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Political Science- zVocabulary z
ALL VOCABULARY
458
Political Studies
Undergraduate 1
04/19/2013

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Term
What is this an example of "I want to order pizza but my roommate wants japanese"?
Definition
Competing interests
Term
What is keeping what you earn and people are all equal?
Definition
Competing Values
Term
What is the process through which individuals and groups reach agreement on a course of common, or collective action even as they disagree on the intended goals of that action?
Definition
Politics
Term
What are the rules and procedures prescribing a process for reaching and enforcing collective agreements?
Definition
Institutions
Term
What establishes its governing intitutions and the set of rules and procedures these institutions must follow?
Definition
A constitution of a nation
Term
What is consisted of institutions and the legally prescribed process for making and enforcing collective agreement?
Definition
government
Term
What is the right of the office to make a particular decision?
Definition
Authority
Term
What refers to an individual officeholder's influence with other officeholders?
Definition
Power
Term
What gets a lot worse when the size of a group increases?
Definition
Coordination problems
Term
What occurs when members of a group decide that they are personally better off pursuing their own agenda while undermining the collective effort?
Definition
Prisoner's Dilemma
Term
What occurs when individuals within a group attempt to enjoy the collective benefits of membership without contributing?
Definition
Free Rider Problem
Term
What is it when collective good will disappear unless members cooperate to preserve it?
Definition
Tragedy of the Commons
Term
What is another word for preventing people from doing something?
Definition
Regulate
Term
What is the time, effort, and resources required to make a collective decision?
Definition
Transaction Costs
Term
What is the difference between what any one party prefers and what the collective body requires?
Definition
Conformity Costs
Term
What is a consensus agreement?
Definition
A unanimous agreement
Term
What is the authority to exert comprehensive control over those under one's dominion?
Definition
Command
Term
What is the ability to reject a proposal from another office or institution?
Definition
Veto
Term
What is the authority to determine the set of alternatives on which the group decides?
Definition
Agenda Control
Term
What is the process of allowing leaders  to make decisions?
Definition
Delegation
Term
What is it called when you have 50% + 1% in a vote?
Definition
Simple Majority
Term
What is it called when you have anything above a 50% + 1% vote?
Definition
Supermajority
Term
What kind of democracy is it when the public delegates legislative power, executive power, and judicial power to a government?
Definition
Representative democracy
Term
What is the original larger group refered to as?
Definition
Principal
Term
Who does the principal delegate their authority to?
Definition
Agent
Term
What is the difference between what the principals want and what their agents actually do?
Definition
Agency Loss
Term
Delegation and majority rule can often be mixed to create what?
Definition
A representative democracy
Term
What is it called when a representative democracy places constraints on representatives?
Definition
A republic
Term
What is it called when you have debt, they either throw you in prison, or you go to the new world?
Definition
Debtors prison
Term
What is it called when you rule yourself?
Definition
Home Rule
Term
What is taxing yourself?
Definition
Levy taxes
Term
What was the war the France and England fought in?
Definition
French and Indian War 1754-1763
Term
What made people put a stamp on all printed material?
Definition
Stamp Act 1765
Term
What put a tax on imported tea?
Definition
Tea Act of 1773
Term
What was a outburst of the colonies to fight back against the tea act by throwing the tea overboard in the Harbor?
Definition
Boston Tea Party 1773
Term
What forced British troops live with the Colonists?
Definition
Restraining and Coercive Acts of 1774
Term
What pushed Independence on the National stage?
Definition
Common Sense
Term
What was signed because they wanted self governance because we needed to be independent and we need home rule?
Definition
Declaration of Independence
Term
What started the Revelutionary War?
Definition
The Declaration of Independence
Term
What created a loose confederation of autonomous states?
Definition
The Articles of Confederation
Term
What is it called when we have the same number of members in Congress no matter how large the state is?
Definition
Equal Representation of states
Term
What was it called when farmers protested and they get arrested, but more and more farmers protest and it leads to a revised Articles of Confederation?
Definition
Shay's Rebellion
Term
What is it called when people govern themselves?
Definition
Popular Sovereignty
Term
What was proposed by the larger states in the Constitutional Convention?
Definition
Virginia Plan
Term
What was proposed by the smaller states in the Constitutional Convention?
Definition
The New Jersey Plan
Term
What was proposed in the Constitutional Convention that wanted a bicameral legislature and could make any laws and veto any state laws?
Definition
Virginia Plan
Term
What was proposed in the Constitutional Convention that wanted a Unicameral Legislature with equal representation?
Definition
The New Jersey Plan
Term
What cut the Virginia Plan and The New Jersey Plan in half?
Definition
The Great Compromise
Term
What are powers that are listed in the Constitution?
Definition
Enumerated Powers
Term
What gives Congress ability to regulate interstate and international commerce?
Definition
Commerce Clause
Term
What are two or more states?
Definition
Interstate
Term
What gives Congress the ability to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for exercising the enumerated powers?
Definition
Necessary and proper clause
Term
What is another name for the Necessary and Proper Clause?
Definition
Elastic Clause
Term
What are elections held at state levels?
Definition
Electoral College
Term
What says that the Constitution and the Laws of the United states should be the supreme law of the land?
Definition
Supremacy clause
Term
What is it called when state offer better deals and compete with one another to get a certain thing that they want?
Definition
Cutthroat Competition
Term
What Article and Section forbids states from entering into treaties with foreign countries?
Definition
Article 1 Section 10
Term
What Article and Section is where the Constitution authorized Congress to regulate interstate commerce?
Definition
Article 1 Section 8
Term
What article was a protection of states?
Definition
Article 4
Term
What Article and Section says that Northern states must return fugitive slaves?
Definition
Article 4 Section 2
Term
What is another word for confirmation?
Definition
Ratification
Term
Which group was for Ratification?
Definition
Federalist
Term
Which group was not for Ratification?
Definition
Antifederalist
Term
What is a group of likeminded individuals with similar goals?
Definition
Factions (Democratic and Republic)
Term
What prevents people from gathering together to discust their ideas?
Definition
Authoritarianism
Term
What outlined the theory behind constitutional design?
Definition
Publius
Term
What forced people to think alike?
Definition
Conformism
Term
What is it called when there are two groups within a society and it prevents tyranny?
Definition
Pluralism
Term
What discusses the motivation behind the separation of powers?
Definition
Federalist 51
Term
What is it called when lower-level governments derive authority from cental government?
Definition
Unitary (Central over states) (most popular)
Term
What is it called when the central government derives authority from the lower-level governments?
Definition
Confederation (state over central)
Term
What is the Hybrid of Unitary and Confederation?
Definition
Federalism
Term
What Amendment reserved powers for states?
Definition
Amendment 10
Term
What was it called when the state and national government was completely separate?
Definition
Dual Federalism
Term
What is it called when the National and State jointly supply service?
Definition
Shared Federalism
Term
What forced truckers to get their licenses from their own state?
Definition
The commercial motor vehicle Safety Act
Term
What is it called when states try to outbid each other for a business?
Definition
Race to the Bottom
Term
What was FDR's thing that was after the Great Depression?
Definition
New Deal
Term
What did Lyndon B Johnson create when Democrats felt that property trascended state borders?
Definition
Great Society 1960s
Term
What is a grant that is the exaxt amount given to states for specific purpose?
Definition
Block Grant
Term
What kind of grant is where the Federal government matches state spending in a policy area?
Definition
Matching grant
Term
What is it called when the National Government uses rules to require states to administer policies with limited or no financial assistance?
Definition
Unfunded Mandates
Term
What is it called when you apply certain rules and guidelines to a broad array of federally-subsidized state programs?
Definition
cross-cutting requirements
Term
What says that states must adhere to the guidelines of one program to recieve funding for another unrelated program?
Definition
Crossover santions
Term
What is it called when one state wants something and another state wants a different thing, so you they have to pick which one they want more?
Definition
