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Vocab
General vocab - advanced
102
General Vocab
Not Applicable
04/11/2019

Additional General Vocab Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason
Definition

In Frenchle Siècle des Lumièreslit. 'the Century of Lights'; and in GermanAufklärung, 'Enlightenment') was an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, The Century of Philosophy.

 

The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternityconstitutional government, and separation of church and state.

 

In France, the central doctrines of les Lumières were individual liberty and religious tolerance in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church.

 

The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy – an attitude captured by the phrase Sapere aude, "Dare to know".

Term
The English Reformation
Definition

A series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

 

These events were, in part, associated with the wider process of the European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity across western and central Europe during this period. 

 

Term

iatrogenic (adj.)

iat·ro·gen·e·sis (noun)

iat·ro·gen·i·cal·ly (adv.)

Definition
Harm caused by the healer
Term
Prevaricate
Definition
To speak falsely or misleadingly; deliberately misstate or create an incorrect impression; lie.
Term

a priori

apriority

aprioricity

Definition

a priori:

- From "what comes before" in Latin.

- Or "before experience". 

- 'a priori knowledge' is known independently of experience.

- "a priori" is sometimes used as an adjective to modify other nouns, such as "truth".

- "apriority" and "aprioricity" are sometimes used as nouns to refer (approximately) to the quality of being a priori.

 

Term
a posteriori
Definition

- "from what comes later" in Latin. 

- Or "after experience". 

- 'a posteriori knowledge' is proven through experience.

Term
ex ante
Definition
Beforehand or prior to.
Term
ex post
Definition
After the fact / after the event
Term
Conditional probability & Joint probability - and the difference
Definition

Conditional probability: given that Y prevails/ exists/ occurs/ is true, what is the probability of Y prevailing/ existing/ occurring/ being true. i.e. - The probability of one thing happening if you know that another thing has happened already. 

 

Joint probability: the probability of Y and X prevailing/ existing/ being true. i.e. - The probability of two (or more) things will both occur. 

 

Term
Tragedy of Commons
Definition
TOC is a phenomenon, as we have seen in the case of dog owners above, that results from actions that benefit the individual (meaning single persons, households, villages, companies or nations) in the short term but often end up hurting the collective.
Term

 

vicissitude \vih-SIS-ih-tood; -tyood\, noun

Definition

 

1. Regular change or succession from one thing to another; alternation; mutual succession; interchange.

 

2. Irregular change; revolution; mutation.

 

3. A change in condition or fortune; an instance of mutability in life or nature (especially successive alternation from one condition to another).

Term
Putative
Definition
Commonly regarded as such; reputed; supposed: the putative boss of the mob.
Term
Sycophant
Definition

A person who seeks favor by flattering people of wealth or influence; a parasite; a toady.

 

Term
Plutocracy
Definition
Government by the wealthy; A wealthy class that controls a government; A government or state in which the wealthy rule.
Term
Plutocrat
Definition
Someone who exercises power by virtue of wealth.
Term

Parsimony

 

Parsimonious

Definition

Parsimony: Extreme care in spending money; reluctance to spend money unnecessarily.

 

Parsimonious: Excessively sparing or excessively frugal. Really stingy.

Term

 

Coterie

Definition
A group of people who associate closely; an exclusive group; clique.
Term
Truculent
Definition

Aggressively hostile; belligerent; fierce; cruel; savagely brutal.

 

Term
"Uninterested" vs. "disinterested"
Definition

"Uninterested" means not interested.

 

"Disinterested" means impartial.

Term
Apogee
Definition
The farthest or highest point; culmination.
Term
Definition

Muddy; thick with or as if with roiled sediment; not clear.

 

Used of liquids of any kind; Thick; dense; dark; -- used of clouds, air, fog, smoke, etc.

 

Disturbed; confused; disordered.

Term
Turbid
Definition

Muddy; thick with or as if with roiled sediment; not clear.

 

Used of liquids of any kind; Thick; dense; dark; -- used of clouds, air, fog, smoke, etc.

 

Disturbed; confused; disordered.

Term
Doyen
Definition

The senior member of a body or group; One who is knowledgeable or uniquely skilled as a result of long experience in some field of endeavor.

 

Term
Raffish
Definition

Characterized by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity, crudeness, or rowdiness; tawdry; Marked by a carefree unconventionality or disreputableness; rakish.

 

Term
Beau Ideal (boh-ay-DEEL, noun)
Definition
A perfect or an idealized type or model.
Term
Bucolic (adjective)
Definition

 

Relating to or typical of the countryside or its people; rustic; Of or pertaining to the life and occupation of a shepherd; pastoral; A country person.

