Shared Flashcard Set


4.Understanding Internet Protocol
From the MVA course
Computer Networking

Additional Computer Networking Flashcards







Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol and the first version to be widely deployed.


IPv4 is a frequently used communications protocol and is one of the core protocols for the Internet.


IP resides on the network layer of the OSI model.


IP Addresses


IP addresses consist of four octets (8-bits), each between 0 and 255.


In order for an IP address to function, there must be a properly configured IP address and compatible subnet mask.

To connect to the Internet (or any remote network), you will also need a gateway address and – optionally – a DNserver address.


Voir Class range





Usable Addresses


Usable addresses are always going to be two less than the mathematical amount.

The first and last addresses cannot be used.


For network 172.24.3.X

The 0 (in binary) for the host address is the entire network

The 1s (in binary) for the host address is the broadcast address


Class D and Class E are not used by regular hosts.

Class D is used for what is known as multicasting—transmitting data to multiple computers (or routers).


Class E was reserved for future use, but this has given way to IPv6 instead.





IP Conflict


IP conflicts occur when two devices have been assigned the same IP address.


Windows Error: There is an IP address conflict with another system on the network.


If there is an IP address conflict, the devices will have problems sending and receiving data.


Public and Private Addresses


IPv4 addresses are further classified as either public or private.

Public IP addresses are ones that are exposed to the Internet. Devices connected to the Internet can potentially communicate with them.


Private IP addresses are hidden from the Internet and any other networks. Usually behind an IP proxy or firewall device.


Voir tableau private addresses





Static and Dynamic Addresses

Static IP address are addresses that are manually assigned to a host. Dynamic IP addresses are more common than static IP addresses, whereas they automatically obtain an IP address (and other IP information).






Automatic Private IP Addressing


It uses a single Class B network number:

If a Windows client cannot get an IP address from a DHCP server and has not been configured statically, it will auto-assign a number on this network.





Default Gateway and DNS Server


For a device to communicate on the Internet, a default gateway and DNS server must be assigned.


Default gateway

Provides a default route for TCP/IP hosts to use when communicating with hosts on remote networks.

The first IP address of the device that a client computer will look for when attempting to gain access outside the local network.


DNS Server


The server that provides name resolution of domain names to IP addresses.


Network Address Translation


NAT provides a method for translating IPv4 addresses of devices on one network into IPv4 addresses of devices on a different network.


NAT was developed to provide a temporary solution to the IPv4 address issue.

Enables one address space (private) to be re-mapped to another address space, or perhaps re-mapped to a single public IP address.







Subnetting is the subdivision of your logical IP network.


By default, all computers are on one subnet or network with no divisions involved.


By modifying the default subnet mask, you can subnet your network into multiple smaller networks.







IPv6 is the new generation of IP addressing for the Internet.

Solves many of the limitations of IPv4, including address space and security.


Represented as 8 groups of 4 hexadecimal digits. Not backward compatible with IPv4.

128-bit system while IPv4 is only a 32-bit system


IPv4 allows approximately 4.3 billion IP addresses.

IPv6 allows 3.4 X 10^38 (340 undecillion) addresses.





IPv6 Addresses Types


Unicast address

Packet is delivered to a single network interface.

There are two types of unicast addresses:

Global unicast addresses are routable and displayed directly to the Internet.

Link local address are automatically configured addresses to communicate with devices on the same link (subnet).


Anycast address: Identifies multiple interfaces, but the packet is delivered to the nearest of the network interfaces (routing distance).


Multicast address: Packet is delivered to multiple network interfaces.


IPv6 Address Components


IPv6 addresses are broken down into three parts.


Site prefix

The first three groups of numbers that define the “network”.


Subnet ID

Defines the individual subnet of the network that the address is located on.


Interface ID

The individual host IP portion.


IPv6 Address: 2001:4860:0000:2001:0000:0000:0000:0068


Dual IP Stack


A dual IP stack exists when there are two Internet Protocol software implementations in an operating system :

one for IPv4 and another for IPv6.


Dual stack IP hosts can run IPv4 and IPv6 independently, or they can use a hybrid implementation, which is the most commonly used method for modern operating systems.





IPv4-Mapped Addresses


IPv4-mapped addresses have

  1. the first 80 bits set to 0
  2. the next 16 set to 1 (shown as ffff)
  3. the last 32 bits populated by the IPv4 address


These addresses look like IPv6 addresses, other than the last 32 bits, which are written in the customary dot-decimal notation.


IPv4-mapped IPv6 address for address is ::ffff:


IPv4 to IPv6 Tunneling


IPv6 packets can be encapsulated inside IPv4 datagrams.


In Microsoft operating systems, this is generally done with the Teredo adapter, which is a virtual adapter or “pseudo-interface,” not a physical network adapter.


An example of one of these addresses would be:


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