Log rolling
Term
What is it called when authorities are shared with both chambers of congress?
Definition
Constitutional Powers
Term
What are powers that only one branch of govt. does?
Definition
Exclusive powers
Term
What is drawing district lines to benefit one party or faction?
Definition
Gerrymandering
Term
What case said that districts must have roughly equal populations?
Definition
Wesberry v. Sanders
Term
What case said that districts can't be drawn to benefit or exclude a racial group?
Definition
Thornburg v. Gingles
Term
What case said that you can't be too biased against one party?
Definition
Davis v. Bandemer
Term
Who are people who are already in congress?
Definition
incumbents
Term
What are requests from constituents for information and help in dealing with govt agencies?
Definition
casework
Term
What is it called when some members of congress gets elected only because the pres got elected?
Definition
riding the presidents coattails
Term
What are parties refered to as?
Definition
factions
Term
What is this example refered to as... "I gave money to NASA and they landed on mars. I then claim some of the credit."
Definition
Individual credit- claiming for collective action
Term
What is the rule called when someone says "I second that notion..."
Definition
Parlimentary Rule
Term
What is it called when members want to run for reelection while there is still governing to do?
Definition
Permanent campaign
Term
What helps make a majority decision?
Definition
Majoritarian Institution
Term
What is an inclination to favor one group/ view/ opinion over alternatives?
Definition
Partisanship
Term
What is delaying a final vote on a bill?
Definition
Fillibuster
Term
What is the longest serving senator refered to as?
Definition
the President Pro Tempore
Term
What is it called when parties become increasingly ideologically cohesive and polarized, party members are more likely to delegate to leaders? In the absence of cohesion, leaders lose power.
Definition
Conditional party Government
Term
What is it called when one party bans together?
Definition
Cohesion
Term
What is it called when two parties split furthur apart?
Definition
polarized
Term
Who help solve collective action problems Members of Congress face?
Definition
Committees
Term
What is it called when you can't deal with the issues at hand?
Definition
Cumbersome
Term
What committee is a committee that exist from one Congress to the next? (Permanent)
Definition
Standing Committee
Term
What is appropriations?
Definition
Money
Term
Committee and subcommittee chairs typically decide by the person who has served the longest. What is this called?
Definition
Seniority Rule
Term
What committee is a committee that often appear to deal with specific problems and then disappear?
Definition
Select/Special Committees
Term
What committee is a committee that is drawn from both Chambers?
Definition
Joint Committee
Term
What committee is a committee gathers important information and issues, but they do not report bills?
Definition
Joint Committee
Term
What committee is a committee that handels particularly sensitive topics?
Definition
Ad hoc committee
Term
Which committee resolves differences between the House and the Senate?
Definition
Conference Committee
Term
What is it called when the subcommittee goes through a bill line by line?
Definition
Markup
Term
What is an example of log rolling?
Definition
Coalition-building
Term
What is an issuing a summary of a bill's goals, provisions, and changes?
Definition
Report
Term
What a rule that allows any germane amendments?
Definition
Open Rule
Term
What is having to do with the topic of the bill at hand? (Relevent to topic)
Definition
germane
Term
What is a rule that only allows certain ammendments?
Definition
Restricted rule
Term
What is a rule that doesn't allow any amendments?
Definition
Closed Rule
Term
What committee is a committee that determines what the rules will be?
Definition
Rules Committee
Term
What committee is a committee where rules are determined by a unanimous consent agreement?
Definition
No rules committee
Term
What is the procedure of ending a debate by taking a final vote?
Definition
cloture
Term
What is a meeting of the members of a legislative body who are members of a particular political party, to select candidates or decide policy?
Definition
caucuses
Term
What is a vote that you can justify?
Definition
explainable vote
Term
Why is Congress known as an inefficient body?
Definition
tends not to produce legislation
Term
What is the power to control appointments to office or the right to privileges?
Definition
Patronage
Term
What is the president know as when he hands out federal government jobs?
Definition
Clerk
Term
What is the president going public?
Definition
Garner support
Term
What did the presidency become in the modern presidency?
Definition
A superpower
Term
What is the President getting more involved in foreign policy?
Definition
Superpower
Term
What is it called when we have a democratic president and a republican congress?
Definition
Split government/ Split ticket
Term
What was it called when we got rid of the colors on the ballats and put all of the people running for office on one list?
Definition
Australian Ballat
Term
What is it called when the president is not sure that he can do something but he tries it anyways to see what Congress says?
Definition
Testing the constitutional waters
Term
What act forced the president to inform Congrss withing 48 hours of committing troops in military action and forced the operatio to end within 60 days unless given an extension by congress?
Definition
War Powers Act 1973
Term
What was an attempt to regain some control over military affairs?
Definition
War Powers Act 1973
Term
Who can the president recieve by being Head of State?
Definition
Ambassadors and other public ministers
Term
Whats another word for head of state?
Definition
Chief diplomat
Term
What are agreements between executives?
Definition
Executive agreements
Term
What is an agreement for forein countries?
Definition
Treaty
Term
What clause stated that the laws must be faithfully executed?
Definition
Take Care Clause
Term
What is giving the president some authority?
Definition
principal agent relationship
Term
What is a way the president exerted control over executive branches?
Definition
Executive orders/bureaucracies
Term
What states that States don't have to recognize other states exercises for gay marriage?
Definition
Defense of Marriage Act
Term
What is it called when administration officials can't speak with Congress at all unless authorized by department heads?
Definition
Gag rule
Term
What is it called when all department communications to Congress that could affect future budgets must be pre-cleared by the presidents Office of Management and Budget to ensure that they are consistent with the presidents policy?
Definition
Central Clearance
Term
What is it called when the president is the one making the decisions?
Definition
Unitary presidency
Term
What is it called when a president signs a bill into law , and the president impliments how they want to use this law?
Definition
Signing statements
Term
What is the idea that the president can choose which items of the bill he wants to veto?
Definition
Line-item veto
Term
What is the amount of political power that the president has?
Definition
Political Capital
Term
Who is the advisor to the President
Definition
Vice President
Term
What is it called when the president can act alone?
Definition
Unilateral President
Term
What is it called when Congress made fun of bureaucracies for making stupid grants?
Definition
The ministry of silly walks
Term
What are the people called when they are appointed by the president?
Definition
Appointees
Term
What are bureaucratics that are experienced?
Definition
career bureaucrats
Term
What was it called when the president use to reward people with jobs because they were loyal to them?
Definition
spoils system
Term
What is it called when you are responsible for someone and they are responsible for you?
Definition
Hierarchy
Term
What are people experinced in their areas called?
Definition
Novices
Term
What is a term for duplicate or redundancy?
Definition
Red tape
Term
What is hiring someone because the are more qualified for the job than another?
Definition
Merit system
Term
What act put 10 percent of government jobs on the merit system and it could be extended by executive order?
Definition
Pendleton Act
Term
What is it called when people adopt the ideas of the agencies as their own?
Definition
Bureaucratic/agency culture
Term
What are the unions composed of federal employees?
Definition
Public sector unions
Term
What is a form of organization in the bureaucracies?
Definition
Cabinet Departments
Term
What does each cabinet department have within itself?
Definition
Sub-agencies
Term
Which agency reports directly to the president?
Definition
Independent Executive Agencies
Term
Which agency is independent of the presidency?
Definition
Independent Regulatory Commisions
Term
Which agency is created by Congress to deliver services that a private corporation would otherwise deliver?
Definition
Independent Government Corporations
Term
Which agency delegates implementation to lower-level governments or contracting nonprofit and/or private corporations?
Definition
Indirect Administrations (not a bureaucratic agency)
Term
What is taking a bill and turning it into regulation?
Definition
Rule making
Term
What are laws that go out of affect? They expire and they cannot continue to enforce the law.
Definition
Sunset
Term
What is it called when you say how the law is going?
Definition
Mandatory Reports
Term
What are small provisions of the law?
Definition
Limitation Riders
Term