Term
Idee Fixe \ee-day-FEEKS\, noun
Definition

An idea that dominates the mind; a fixed idea; an obsession.

 

Term
sagacious \suh-GAY-shus\, adjective
Definition

Of keen penetration and judgment; discerning and judicious; knowing; shrewd; wise.

 

Term
entreat \en-TREET\, intransitive verb
Definition

1. To make an earnest petition or request; to plead.

2. To ask earnestly; to beseech; to petition for.

 

Term
profligate \PROF-luh-guht; -gayt\, adjective
Definition

1. Openly and shamelessly immoral; dissipated; dissolute.

2. Recklessly wasteful.

 

Term
dissolute \DIS-uh-loot\, adjective
Definition

Loose in morals and conduct; marked by indulgence in sensual pleasures or vices.

 

Term
ambit \AM-bit\, noun
Definition

1. Circuit or compass.

2. The boundaries or limits of a district or place.

3. An area in which something acts, operates, or has power or control; extent; sphere; scope.

 

Term
enjoin \en-JOIN\, transitive verb
Definition

1. To direct or impose with authority; to order.

2. To prohibit; to forbid.

 

Term
genial \JEEN-yuhl; JEE-nee-uhl\, adjective
Definition
Friendly, warm; kindly; sympathetically cheerful and cheering.
Term
missive \MIS-iv\, noun
Definition

 

A written message; a letter.

Term
conspectus \kuhn-SPEK-tuhs\, noun
Definition

1. A general sketch or survey of a subject.

2. A synopsis; an outline.

 

Term
roseate \ROH-zee-it; -ayt\, adjective
Definition

1. Overly optimistic; bright or cheerful.

2. Resembling a rose especially in color.

 

Term
moribund \MOR-uh-bund\, adjective
Definition

1. In a dying state; dying; at the point of death.

2. Becoming obsolete or inactive.

 

Term
pellucid \puh-LOO-sid\, adjective
Definition

1. Transparent; clear; not opaque.

2. Easily understandable.

 

Term
homily \HAH-muh-lee\, noun
Definition

1. A sermon; a discourse on a religious theme.

2. A moralizing lecture or discourse.

3. An inspirational saying; also, a platitude.

 

Term
gadabout \GAD-uh-bout\, noun
Definition

Someone who roams about in search of amusement or social activity.

 

Term

 

maunder \MON-duhr\, intransitive verb

Definition

1. To talk incoherently; to speak in a rambling manner. 

2. To wander aimlessly or confusedly.

Term
conflate \kuhn-FLAYT\, transitive verb
Definition

1. To bring together; to fuse together; to join or meld.

2. To combine (as two readings of a text) into one whole.

Term
indefatigable \in-dih-FAT-ih-guh-bul\, adjective
Definition
Incapable of being fatigued; not readily exhausted; untiring; unwearying; not yielding to fatigue.
Term
Corollary
Definition

A practical consequence that follows naturally; "blind jealousy is a frequent corollary of passionate love"

 

Term
presage \PRES-ij; pri-SEYJ
Definition

noun:

1. An indication or warning of a future event; an omen.

2. A feeling or intuition of what the future holds.

3. Prophetic significance.

4. [Archaic] A prediction; a prognostication.

 

 

transitive verb:

1. To indicate or warn of beforehand; to foreshadow.

2. To have a presentiment of.

3. To predict; to foretell.

 

intransitive verb:

1. To make or utter a prediction.

 

Term
Dyadic
Definition

Relating to or based on two; twofold 

 

"What happens at the dyadic level, between mother and infant, ultimately affects the very nature and survival of the larger social group.”

Term
Valence
Definition

1. The ability of a substance to interact with another or to produce an effect;

 

2. Psychology. The degree of attraction or aversion that an individual feels toward a specific object or event;

 

3. The capacity of something to unite, react, or interact with something else.

 

Term
Self-possessed (adjective)
Definition
Having a firm belief in one's own powers. Having or showing control of one's feelings, behavior, etc.; composed; poised.
Term

 

neologism \nee-OLL-uh-jiz-um\ noun

Definition

1. A new word or expression.

 

2. A new use of a word or expression.

 

3. The use or creation of new words or expressions.

 

4. (Psychiatry) An invented, meaningless word used by a person with a psychiatric disorder.

 

5. (Theology) A new view or interpretation of a scripture.

Term

ex·pe·di·ent   [ik-spee-dee-uhnt]  

 

–adjective

 

Definition

1. Tending to promote some proposed or desired object; fit or suitable for the purpose; proper under the circumstances: It is expedient that you go.

