# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

WEST-E Science
Various science terms, etc. needed to pass the WA state elementary WEST-E
24
Education
06/05/2012

Term
 Temperature Conversion Fahrenheit & Celsius
Definition
 F to C = 5/9(F-32) C to F = (9/5)C + 32
Term
 Matter
Definition
 Anything that takes up space and has mass
Term
 Mass
Definition
 measure of the amount of matter in an object.  Two objects of equal mass will balance on a simple scale anywhere (moon, earth, etc).  Will have different weights?
Term
 Latent Heat
Definition
 Amount of heat req'd to change from one state to the other.   Ex.  Water going from liquid to solid(ice cube).
Term
 Heat of Fusion
Definition
 Opposite of latent heat.  How much heat needed to go from solid to liquid.   Ex.  Ice cube to water
Term
 Heat of Vaporization
Definition
 Amount of heat needed to change from liquid to gaseous state.
Term
 Three ways to transfer heat
Definition
 Conduction - heat travels thru heated solid - pan to flame   Convection - heat is transported via movement of a heated substance - warm air in the oven   Radiation - heat transfer as a result of electromagnetic waves - sun or microwave
Term
 Laws of Thermodynamics
Definition
 1.  Conservation of energy (not impt)   2.  No machine is 100% efficient.  Impossible to construct a machine that absorbs heat from a heat source and performs equal amount of work.  Some heat will ALWAYS be lost to the environment. Heat can't spontaneously pass from a colder object to a hotter one.  This is because certain events have a preferred directin called the "arrow of time".   Entropy - measure of how much energy/heat is available for work.  Only occurs when heat is transferred from hot to cooler objects.  Once done, no more work can be extracted, tho energy is still being conserved.
Term
 Three types of waves
Definition
 Mechanical (sound) - caused by vibrations/air molecules that move parallel/back and forth to direction of wave.  Measured in hertz (1/sec), are longitudinal.   Water - Caused by ships, earthquakes, but most often wind.    Light - caused by vibrating electric and magnetic fields (visible light, radio waves, x ray, microwaves, gamma rays, radar), travels thru a vacuum (and so are not mechanical), are perpendicular to each other.
Term
 Element
Definition
 A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances   109 total (89 natural, 20 synthetic)
Term
 Atom
Definition
 Smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element.  All atoms of a particular element are the same.   Nucleus = center positive particles inside nucleus = protons # of protons in nucleus of a particular element= atomic number
Term
 Molecule
Definition
 Smallest particle of a substance that can exist independently and still have all of the properties of that substance.  Ex.  Oxygen (O2 - bc they are joined together in pairs in nature).  Most are made up of one atom.
Term
 Compound
Definition
 Made of 2+ elements that have been chemically combined.  Atoms join together when elelments are chemically combined, resulting in a loss of their individual identities as the compound they've become ~has different properties. ~made up of one kind of particle ~formed during chemical change ~broken down only by chemical changes ~properties are different from their parts ~has a specific amount of each ingredient   Classic compounds include:  acids, bases, salts, oxides
Term
 Chemical Formula
Definition
 Shorthand way of showing what is in a compound thru symbols and subscripts.     Letter = elements Number subscript = how many atoms of each element are involved (if none shown, assume 1)
Term
 Mixture
Definition
 any combo of 2+ substances in which the substances ~keep their own properties ~not formed by chemical change ~can be separated by physical changes ~properties are same as their parts ~no definite amount of each ingredient   ex.  fruit salad, ice cream sundae
Term
 Chemical Reactions
Definition
 interactions of substances that result in chemical changes/changes in energy
Term
 Nuclear/atomic Reactions
Definition
 reactions that change the composition, energy, or structure of atomic nuclei.  Nuclear reactions change the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.  Two main types include:   fission - splitting of nuclei, exothermic (releases heat energy) fusion - joining of nuclei
Term
 Dynamics
Definition
 Study of relationship btwn motion and the forces affecting motion, caused by force
Term
 Scientific Process
Definition
 1.  Pose a question - "how" or "why" normally 2.  Form a hypothesis 3.  Do the test 4.  Observe/collect data 5.  Draw a conclusion 6.  Graph data 7.  Lab report (title, abstract, purpose, hypothesis, control, observation, results) 8.  Present!
Term
 Beginning of Science
Definition
 ~Began with agricultural revolution 10k years ago ~Pythagoras' theorem (490 BC) recorded on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets in 1800 BC ~Greeks - bouyancy and approximate radius of Earth ~Indians - math and astronomy 5th-15th centuries AD ~China - compasses, movable-type printing, star atlases, cast iron, iron plough, wheelbarrow, suspension bridge, solid fuel rocket, etc. ~Scientific Method - Arab Empire/Muslims in Middle Ages (advocated for experiments, observations, measurements) ~Science in the West began w/ universities in 12th century
Term
 Hypothesis vs Theory vs Law
Definition
 A hypothesis is an educated guess, based on observation   A scientific theory summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing.   A law generalizes a body of observations.
Term
 Sequence of Organism make-up
Definition
 organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Term
 Connecting Bones + Muscles
Definition
 Tendon - connects muscle to bone/muscle Joint-where bones connect Ligament - connects bone to bone to form a joint
Term
 Taxonomy/Science Classification
Definition
 Kindom, phylum, subphylum, class, order, family, genus, species
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