What forms when some agencies become beholden to interest groups?

Definition

(Beholden means owing thanks btw) 

The Iron Triangle

Term

What forms sometimes during the iron triangle?

Definition
Prisoners Dilemma
Term
What are agencies with a very specific client?
Definition
Clientele Agencies
Term
What are the kinds of cases that courts hear?
Definition
Jurisdiction
Term
What are original cases that start at the highest court?
Definition
Original Jurisdiction
Term
What is going against your country?
Definition
Treason
Term
What was an injunction that allows the court to force an official to do something?
Definition
Writ of mandamus
Term
What is it called when federal judiciary can judge whether or not a state/ law/ policy is constitutional?
Definition
Judicial Review
Term
What was it called when the US cut funding by 2.7% across the board?
Definition
Sequester 2013
Term
What is it called when th Supreme Court exercise judicial review over state laws?
Definition
Supremacy Clause
Term
What is it called when the president appoints judges right before he has to leave office?
Definition
Midnight Judges
Term
Which court case asked to issue a writ of mandamus under a petition because they would turn in his commision?
Definition
Marbury v. Madison
Term
Which case said that Congress can charter a national bank and a state cannot tax a federal entity?
Definition
McCulloch vs. Maryland
Term
Which case established an expansive view of the necessary and proper clause?
Definition
McCholloch vs. Maryland
Term
Which case sort of resolved the fact that the national government had more authority than state because the Supreme Court lost some credibility?
Definition
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Term
Which case limited bakers to 10 hour days or 60 hour weeks?
Definition
Lochner v. New York
Term
What clause said that noone shall be denied of rights and abilities without due process?
Definition
due process clause
Term
What did FDR implement to counteract the effects of the Great Depression from the amount of conservatives on the Supreme Courts?
Definition
The New Deal
Term
What is adding another person for every member that is over 70?
Definition
Pack the Court
Term
What is not being receptive?
Definition
Not ready to do something
Term
What was the case that had someone arrested for sitting in a railroad coach that was reserved for whites?
Definition
Plessy v. Ferguson
Term
What case said that separate but equal has no place in public schools?
Definition
Brown v. Board of Education
Term
What is it called when the Supreme Court overturns or can overturn themself on a law?
Definition
precedent
Term
What is it called when the Supreme Court had cases appealed to them?
Definition
Appellate Jurisdiction
Term
What was it called when a case was appealed to the Supreme Court, and they had to hear it?
Definition
Mandatory Docket
Term
What is it called when the Supreme Court gets to choose which cases they hear?
Definition
Discretionary docket
Term
What is filed by a petitioner against a respondent?
Definition
Writ of Certiorari
Term
What is it called when only four of the nine Supreme Court justices agree to grant the Writ if certuorari so that the case goes before the court?
Definition
Rule of four
Term
What is another term for the Writ if certuorari?
Definition
"Grant cert"
Term
What are briefs filed by interest groups, businesses, government agencies, etc?
Definition
Amicus Curiae
Term
What is a term for "friend of the court"?
Definition
Amicus Curiae
Term
Who represents the federal government and is the Chief autorny?
Definition
Solicitor General
Term
What are the guidelines for lower level courts to follow?
Definition

Judicial Doctrine

 