 

2. Conducive to advantage or interest, as opposed to right.

–noun

 

3. A means to an end: "The ladder was a useful expedient forgetting to the second floor."

 

4. A means devised or employed in an exigency; resource; shift: Use any expedients you think necessary to get over the obstacles in your way.

 

Note: "political expediency" is a typically used phrase - e.g. - "While the Republicans blame the Democrats for the situation, the latter may want to blame China out of political expediency."

 

Term
in·im·i·ta·ble : [ih-nim-i-tuh-buhl]  (adjective)
Definition
Incapable of being imitated or copied; surpassing imitation; matchless.
Term

 

inimical  [ih-nim-i-kuhl] (adjective)

Definition

 

1. Adverse in tendency or effect; unfavorable; harmful: a climate inimical to health.

 

2. Unfriendly; hostile: a cold, inimical gaze.

Term

— Manichaean or Manichean (adjective)

 

— Man·i·chae·an·ism or Man·i·che·an·ism (noun)

 

— Man·i·chae·ism or Man·i·che·ism (noun)

Definition

Manichaeism was one of the major Iranian Gnostic religions, originating in Sassanid Persia.

 

Although most of the original writings of the founding prophet Mani (c. 216–276 AD) have been lost, numerous translations and fragmentary texts have survived.

 

Manichaeism taught an elaborate cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil, material world of darkness. Through an ongoing process which takes place in human history, light is gradually removed from the world of matter and returned to the world of light from which it came.

Term

proctology (noun)

 

proctologist (noun)

 

proctological (adj)

Definition

proctology - noun: the branch of medical science concerned with the rectum;

 

proctologist - noun

 

proctological - adj: e.g. - "In the middle of the room is a stubby stove that also looks vaguely proctological."

Term

de·ter·min·ism  [dih-tur-muh-niz-uhm] (noun)

 

 

de·ter·min·ist, noun, adjective

 

de·ter·min·is·tic, adjective

Definition

The doctrine that all events, including human choices and decisions, have sufficient causes (i.e. the event is non-random).

 

Taleb: a deterministic world is a world stripped of randomness.

Term

 

a·pos·ta·sy  [uh-pos-tuh-see], (noun)

Definition

 

A total desertion of or departure from one's religion, principles, party, cause, etc.

Term
Heterodox (adjective)
Definition

1. not in accordance with established or accepted doctrines or opinions, especially in theology; unorthodox.

 

2. holding unorthodox doctrines or opinions.

Term
Gerontocracy
Definition
A form of oligarchical rule in which an entity is ruled by leaders who are significantly older than most of the adult population.
Term
Hackneyed (adjective)
Definition
A phrase or idea lacking significance through having been overused; unoriginal and trite.
Term
Axiomatic
Definition
Self-evident or unquestionable.
Term
Morbidity vs. mortality
Definition

Morbidity: the relative incidence of a particular disease, proportion of sickness or of a specific disease in a geographical locality. ("morbidity rate" also used).

 

Mortality

noun

1. the state or condition of being subject to death; mortal character, nature, or existence.

2. the relative frequency of deaths in a specific population; death rate.

 

 

Term
Erudite (adjective)
Definition
Having or showing great knowledge or learning.
Term
Imperturbable (adjective)
Definition
Unable to be upset or excited; calm.
Term
Epiphenomenailsm
Definition
When one has the illusion of cause-and-effect, that isn't really there/ doesn't exist.
Term
Epistemology
Definition

The branch of philosophy that concerns itself with knowledge. The theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope, and the distinction between justified belief and opinion.

 

Term
Equanimity
Definition

noun

 

Mental or emotional stability or composure, especially under tension or strain; calmness; equilibrium.

Term
Pluralism
Definition

Pluralism denotes a diversity of views or stands rather than a single approach or method.

 

Politics and law

 

Pluralism (political philosophy), the acknowledgement of a diversity of political systems

 

Pluralism (political theory), belief that there should be diverse and competing centres of power in society


Legal pluralism, the existence of differing legal systems in a population or area

 

Pluralist democracy, a political system with more than one center of power

 

Philosophy

 

Pluralism (philosophy), a doctrine according to which many basic substances make up reality

 

Pluralist school, a Greek school of pre-Socratic philosophers

 

Epistemological pluralism or methodological pluralism, the view that some phenomena require multiple methods to account for their nature

 

Value pluralism, the idea that several values may be equally correct and yet in conflict with each other

 

Religion

 

Religious pluralism, the acceptance of all religious paths as equally valid, promoting coexistence

Term
Vilify
Definition
verb
  1. Speak or write about in an abusively disparaging manner.
Term
Vernacular
Definition
noun
  1. The language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region.
Term
Malthusian
Definition

Malthusianism is the idea that population growth is potentially exponential while the growth of the food supply is linear.

