept our raiders and foreign armies.
-Wars between small cities ended 
-Kings collected luxury goods from subject and passed them out fairly  throught the kingdom, plus gave expensive gifts to their goverment.

Summary of the chapter

Geogrphy was a major factor in the development of societies. Setteled communties grew up below the sahara deser, where the land permitted farming. Geogrphy also in fluenced trading patterns. Communities traded wiht one another foritems they could do locally. River were trading routes. Family base communities -> villages -> Towns and cities -> kingdoms and empires.Iron making helped grow village to towns and cities. Extra good were traded and trade brought great wealth to west africa.


ch 13.2

Ghana was ruled by a powerful king, and he controoled the supply of gold to preserve his wealth

Matrilineal succession, based on a women's family line.Soliders wore knee length cotton pants, sleeveless long shirts, sandals, and headresses, sometimes a sign of rank and for protection of the head. During war the king called up additional reseve forces and the troops of other governers under his rule. an elite group of soliders were selected for their courage, honesty, adn inteligance. they were the kings bodyguards, escorts, and military advisers. 


ch 13.3

2 factors that led to the growth of the trans-saharan trade were the spread of islam and the introduction of the camel. crossing sahra was difficult because caravans sometimes lost their way and the caravan could also run out of water,plus the weather conditions were also very harsh.







a person who is hired to carry loads

ch 13.4

Salt was importan becasue they needed to replace the lost salt from perspiration, they liked the taste, they needed it to stop food from spoiling, and to give to their cattle. Gold was important because it was a symbol of wealth and it was needed to purchase silk and porcelin. Ghana became wealthy through trans-saharan trade becasue the traders had to pay tax to trade in ghana.


ch 13.5

A north african trader brings goods like wool, silk, cotton, salt, and other goods. After that, they would beat a drum to signal i want to barter/trade. then they wouls walk several miles away, waiting for the gold miner to put a sufficent amount of gold. Enough you take gold not enought don't take gold. Gold miner waits for the beating of a drum then he gathers a pretty goof amount of gold to trade. They get on a boat and travel to to the trading site, there i put how much gold i think it is worth and beat a drum for the north african traer to come back then i leave while he is on his way. Then it would be complete.


ch 13.6

decline of ghana is because of war. almoravids began attacking Ghana's empire. In 1076, they captured the capital city, Kumbi.  In 1807 the Ghana's king regained power but the empire had fallen a part. It also declined becasue of loss of natural resources. population grew so more usage of resources.



Trade played a key role in the growth of kingdoms and empires in west africa. The first of these was Ghana. Ghana had a powerful goverment and astrong army. It was ideally located to control the trans-saharan trade between north africa and th southern forests of west africa. Ghana became wealthy by charging taxes on the goods that passed through its land, espically gold and salt. Years of war and the loss of natural resources led to Ghana's downfall in the 13th century. 


ch 14.2

Islam came to africa so changes in religios practices, goverment and law, education, language, architeture, and decoritive arts. 

Islam goes Ghana:

between 639 and 708 c.e. arab muslims conquered north africa. Many muslim merchants and traders settelted in Kumbi,otherwise known as the great marketplace of Ghana.

Islam in Mali

Mansa Musa took a hajj and this helped Mali because musa took the risk of going on the hajj and suffered all the evnts that happened during it, plus it helped gain mali acceptance as an important empire. in 1375 mali goes on map



Islam in Songhai

Sunni ali was the new ruler of songhai. he built a pwerful army that enabled to break away from mali adn evetually conquer it. Songhia didn't exactly practice Islamic religion.1490's is when muslims in Songhai rebelled. They placed Aksia Mohammed Toure on the throne. he led a series of wars to convert nonmulims to Islam. Under his rule Songhai grew big as large as wetern europe.

Ch 14.3

New religious practices that were adopted were islam's 5 pillars of faith but they still kept some of their old practices. They used amulets or charms to protect them, they beleived it did. Ibn battuta was impressed with west african converting to Islam.


Ch 14.3

New religious practices that were adopted were islam's 5 pillars of faith but they still kept some of their old practices. They used amulets or charms to protect them, they beleived it did. Ibn battuta was impressed with west african converting to Islam.

Ch 14.4

Major changes were the sucession changing to patrillineal, started to excersize more control of local rulers, and the adoption of shari'ah.Islam sucession was patrillineal and african's was matrillineal and when islam came to afric, africa changed to patrillineal.


Ch 14.5

 Muslims valued learning so they encouraged africa to do so to.Timbukutu, a big trading center, became famous for its community of Islamic scholars. it remanied an important center of learning until Songhai was conquered.When travelers and traders passed through timbukutu they were encouraged to learn in the universities. Books were copied by hand because there were no printing press there.muslim scholar books very important.


Ch 14.6

African language changed to arabic, so did the language of religion, learnig, commerce, and goverment. Arabic became the language of learing. Scholars used Arabic to write about the history  and culture of West Africa.Arabic became the language of of trade and goverment.


Ch 14.7

New design for homes when islam came. Architecture was mostly made from mud adn wood like mosques, and shrines. Dijngareybar was made from limestone and earth mixedwith wood and straw.clain drain pipes helped stop rainwater damge.


Ch 14.8

West africa adopted muslim calligraphy and geometric designs for their own art and textiles.Muslims used this art to decorate everyday objects. West africa adopted this too and began using the allah to decorate costumes, fans, and even weapons. Geometric designs were an important element in Islamis art, as well as west african art. Muslima alos influenced how people dressed in West africa. Muslims used writing to identify and decorate robes.