Term
What says how the lower courts should make decisions?
Definition

Procedural Doctrine

Term
What directs courts to follow earlier precedents?
Definition
Stare Decisis
Term
What is an earlier event or action regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances?
Definition
Precedent
Term
What is it called when you determine who can bring a case to court?
Definition
Standing
Term
What says which party should win?
Definition
Substantive Doctrine
Term
What goes beyond what the constitution says?
Definition
Judicial Activism
Term
What says to interpret the law as written?
Definition
Judicial Restraint
Term
What explains rationale for decisions in such a way as to create doctrine?
Definition
Opinion
Term
What opinion takes force of law?
Definition
Majority Opinion
Term
What opinion are the people of the minority who disagree with the courts decisions?
Definition
Dissenting Opinion
Term
What opinion says that the person agrees with the law, but not the rationale?
Definition
Concurring Opinion
Term
What is a set of reasons or a logical basis for a course of action or a particular belief?
Definition
Rationale
Term
What is how to choose judges?
Definition
Judicial Selection
Term
What is it calld when a president goes to a member of his party from the state and asks him for a list of names for who should take that position, and if there is nobody, then he will nominate them?
Definition
Senatorial Courtesy
Term
What is it called when justices vote their preferences?
Definition
Attitudinal Model
Term
What is it called when justices prefer to vote their preferences, but are constrained by many forces on their ideas?
Definition
Strategic Model
Term
What is something that the Government must actively protect and guarantee?
Definition
Civil Rights
Term
What is something the government must not interfere with?
Definition
Civil Liberties
Term
What pairs Missouri and Maine as slave and free states?
Definition
Missouri Compromise
Term
What sets the northern boundary on slavery at 36 30?
Definition
Missouri Compromise
Term
What brought more free states in?
Definition
Westward expansion
Term
What bill tried to gut the Missouri Compromise and ban slavery  in recently-aquired territories?
Definition
Wilmot Proviso
Term
What requires runaway slaves to be returned to Southern states?
Definition
Fugitive Slave Law
Term
What is the people and states making up their own minds about having slavery?
Definition
Popular sovereignty
Term
What case overturns the Missouri Compromise?
Definition
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Term
What provided for popular sovereignty within territories?
Definition
Compromise of 1850
Term
What case overturns the Missouri Compromise?
Definition
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Term
What is it called when you are against slavery?
Definition
Anti-slavery
Term
What freed slaves in the Confederacy only?
Definition
Emancipation Proclamation
Term
What amendment officially ended slavery?
Definition
13th Amendment
Term
Which Amendment was ratified to provide due process and equal protection for all?
Definition
14th Amendment
Term
What is the another word for Reduce?
Definition
Curtailed
Term
Which Amendment officially enfranchised blacks?
Definition
15th Amendment
Term
What are the 13th 14th and 15th Amendments called?
Definition
The Civil Rights Amendments
Term
What were laws that were designed to disenfranchise blacks?
Definition
Jim Crow Laws
Term
What is a word for the right to vote?
Definition
enfranchise
Term
What are primary elections governed by parties not states?
Definition
White Primaries
Term
What is paying a tax for the right to vote?
Definition
Poll Taxes
Term
What is passing a test to see if you could read or write?
Definition
Literacy Tests
Term
What is it called when you are eligable to vote because your grandfather could vote?
Definition
Grandfather Clause
Term
What was President Rosevelts counterattack the effects of the Great Depression?
Definition
The New Deal
Term
What was a platform for equal rights for blacks?
Definition
pro-civil rights platform in 1948
Term
What was the name of the third party that ran when Southern Democrats split?
Definition
Dixiecrat
Term
What legislation tried to give blacks more rights?
Definition
Civil Rights Legislation
Term
What officially ended segregation and gave the federal government the authority to enforce it?
Definition
1964 Civil Rights Act
Term
What ended the practice of denying blacks the right to vote and called for equal voting rights for everyone?
Definition
1965 Voting Rights Act
Term
What is the term for the practice?
Definition
De facto
Term
What is the term for by law?
Definition
De jure
Term
What is there still some of, even though it says that it is by law not allowed Post-1960s?
Definition
segregation
Term
What is it called when policies were sought to compensate for years of discrimination in employment and promotions?
Definition
Affirmative Action
Term
Which case outlawed racial quotas?
Definition
Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke 1978
Term
What is the right to vote in political elections for women?
Definition
women suffrage
Term
Who wanted the right to vote following the 15th Amendment?
Definition
Suffragists
Term
What Amendment allowed women the right to vote?
Definition
19th Amendment
Term
What included provisions prohibiting discrimination based on sex?
Definition
1964 Civil Rights Act
Term
Who investigates sexual discrimination and racial discrimination?
Definition
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Term
What was extended to required ballots to also be available in Spanish?
Definition
Voting Rights Act 1970
Term
What case protected privacy for the gay community by declaring state antisodomy laws unconstitutional?
Definition
Lawrence v. Texas
Term
What is a intercourse that is anything other that the traditional sex?
Definition
Sodomy
Term
What are laws that are going against intercourse other than sex?
Definition
Antisodomy Laws
Term
What acts says that If you are in a state that allows gay marriage , then the state does not have to recognize the marriage?
Definition
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)
Term
What is it called when you can be gay in the military, but you cannot be out and be gay and still be in the military?
Definition
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell"
Term
What bars discrimination in employment, transportation, public accomodations, and telecommunications against people with physical and mental disabilities?
Definition
1990 Americans with Disabilities Act
Term
What is a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of their major life activities?
Definition
disability
Term
What case said that if a persons vision is correctable to 20/20 vision, than the Americans Disability Act doesn't apply, so airlines can refuse to hire?
Definition
Sutton v. United Airlines (1999)
Term
What case said that Casey Martin can use a golf cart in the PGA tournaments because his atrophied leg constitutes as a disability?
Definition
PGA Tour v. Martin
Term
What is cruel or oppressive government or rule?
Definition
tyranny
Term
Which Amendment gives us the right to have No established religion, no prohibition of free exercise of religion; freedom of speech and press; right of assembly and petetion for redress of grievances?
Definition
First Amendment
Term
Which Amendment gives us the right to bear arms?
Definition
2nd
Term
Which Amendment says that there will be no quartering of soldiers in private homes without the owner's consent?
Definition
3rd
Term
Which Amendment says that there will be no unreasonable searches or seizures?
Definition
4th
Term
Which Amendment says that there will be no double jeopardy; we have the right against self-incrimination; due process of law; right to propert?
Definition
5th
Term
What is the term for Can't force someone to confess?
Definition
Self-Incrimination
Term
Which amendment are the trial rights?
Definition
6th and 7th
Term
Which Amendment says that there should be no excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishment?
Definition
8th
Term
Which Amendment says that this list does not deny or disparge the existence of other rights?
Definition
9th
Term
The Supreme Court says that the 14th Amendment extends the Bill of Rights to cover the states. What is this called?
Definition
Incorporation
Term
What is it called when legal proceeding must be fair?
Definition
Due Process of Law
Term
What is it called when someone from another state comes here and has to follow our laws?
Definition
Equal Protection of Laws
Term
What is it called when an Amendment gradually extends to cover the states?
Definition
Selective Incorporation
Term
What is the term for taking a claim or a dispute to a court of law?
Definition
Litigate
Term
What are litigated heavily and developed in detail by the Court?
Definition

Major Rights

(it is called rights, by they are actually liberties)