 

It derives from the political and economic thought of the Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus, as laid out in his 1798 writings, An Essay on the Principle of Population

 

Malthus believed there were two types of "checks" that in all times and places kept population growth in line with the growth of the food supply: "preventive checks", such as moral restraints (abstinence, delayed marriage until finances become balanced), and restricting marriage against persons suffering poverty or perceived as defective, and "positive checks", which lead to premature death such as disease, starvation and war, resulting in what is called a Malthusian catastrophe. The catastrophe would return population to a lower, more "sustainable", level. Malthusianism has been linked to a variety of political and social movements, but almost always refers to advocates of population control.

 

Neo-Malthusianism is the advocacy of population control programs to ensure resources for current and future populations. In Britain the term 'Malthusian' can also refer more specifically to arguments made in favour of preventive birth control, hence organizations such as the Malthusian League. Neo-Malthusians differ from Malthus's theories mainly in their enthusiasm for contraception. 

Term
Asinine
Definition

adjective

- Foolish, unintelligent, or silly; stupid.
- Of or like an ass. 
Term
Deleterious adjective
Definition

1) Injurious to health: "deleterious gases"

 

2) Harmful; injurious: "deleterious influences"

Term
Dualism/ Dualistic/ Duality
Definition

1) The state of being dual or consisting of two parts; division into two.

 

2) Philosophy:

 

i) The view that there are just two mutually irreducible substances. 

 

ii) The view that substances are either material or mental.

 

3) Theology:

 

i) The doctrine that there are two independent divine beings or eternal principles, one good and the other evil.

 

ii) The belief that a human being embodies two parts, as body and soul.

Term
Ethnocultural ("ethnocultural diversity")
Definition
Of or pertaining to the culture of an ethnic group.
Term
Confound
Definition

1) To perplex or amaze, especially by a sudden disturbance or surprise; bewilder; confuse:

 

2) To throw into confusion or disorder: The revolution confounded the people.

 

3) To treat or regard erroneously as identical; mix or associate by mistake: truth confounded with error.

Term
Exculpatory adjective / exculpate verb
Definition
To clear from a charge of guilt or fault; free from blame; vindicate.
Term
Apotheosis (plural: a·poth·e·o·ses)
Definition

1) The elevation or exaltation of a person to the rank of a god.

 

2) The ideal example; epitome; quintessence. 

Term
Prejudicial adjective
Definition

1) Tending to injure or impair; detrimental: a transfer prejudicial to other creditors.

 

2) Leading to premature judgment or unwarranted opinion: prejudicial evidence.

Term
Endogenous
Definition
adjective
Having an internal cause or origin.
Term
Counterfactual
Definition
adjective

 

Relating to or expressing what has not happened or is not the case.

 

 

Term
Calvinist
Definition

- Someone who follows the Christian teachings of John Calvin, especially the belief that God controls what happens on earth

 

- Having severe moral standards and considering pleasure to be wrong or not necessary

Term
Swabian housewife
Definition

- Parsimonious. Frugal. 

 

- German colloquialism about the stereotypical figure of the thrifty housewife from Swabia, often cited in political and economic debate as a model for her purported frugality and austerity in customs

Term
Alacrity
Definition
Cheerful readiness, willingness, speed and eagerness.
Term
Alacrity
Definition
Cheerful readiness, willingness, speed and eagerness.
Term

Difference between:

- recursive

- self-similarity

- self-affinity

- fractals

- scale invariance

 

?

Definition

Fractals:

- fractals are infinitely self-similar, iterated, and detailed mathematical constructs

- fractals are not limited to geometric patterns, but can also describe processes in time

- a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts, each of which is (at least approximately) a reduced-size copy of the whole

- be only generally characterized by a gestalt of the following features:

 

Self-similarity, which may include:

- Exact self-similarity: identical at all scales, such as the Koch snowflake

- Quasi self-similarity: approximates the same pattern at different scales; may contain small copies of the entire fractal in distorted and degenerate forms

- Statistical self-similarity: repeats a pattern stochastically so numerical or statistical measures are preserved across scales; 

- Fine or detailed structure at arbitrarily small scales. A consequence of this structure is fractals may have emergent properties

 

- As a group, these criteria form guidelines for excluding certain cases, such as those that may be self-similar without having other typically fractal features. A straight line, for instance, is self-similar but not fractal because it lacks detail, is easily described in Euclidean language and is fully defined without a need for recursion.