Islam left a deep mark on west africa 8th century is when traders and missionaries brought islam to ghana, also reached to mali and songhai. Islam affected many areas of liffe in westa frica. It changed how people practiced. It brought new ideas about goverment goverment and law. the royal sucession became patrillineal. goverment became more cetralized. Shari'ah replaced a customary law(physical law). The islamic love of law of learning brought a new emphasis on education to west africa. People studied in Qur'anic schools and at Islamic universities. Timbukutu became a center of Islamic and academic learning/study. Traditional west african culture did not disappear witht the arival of islam







sariah was administrated by a judge who is a quadis and heard casesin the court












a fragment used to support workers and matirels during the construction or repair of a building







record keeper of the african people, a verbal artist of the mande people. They were important becasue they had a lot of iformation that was important to the king, and they also kept memories of the past alive








an accountof the line of ancestary within a family







a story that is usally passed down orally and becomes part of a community's tradition

Ch 15.2

Written and oral traditions west africa created were folk tales proverbs, griots, and written traditions. oral tradition is important becasue ti passed down knoledge it also kept the history alive. Oral tradition also helped rulers rule and teach morals and values. Written and oral traditions influence life today by becoming sources of information about west african history, legends and history.aswell as influencing common folktales abd proverbs. also poets and stprytellers make recordings and appear on radio broadcast to form old and new works. artist have changed traditional oral works into modern music.



Music was a big part of west africa and play vital roles. there were the instruments like the balafon, ngoni, kora, and the drums. drumming were important in west african culture. drums made of hallowed logs and covered with animal skin. Dance was also a big part of west africa. Dance was preformed for all occasions and often reflected the conditions people lived in. Some dancers wore masks.











a technique in which shaped pieces of fabrics are attached to a backround fabric to form a design or picture






Call and response






a song style in which a singer or musician leads with a call and a group responds


my call and response song

there were many forms, of visual art


can you name them


i will tell you


there are sculptures plus the decorative masks


those are some, now name some more



ch 15.4


-made from terra cotta then bronze and copper, then brass in 11th century

- very exagerated



-worn in ceremonies, performances,and in sacred rites


-had applique-well known types are stambed fabrics, stpry fabrics and kente cloth(very famous is kente cloth)

Everyday objects:

-pratical objects -> beautiful objects

-ceramic storage, containers, utensils, furniture, and baskets.



GREAT ZIMBABWE: Monument to the zimbabwe state

      The shona build zimbabwe:

-developed economy based on pastoral agriculture

-mastered iron making and mined great quantities of gold

-engaged in trade with costal cities and taxed visiting traders

-built great zimbabwe, capital city, as sign of the stage's prestige.

     Ruins of a Magnificent palace:

  The temple at great Zimbabwe

-cone-shaped tower(115 feet.)

-king's dwelling, huts, shrines, grainaries.

-gateways mrked with carved birds

-surronding wall: 820 feet long, 16 feet thick, 30 feet high


• Great Zimbabwe was abandoned after 1450 a.d.

• some provinces of zimbabwe state declare independence
• Monomutapa Empire replaced Zimbabwe as dominant power
• Portuguese greed for slaves and gold destroyed  Monomutapa


The Bantu Migrations

Bantu Societies

• economy based on hunting, fishing, and farming
• in most, basic unit was household, or family
• most Bantu people lived in villages of 5—200 families
• gender roles were clearly defined
• age grades defined specific responsibilities
• village concil of elders made decisions

Bantu origins
•Bantu people originated in west africa -part of nok people
•After 500b.c. iron technology allowed for increase of food production and population
•Bantus migrated to centrat and south africa in three waves, between 1500 b.c. to 500 a.d.
The Kongo Kingdom
How My Kingdom Came to Power
• Bantu migrated to Congo River basin
• Kongo natives easily assimilated Bantu lifestyle
• two Bantu clans united to form Kongo kingdom
Sources of Our Kingdom’s Strength:
• waterways provide abundance of fish
• farmers grow collect several crops
• animals are hunted
for meat and hides
• taxes on trade goods are paid to the.king’s treasury
Reasons Why We’re Concerned
• Portuguese greed sours trade relationship
• rival African states ally with the Portuguese to raid Kongo for slaves
Reasons Why We, the Portuguese, Came to the Kongo
• missionaries converted people of the Kongo to Christianity
• traders traded European and Asian goods for sugar, copper, and animal skin.

The swahili costal trading states

Independent City States
• most important city-states: Mogadishu, Malindi, Mombasa, Zanzibar, Kilwa, and Sofala
• each one ruled by an emir or sultan
• rulers were supported by an elaborate and well educated bureaucracy

Swahili Culture
• Bantu-speaking Africans converted to islam intermarried with muslim traders
Swahili language combined Bantu, Arabic, and Indian Architecture, food, dress, fanning, and goverment reflected combined African and arab styles

Geography’s Role in Trade
•sailors took advantage of monsoons to travel between China and East Africa

•Kilwa’s deep and large harbor could hold the world’s largest ships

Arabs and Persians brought incense, glass, pearls, fabric, and Muslim culture
Chinese brought porcelain, silk and jade
Indians brought spices, rice, and cotton cloth
Europeans sought to become a dominant trading power in East africa.


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