Term
What are two liberties that has the word rights in them? (Sorry for the confusion)
Definition
Major Rights, and Peripheral Rights
Term
What are the parameters that have not been fully developed yet?
Definition
Peripheral Rights
Term
What is the right of a government or its agent to expropriate private property for public use, with payment of compensation?
Definition
Eminent Domain
Term
When is the freedom of speech not protected?
Definition
When it is about to harm someone
Term
What liberty is a political expression?
Definition
Freedom of Speech
Term
Which court case established the clear and present danger test?
Definition
Schenk v. United States (1919)
Term
What is it called when there is any danger to the US., so they can strike it down?
Definition
Clear and Present Danger Test
Term
Which case established the direct incitement test?
Definition
Brandenburg v. Ohio
Term
What says that something can be stopped if they are trying to get people to do illegal things?
Definition
Direct Incitement Test
Term
What case said that flag burning is protected?
Definition
Texas v. Johnson
Term
Which Court case said that if something is obscene, it is therefore unprotected?
Definition
Miller v. California
Term
What is having or encouraging an excessive interest in sexual matters?
Definition
Prurient Interests
Term
What is another word for verbal?
Definition
Slander
Term
What is another word for written?
Definition
Libel
Term
What court case said that parody of public figures is protected, as it is clearly a parody and not a slander/libel?
Definition
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell
Term
What were people called if they disagreed with slavery, but they lived in the South?
Definition
Defector
Term
What is physically separating the races?
Definition
Intitutionalized Segregation
Term
What is it called when the people completely switch parties? (go from republican to democratic)
Definition
Re-alignment
Term
What is it called when the government tries to prevent the media from publishing something?
Definition
prior restraint
Term
What is it called when there is a really sensative court case, and the government prevents all media coverage on the topic?
Definition

Gag Order

 

Term
What says that the National Government has to prove that they have the right to stop a publication?
Definition
Burden of proof
Term
What is a term for believing that God created the world, but he does nothing else?
Definition

Deists

like Athiest

Term
What court case established the Lemon test for legislation concerning religion?
Definition
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Term
What test says that they must have secular legislative purpose, must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion, and must not result in an "excessive government entanglement" with religion?
Definition
Lemon Test
Term
What test asks the question whether or not the governments action is unfairly favoring a religious group over a secular group?
Definition
Neutrality Test
Term
What is a word for non-religious?
Definition
Secular
Term
What are two clauses in the Freedom of Religion?
Definition

