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Week 3
programming principles
13
Computer Science
11/08/2017

Term
 Define data structure and how it differs from data type
Definition
 Data types are categories of data. Data structures allow multiple pieces of data to be stored in an organised structure. Like data types, data structure define what you can do with it.
Term
 Array
Definition
 Common data structure which is an ordered collection of values. ie items have a set position within the array. This allows you to sort, count, determine min/max, search for a value. You can refer to an item in an array by its index []
Term
 Difference between lists and tuplesSimilarities
Definition
 lists created with [],mutable (can change / add)tuples with (), immutable (can't add / change)Both ordered, able to contain different data types and reference by index
Term
 code to add 5 to nums = [1,2,3,4]refer to middle three letters in paradox
Definition
 nums.append(5)values [2:5]
Term
 "in" comparison operator
Definition
 allows you to search for an item in a data structure (list, tuple or even string)eg num = [2,4,6,8]if 4 in num: print ('4 is in num')else print ('4 is not in num')you can also use not in as an operator
Term
 For Loop
Definition
 Control structures (like selection statements) For: counter controlled loop. used when the number of iterations is known in advance for in : variable is name for current item and sequence is any iterable thing (list, tuple, range etc) for num in range (1,11): print (num) #will print 1 - 10 for num in range (6): print (num) #will print 1 - 5 draw flow chart
Term
 While loop
Definition
 Condition controlled loop. Repeats the loop body while the condition is true. The condition is checked before each repetition and if flase, body is not run.Draw flowchart
Term
 Difference in syntax between while loops in python and most other languages
Definition
 python: while : Other: while () { }
Term
 Difference in while and do-while loops
Definition
 Draw flow chart Do-while loop can be replicated using a while loop while True: if : break
Term
 Break statement
Definition
 ends the loop right away and moves on to the next statement after the loop. Used within a selection statement in the body of a loop. Can be used in any type of loop and almost all languages. Often be used to end an otherwise infinite loop.
Term
 Continue statement
Definition
 Skips the rest of the loop body and then continues with the next iteration.
Term
 Two main styles of 'for' loops
Definition
 For loops come in two main styles:A counter-controlled loop which works its way through a sequence (Fortran, ALGOL, Ada, BASIC, Ruby, Python…)The original style of for loopsA generic condition-controlled loop which is usually used in a counter-controlled fashion (C, C++, Java, PHP, JavaScript…)Very common, and sometimes referred to as a “C-style for loop”
Term
 Range function
Definition
 range ()Allows you to loop through a set of numbers within a range for num in range (1,11): print (num) #prints 1 - 10for num in range (1,22,3): print (num) #prints every third num between 1 and 21
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