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Website Design
Lecture 4
Computer Science
Undergraduate 3

Additional Computer Science Flashcards




Explain some concepts about web design applications
• Let you create pages using a WYSIWYG
• Many tools support CSS, Javascript, and other add-ons
• Often comes with templates and ability to up- and down-load pages to and from the hosting service
• Some applications provide proprietary extensions which give extra functionality
• The server must be compatible in order with these extensions for them to work
• Extensions work at the server end, not the client (browser) end, so compatibility is less of an issue
• May be a problem if you can change servers
Name some types of tests to perform on your website before letting it become live (2)
Functionality Testing
• Web pages must be tested to see if they are functionally correct
• Most errors are obvious to the eye
• Test all scripts
• Use validators for XHTML and CSS

Browser Testing
• Check on multiple browsers and operating systems if possible
• Major concerns are functionality and appearance
• Have as consistent across different browsers as possible
Name (3) types of navigation codes
o Lists of links
• Good XHTML is structured – a list of links can be structured as a list
• Applying CSS to the list can make it appear as a vertical or horizontal list of links without the list formatting

o A navigation frame
• Frames can be used for navigation
• Different frames can be assigned to different aspects of navigating a site

o Body of the document
• Links can be placed anywhere necessary in the body of a document
• Generally these links relate to the material at hand or to external resources
• Caution must be taken when using frames so that navigation frames do not become out of sync with body links
• Links must still look like links
What is HTML?
• HyperText Markup Language
• The standard publishing language of the World Wide Web
o Specifies a small set of structural and semantic tags for authoring relatively simple documents
o Supports hypertext and multimedia
What is XML?
• Extensible Markup Language
• A tagged language that is both machine and human readable
• Tags can be custom-made or pre-defined
Why would you choose XHTML?
• Stricter enforcement of markup rules than HTML
• Forces separation of document layout from its structure with style sheets
• Easier to introduce new tags in XHTML
• XHTML is an independent standard
• XHTML integrates other XML languages such as SVG and MathML easily
Explain the differences between XHTML and HTML
• XHTML requires lowercase tags
• XHTML requires quotes around all attributes
• Tags cannot be intertwined in XHTML
• XHTML requires DOCTYPE declaration
• XHTML tags structure rather than layout
Describe the XHTML Document Tree
• The document root has two elements
• Public Text Identifier
• Identifies an XHTML document as conforming (theoretically) to a particular DTD (document type definition) specification
• Not used by older browsers but important to new ones
• Instructs the browser how to interpret tags
o (html/)
• Top level container element for an XHTML document
• Specifies that the content of the document is text with XHTML markup tags
• Must have namespace attribute
Describe the (head/) tag
• Top level element containing metadata – information and directions about the document
• Has no actual document content
• Must have a (title/) tag
Describe the (title/) tag
• Identifies the contents of a document
• Usually displayed as a page header or window title
• May contain special characters
• Many not contain other tags
• Must appear in the (head/) tag
Describe the (meta/) tag
• Contains information about the document but no document content
• Often used for identifying dates, authors, keywords for search engines and character sets
Describe the (link/) tag
• Indicates a relationship between the current document and some other object
• Location of style sheets or scripts
• Alternate language versions
• Alternate media versions
• Previous, next, and owning pages
Describe the (body/) tag
• Contains all document content to be displayed by a browser
• Pre-XHTML allowed background images and colour to be defined
Describe text in coding
• Multiple instances of white space are collapsed to a single space
• Text is normally grouped in blocks
• Each block represents some structure in a document
• Formatting can be applied to entire blocks or subsets of a block
Describe the (p/) tag
• defines a paragraph
• the exact representation of a paragraph is not specified and may be a function of other tags, style sheets, etc.
• Paragraphs are typically surrounded be a small vertical space
• Must have opening (p) and closing (/p) tags
Describe the (h(X)) tag
• Indicates section headings
• There are six headings, from X=1 (most important) to X=6 (least important)
• Must have opening (h2) and closing (/h2) tags
• The exact representation of a heading is not specified and may be a function of other tags, style sheets, etc.
Describe the (pre/) tag
• Displays contained text as formatted
• Leaves whitespace intact, including multiple spaces and line breaks
• Is rendered using a fixed-width font
• Disables automatic word wrap
• May not handle tabs correctly as there is no standard definition of the size of a tab
• Must have opening (pre) and closing (pre/) tags
Describe comments in coding
• Commenting XHTML code helps the author and others understand the purpose of the code
• Comments are delimited with (!-- --)
• Text within comments are not displayed
• Is hidden from the user unless they display the underlying code of the webpage
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