free excercise clause

establishment clause

Term
What addresses a broader law that religious groups seek to gain exceptions from?
Definition
Free Excercise
Term
What court case said that if a law is intended to apply generally, there is no violation?
Definition
Employment Division v. Smith 1990
Term
What act wanted to give groups exemptions for their religious beliefs?
Definition
Religious Freedom Restoration Act
Term
What is a small army of citizens for an emergency?
Definition
Militia
Term
What are several Amendments considered to be?
Definition
procedural safeguards
Term
What Amendment protect people from unreasonable searches and seizures?
Definition
4th
Term
What case says that illegally obtained evidence cannot be admitted in trial?
Definition
Mapp v. Ohio in 1971
Term
What is it called when you can ask to exlude evidence from the trial because it was illegally obtained?
Definition
The exclusionary rule
Term
What case says that suspects must be advised of their rights to remain silent, as confessions obtained are permissable at trial?
Definition
Miranda v. Arizona in 1966
Term
What is it called when suspects must be advised of their rights to remain silent, as confessions obtained are permissable at trial know as?
Definition
Miranda Rule
Term
What is it called when a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime in the same court?
Definition
Double jeopardy
Term
What is it called when jurors have pre-information?
Definition
mistrials
Term
Which amendment allows a criminal the right to an attorney and a right to trial by impartial jury?
Definition
6th
Term
What court case says that everyone has the right to counsel (attorney)?
Definition
Gideon v. Wainwright in 1963
Term
What is the person that defends the people called?
Definition
Pubic Defender
Term
What kind of jury implies that neither the pool of potential jurors be unrepresentative nor the selection process can be biased?
Definition
Impartial jury
Term
What is it called once you register to vote, you are put on the pool to be on a jury?
Definition
the pool of potential jurors
Term
What Amendment says that there will be no excessive bail, no cruel or unusual punishments, and no excessive fines?
Definition
8th
Term
What case says that a dealth penalty is not inherently unconstitutional, but the manner in which it is applied is? (They put a de facto moratorium(temporary prohibition) on the death penalty) They re-examined their death penalty statues.
Definition
Furman v. Georgia in 1972
Term
What court case says that a death penalty when applied without discrimination, it is constitutional (African Americans sent almost all the time for death penalty, while whites, not so much)
Definition
Gregg v. Georgia in 1976
Term
Where do we get the implied rights from?
Definition
9th Amendment
Term
What is like a shadow of an object which means they imply the right to privacy?
Definition
A penumbra
Term
What  case dealt with reproductive rights (can't use condoms, birth control, etc.) which is where the implied privacy rights has been most often discussed
Definition
Griswold v. Connecticut in 1965
Term
What case legalized abortion to some extent?
Definition
Roe v. Wade of 1973
Term
What is an organized effort by office holders, canidates, activists, and voters who persue their common interests by gaining and excercising power through the political process.
Definition
Party
Term
What is another word for parties?
Definition
factions
Term
What leads to a two-party system?
Definition
Plurality electoral system
Term
What leads to mulitple parties?
Definition
Proportional system
Term
What is this an example of "If there is 100 people you get 50% votes for one party, then you get 50 seats. Everyone gets something"?
Definition
A proportional party system
Term
What is this called Plurality electoral system leads to a two party system, while proportional systems lead to multiple parties?
Definition
Duverger's law
Term
What are defined by the dominent issues and makeup of the party in the electorate, and have relative strength of the two parties?
Definition
the party systems
Term
What is it called when groups switch party bases (going from Republican to Democratic), and there party also sometimes gets divided with national issues?
Definition
Realignment
Term
Who appoint U.S. senators?
Definition
State legislators
Term
What was the area from 1816-1824 called when the Democratics wer not running against anyone?
Definition
The Era of Good Feelings
Term
What is the term for tending to cause disagreements between people?
Definition
Divisive
Term
What was it called when Andrew Jackson won the popular and electoral vote (not with a full majority), but John Quincy Adams won the vote from the House and won the presidental election of 1824?
Definition
Corrupt bargain
Term
What was the national coalition to help Jackson win the presidental election of 1828?
Definition
The modern party
Term
What solidifies (makes stronger) national parties?
Definition
The national party convention
Term
Where is it determined who will be running for presidency and vice presidency?
Definition
The national party convention
Term
Who generally favored national developmaent?
Definition
The Whig Party
Term
What party arose because of the opposition with Jackson?
Definition
The Whig Party
Term
What is giving out government jobs to their supporters?
Definition
Spoils System (aka. Patronage)
Term
What left the decision up to the citizens whether or not 2 states above the 36 30 line could become free or slave states because California became a free state?
Definition
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Term
What is a tax on imported goods?
Definition
Tariff
Term
What is forcing Americans to buy American made products?
Definition
Protective Tariffs
Term
What raises government income?
Definition
Revenue Tariff
Term
What are local party organizations controlling jobs, nominations, and rewarding party loyalty and votes with jobs and candidacies?
Definition
Political Machines
Term
What is it called when reformers tried to push back against party machines?
Definition
Progressive Era
Term
What is it called when the U.S. replaced patronage with a merit-based system?
Definition
Pendleton Act in 1883
Term
What is it called when voters get to choose who will be the candidates who will run for office?
Definition
Direct Primaries
Term
What is term for a group wanting a gold and silver currency, instead of just a gold currency where $1= however much gold?
Definition
bimetallism
Term
What was a result of the Republican Party dominating from 1896-1932?
Definition
the "agrarian takeover" of the Democratic Party
Term
What was an expansion of social security, medicare, and medicade, and it didn't help the middle class anymore because it taxed them more?
Definition
Johnson's Great Society
Term
