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18, 17
Chapters 18 and 17 for Vocab Test #2. (18,17,11,16,20,10,15,13,5,6,19,8,21,14)
34
History
10th Grade
11/14/2010

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Term
Abbasid
Definition
Cosmopolitan Arabic dynasty (750-1258) that replaced the Umayyads; founded by Abu al-Abbas and reaching its peak under Harun al-Rashid.
Term
Bubonic Plague
Definition
Epidemic that swept Eurasia, causing devastating population loss and disruption. Known as the Black Death in Europe after 1350 C.E.
Term
Buddhism
Definition
Religion, based on Four Noble Truths, associated with Siddhartha Gautama (563--483 B.C.E.), or the Buddha; its adherents desired to eliminate all distracting passion and reach nirvana.
Term
Byzantine
Definition
Long-lasting empire centered at Constantinople; it grew out of the end of the Roman empire and carried legacy of Roman greatness and was the only classical society to survive into the early modern age; it reached its early peak during the reign of Justinian (483--565).
Term
Confucianism
Definition
Philosophy, based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Kong Fuzi (551-479 B.C.E.), or Confucius, that emphasizes order, the role of the gentleman, obligation to society, and reciprocity.
Term
Daoism
Definition
Chinese philosophy with origins in the Zhou dynasty; it is associated with legendary philosopher Laozi, and it called for a policy of inaction.
Term
Golden Horde
Definition
Mongol tribe that controlled Russia from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries.
Term
Ilkhanate
Definition
Mongol state that ruled Persia after abolition of the Abbasid empire in the thirteenth century.
Term
Islam
Definition
Monotheistic religion of the prophet Muhammad (570-632); influenced by Judaism and Christianity, Muhammad was considered the final prophet because the earlier religions had not seen the entire picture; the Qu'ran is the holy book of Islam.
Term
Istanbul
Definition
The new name of Constantinople after it is sacked by Sultan Mehmed II in 1453.
Term
Lamaist Buddhism
Definition
Branch of Buddhism that was similar to shamanism in its acceptance of magic and supernatural powers.
Term
Muslim
Definition
A follower of Islam.
Term
Nestorian
Definition
Early branch of Christianity, named after the fifth-century Greek theologian Nestorius, that emphasized the human nature of Jesus Christ.
Term
Ottoman empire
Definition
Powerful Turkish empire that lasted from the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 until 1918 and reached its peak during the reign of S├╝leyman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566).
Term
Saljuqs
Definition
Turkish tribe that gained control over the Abbasid empire and fought with the Byzantine empire.
Term
Shamanism
Definition
Belief in shamans or religious specialists who possessed supernatural powers and who communicated with the gods and the spirits of nature.
Term
Sultanate of Delhi
Definition
Islamic state in northern India established by Mahmud's successors in 1206 C.E. that began to establish the presence of Islam on the Indian subcontinent.
Term
Uigher Turks
Definition
Clerks, secretaries, and administrators for the Mongol Empire.
Term
Ulaanbaatar
Definition
Mongolian city.
Term
Yuan
Definition
Chinese dynasty (1279-1368) that was founded by the Mongol ruler Khubilai Khan.
Term
Yurts
Definition
Tents used by nomadic Turkish and Mongol tribes.
Term
Aachen
Definition
The capital of the Carolingian Empire.
Term
Arianism
Definition
Early Christian heresy that centered around teaching of Arius (250-336 C.E.) and contained the belief that Jesus was a mortal human being and not coeternal with God; Arianism was the focus of Council of Nicaea.
Term
Benefice
Definition
Grant from a lord to a vassal, usually consisting of land, which supported the vassal and signified the relationship between the two.
Term
Carolingian Empire
Definition
Royal clan established by Charlemagne, who expanded the Carolingian Empire into Spain, Bavaria, and Northern Italy.
Term
Carolingians
Definition
Germanic dynasty that was named after its most famous member, Charlemagne.
Term
Christianity
Definition
Religion emerging from Middle East in the first century C.E. holding Jesus to be the son of God who sacrificed himself on behalf of mankind.
Term
Clovis
Definition
Leader of the Franks whose conversion to Roman Christianity resulted in the Frankish conversion to Christianity.
Term
Franks
Definition
Germanic people who controlled Gaul following Roman decline and collapse.
Term
Heavy Plow
Definition
Device of the sixth century permitting the turning of heavy northern soils, rotating crops, and increased agricultural production.
Term
Holy Roman Empire
Definition
Central and western European kingdom created at the Treaty of Verdun in in 843 and lasting until 1806.
Term
Magyars
Definition
Hungarian invaders who raided towns in Germany, Italy, and France in the ninth and tenth centuries.
Term
Manor
Definition
Large estates of the nobles during the European middle ages, home for the majority of the peasants.
Term
Serfs
Definition
Peasants who, while not chattel slaves, were tied to the land and who owed obligation to the lords on whose land they worked.
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