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WEST-E Social Studies
Study tips for WEST-E Social Studies Portion

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Branches of US Gov't

Legislative - H.O.Rep's (435), 2 yr term, primarily spending bills,

Senate (100), 6 yr term, primarily ratifying treaties Pres may sign with other countries

Executive - Pres and VP as two main figures. Also, advisors, such as state, defense, education, treasury, commerce, etc. members are appointed by Pres and approved by Congress.

Pres-CIC, can approve/veto any bill from Congress (unless 2/3 approbal from each house of Congresss)

Judicial - series of courts/related entities, Supreme Court (over appeals and district courts). Decides if laws  are constitutional. Supreme court justices are appointed by Pres and confirmed by Senate w/ life terms.  Lower-court judges are elected in popular votes.




27 amendments (First 10 called BORights), such as Prohibition

These must start in Congress and be propsed by lawmakers, 2/3 support from each house

3 Questions of Economics

1.  WHAT GOODS to produce

2.  HOW to produce goods

3.  FOR WHOM the goods are being produced



Mechanisim that brings buyers/sellers in contact

Input Market-market in which factors of production, or resources are bought and sold (sales clerk at shoes store, as they are hiring out their resource of labor for a wage)

Output Market-refer to the market in which goods and services are sold (shoes at a shoe store, for example)

Market Oriented Economy
functions on the basis of supply and demand.  Opposite is a Centrally-planned economy (aka Communism).  The means of production are publicly owned, with little, if any private ownership. In the middle is Market Socialism=uses both market and planning
Equilibrium Price

Determined as the overlap of the buying decisions of buyers with the selling decisions of sellers; the price that clears the markets (meaning no shortages or surpluses).

Also, where the supply and demand curves intersect.

Opportunity Cost

The value of the sacrificed alternative; the value of what had to be given up in order to have the output of good X.

Ex.  Opportunity Cost of studying is the value of what you are not doing because you're studying (whether it's watching TV, walking dogs, gym time, etc). 

Every choice has an opportunity cost.


Four Factors of Production/Resources

1.  labor - anyone who sells his/her ability to produce goods/services

2.  Capital - anything manufactured to be used in production process

3.  Land - land itself and everything occurring naturally on it (oils, minerals, lumber)

4.  Entrepeneurship - ability of an individual to combine the three inputs w/ his/ her own talents to produce a viable good/service.  He/she takes the risk and experiences losses/profits.

Five Themes of Geography

1. Location-includes relative and absolute

2. Place-Physical characteristics include mountains, rivers,etc.  Human characteristics are features created by human interactions with the environment such as canals, roads,etc.

3. Human-Environmental Interaction - has three main concepts: a.  Humans adapt to the environment (wearing warm clothing in cold climate); humans modify the environment (planting trees to block wind); humans depend on the environment (food, water, raw materials)

4.  Movement - how humans interact with one another thru trade, communications, emigrations, and other forms of contact.

5. Regions - an area that has some kind of unifying characteristic, such as a common language/gov't. Three main types include: a. Formal region - areas definded by actual political boundaries; Functional region - have a common region, such as area covered by telephone service; Vernacular region - less formally defined areas that are formed by people's perception ("middle east", or "south")


Latitude + Longitude

Latitude - hoizontal line; "parallels"

Longitude - "meridian"; vertical line

rewards  (praise from a parent) or punishments (teasing by classmates) for appropriate/inappropriate behaviors.

Adaptation-individuals/societies change to cope with social, economic, and environmental pressures.

Acculturation-exchange/adoption of cultural features with 2 come into regular direct contct.  ex.  Adoption of christianity by many Native Americans.

Assimilation-process of a minority ethnic group adopting the culture of the larger group it exists within.

Extinction-complete disappearance of a culture due to disease, ware, or slowly over time due to adaption, acculturation, or assimilation.


Causes for the War for Independence

1. English leaders tried to impose a tax to repay the French-Indian War/reassert control.  This was rejected "No taxation w/o representation!" leading to boycotts

-Proclamation Act - prohibited English settlement west of Appalachian Mountains to appease Native Americans

-Sugar Act - tax on foreign molasses, sugar, and other imported goods

-Currency Act - projhibited colonies from issuing paper money.

-Stamp Act (repealed 3 mo later) on newspapers, legal dox, licenses, etc.

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