What are primary elections to choose presidential candidates?
Definition
the National nominating conventions
Term
What democracizes the national nominating conventions?
Definition
the Democratic National Convention
Term
What required either primary elections with pledged delegates or the Caucus system?
Definition
the McGovern-Fraser Commission
Term
What is an important election where delegates and nominees are chosen?
Definition
primary election
Term
Who are people that get really high number of votes? (About 2 times as much as the average delegate)
Definition
superdelegates
Term
What is it called when the Republican Party and the Democratic Party is completely separated?
Definition
Polarization
Term
What is the graph that shows who receive more votes?
Definition
Gallup poll
Term
What is it called when an "independent" votes for only one party all the time?
Definition
Partisan
Term
What is it called when citizens have a say in the policy process?
Definition
Direct Democracy
Term
What is it called when you have the power to do something, and you don't do what people want you to do?
Definition
Agency Loss
Term
What are people who want to run for office called?
Definition
Aspiring politicians
Term
Which Amendment extended franchise to women?
Definition
19th Amendment
Term
Which Amendment said that DC residents can vote for the president?
Definition
23rd Amendment
Term
Which Amendment outlawed poll taxes?
Definition
24th Amendment
Term
Which Amendment extending franchise to 18-21 year olds?
Definition
26th Amendment
Term
What is the formula for the answer to: Is it rational to vote?
Definition
V=PB-C+D
Term
What does V stand for in V=PB-C+D?
Definition
Whether or not you will vote
Term
What does P stand for in V=PB-C+D?
Definition
Probability your vote will decide the election (very tiny number)
Term
What does B stand for in V=PB-C+D?
Definition
Benefit you recieve if your candidate wins
Term
What does C stand for in V=PB-C+D?
Definition
Cost associated with deciding how to vote and actually casting the ballot
Term
What does D stand for in V=PB-C+D
Definition
The feeling of necessity to perform civic duty, sense of satisfaction from voting
Term
What case said that states can have English-only driver's license tests?
Definition
Alexander V. Sandoval (2001)
Term
What is a term for someone that is likely to get hurt?
Definition
imminent
Term
What case protected speech for individuals and corporations?
Definition
Citizens United v. FEC (2010)
Term
What court case said that the national government must meet burden of proof to enforce prior restraint?
Definition
New York Times v. United States in 1971
Term
What is it called when party coalitions are not completely unified behind one nation? Ex: Republicans in the South look different than the Republicans in the United Kingom.
Definition
Decentralized, fragmented
Term
What was the reformers pushing back against the party machines called?
Definition
The Progressive Era
Term
What are things that may influence the values of C and D?
Definition
Demographics
Term
What are things that prevent people from voting?
Definition
barriers
Term
What is the Confidence and ability to understand and engage in politics?
Definition
Internal Efficacy
Term
What is the confidence and ability to influence decisions of government?
Definition
External Efficacy
Term
What allowed for voter registration during driver's license renewal, by mail, or in state welfare offices?
Definition
Motor Voter Law (1993)
Term
What does VEP stand for?
Definition
Voting Eligible Population
Term
Since people don't spend a lot of time choosing how to vote, what do they normally use to make it easier for them to decide?
Definition
Cognitive shortcuts
Term
What is voting based on previous performance by the party/candidate?
Definition
Retrospective Voting
Term
What is voting based on how you feel the candidate/party will perform in office if elected?
Definition
Prospective Voting
Term
Who looks at only one issue and votes based on where the candidate stands on that one issue?
Definition
Single issue voters
Term
What is it called when a Democratic person votes for a Democrat, and a Republican votes for a Repulican?
Definition
Party Label
Term
What allowed for partial public funding for presidental campaigns and full reporting of all donations and sources?
Definition
The Federal Election Campaign Act
Term
What allowed for control limits and expenditure limits?
Definition
The Federal Election Campaign Act
Term
What is  the term for how much money can a person donate?
Definition
Contribution limits
Term
What is the term for how much money a candidate can spend?
Definition
Expenditure Limits
Term
What case ruled expenditure limits unconstitutional?
Definition
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
Term
What is unlimited money refered to as?
Definition
Soft money
Term
What limited soft money?
Definition
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002)
Term
What is the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002) also refered to as?
Definition
McCain-Feingold
Term
What are people who run your campaign called?
Definition
staffers
Term
What are ads that don't really cost anything called? (post online and hope to get media coverage)
Definition
"free" advertising
Term
What derives their existence from the Supreme Court's decision in Citizens United v. FEC, and DC Circuit's decision in Speech Now.org v. FEC?
Definition
Super PACs
Term
What case allowed independent political expenditures by corporations, and unions cannot be prohibited?
Definition
Citizens United v. FEC (2010)
Term
What is it called when groups are non-coordinated with the candidate?
Definition
Independent political expenditures
Term
What case allowed the creation of "independent expenditure-only" groups that may accept unlimited contributions from individuals?
Definition
SpeechNow.org v. FEC (2010)
Term
What groups are only tasked with raising/spending money independently with candidates?
Definition
"independent expenditure-only" groups
Term
What is canvassing?
Definition
Going door to door
Term
What are the opinions held by private persons which governments find it prudent to heed?
Definition
Public Opinion
Term
What is the best way to take a polling?
Definition
Simple Random Sample
Term
What gives everyone in the population a chance to be selected?
Definition
Simple Random Sample
Term
What is a leading question?
Definition
Push Polling
Term
What is having a tv show and talking about a certain topic and then taking a vote and getting incorrect results?
Definition
Biased/self-selecting sample
Term
What is an organized and consistent manner of thinking, feeling, and reacting with regard to people, groups, social issues, or more generally, any event in one's environment?
Definition
attitude
Term
What is an elaborately organized sets of political attitudes?
Definition

Ideology

(highly organized)

Term
What do attitudes and ideology tend to reflect?
Definition
core values
Term
Who are ideologically extreme?
Definition
Political elites
Term
What is the political attitude that shapes opinions and organizes other attitudes most consitently is a person's attitude toward the politcial party?
Definition

partisanship

(The way you feel about the two parties structures how you will view other things)

Term
What is the process of aquiring political attitudes and opinions (molding your beliefs)?
Definition
political socialization
Term
What is it called when someone just doesn't care about something?
Definition
ambivalent
Term
What is choosing how to present a topic?
Definition
Frame
Term
What is choosing how a topic effects something?
Definition
Priming
Term
What is another word for group?
Definition
Aggregate
Term
What is considered to be a business that a lot of people don't see as a business?
Definition
News
Term
What is it called when newspapers only cost a penny?
Definition
The Penny Press
Term
What is it called when newpapers dominated from 1883-1925?
Definition
The Golden Age
Term
What is it called when there was sensational stories and screaming headlines in newspapers?
Definition
Yellow Journalism
Term
What started the Spanish American War?
Definition

Yellow Journalism

(dubious claim that said that the USS Maine was sunk by Spanish mine)

Term
What is it called when the president could talk on the radio and the people could listen to him speak?
Definition
Fireside Chats
Term
What is an example of news spoken on the radio?
Definition
Talk radio
Term
What was it called when the television news had 3 major dominating national stations?
Definition
The Era of broadcast news
Term
What required television stations to provide for equal access to candidates for office?
Definition
Equal time provisions (gave the other party the chance to have the same amount of time to talk)
Term
What required local stations to devote a certain amount of time to public affairs (political) programming, and that such programming to be fair and balanced?
Definition
The fairness of doctrine
Term
Who prohibits cross-ownership of newspapers and local television stations from covering the same area?
Definition
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Term
What offered hundreds of viewing options to television viewers?
Definition
Cable/Satellitle Television
Term
What is a blend of information and news?
Definition
Infotainment
Term
What is the amount of information a particular technology can economically provide its audience?
Definition
Carrying capacity
Term
What is it called when politicians give the media a story and they want something in return?
Definition
reciprocity
Term
Since we are on a 24 news cycle, we have a thirst for information. What is this refereed to as?
Definition
Feed the "monster"
Term
What is the term the division of labor for news agencies?
Definition
The beat
Term
What is it called when reporters report on the same topic because they sit down in a room and get the most important information of the day?
Definition
pack journalism
Term
What is a type of journalism that doesn't have any substance to it?
Definition
television-based journalism
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