The non-trivial similarity evident in fractals is distinguished by their fine structure, or detail on arbitrarily small scales. As a counterexample, whereas any portion of a straight line may resemble the whole, further detail is not revealed.

 

 

Recursion: 

- the process of embedding a constituent inside another constituent of the same kind

 

 

Self-similarity: 

- a structural hierarchy that displays similar properties across different levels of embedding

- a self-similar object is exactly or approximately similar to a part of itself (i.e. the whole has the same shape as one or more of the parts)

- fractals are a subset/ demonstrate self-similarity

 

 

Scale invariance:

- a feature of objects or laws that do not change if scales of length, energy, or other variables, are multiplied by a common factor, and thus represent a universality.

- any object, function, or statistic that doesn’t change when scales are multiplied by a common factor is scale invariant. 

- “scale invariance” is one of those terms that’s loosely defined; it’s often used interchangeably with “self-similarity”, although technically they aren’t exactly the same. Self-similarity means that a whole or a small part of an object looks exactly the same, or more specifically, that the function is the same under a discrete subset of dilations. Scale invariance means that the object will look the same even if the scale is changed. The definition of scale invariance is slightly different depending on where you’re using it

-  Scale invariance is an exact form of self-similarity where at any magnification there is a smaller piece of the object that is similar to the whole. For instance, a side of the Koch snowflake is both symmetrical and scale-invariant; it can be continually magnified 3x without changing shape.

- fractals are a subset of/ demonstrate scale invariance.

 

Self-affinity/ self-affine:

- self-affinity is a feature of a fractal whose pieces are scaled by different amounts in the x- and y-directions. This means that to appreciate the self-similarity of these fractal objects, the different axes have to be scaled by different amounts. 

- self-affinity means the pieces are similar to the whole (or vice-versa), but not exactly self-similar

Term
Intransigent
Definition
adjective
  1. Unwilling or refusing to change one's views or to agree about something.
     
     
    Refusing to change your opinions or behaviour
     
Term
Irreverent
Definition
adjective
  1. Showing a lack of respect for people or things that are generally taken seriously.
     
     
    To be irreverent doesn’t necessarily mean you don't like something; it’s just that you don’t display the same honour/ respect for it that other people do.
Term
Cogitative
Definition

Adjective

 

Meditating; contemplating. 

 

Capable of thinking. Thoughtful

Term
Indignant
Definition
adjective
  1. feeling or showing anger or annoyance at what is perceived as unfair treatment.
Term
Pithy
Definition
adjective
  1. (Of language or style) terse and vigorously expressive.

    Brief, forceful, and meaningful in expression; full of vigour, substance, or meaning; terse; forcible:

    A pithy observation
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
Term
Mendacious
Definition
Adjective
  1. Telling lies, especially habitually; dishonest; lying; untruthful:
     
     
    A mendacious person is one who tells lies habitually and intentionally.
Term
Prototypical
Definition
Adjective
Denoting the first, original, or typical form of something.
  1. The original or model on which something is based or formed.
    someone or something that serves to illustrate the typical qualities of a class; model; an exemplar. 
     
    A prototypical example of something is a first example from which all later forms can be developed. 
     
Term
Prepossessing
Definition
Adjective
  1.  
    That impresses favourably; engaging or attractive:
Term
Precocity
Definition

Adjective

 

Manifesting or characterized by development, aptitude, or interests considered advanced for a given age

Term
Valedictory
Definition
Adjective
  1. Serving as a farewell.
     
     
     
Term
Normative
Definition
Adjective
  1. Relating to rules, or making people obey rules, especially rules of behaviour
     
    Establishing, relating to, or deriving from a standard or norm, especially of behaviour.
     
     
    In most contexts, normative means 'relating to an evaluation or value judgment.'
Term
Mawkish
Definition

 adjective

 
  1. Sentimental in an exaggerated or false way. 
     
     
    Sickly sentimentality; weakly emotional; maudlin.
     
     
Term
Maudlin
Definition

adjective

1. Tearfully or weakly emotional; foolishly sentimental.
 
2. Foolishly or mawkishly sentimental because of drunkenness.
Term

 

 

Middlebrow

Definition
adjective
  1. Demanding, involving, or having only a moderate degree of intellectual application.
     
     
    The term middlebrow describes easily accessible art, usually literature, and the people who use the arts to acquire culture and "class" (social prestige).
Term
Avarice
Definition
Noun
  1. Extreme greed for wealth or material gain.
Term
Vapid
Definition
Adjective
  1. - Offering nothing that is stimulating or challenging; bland
     
     
    - Lacking or having lost life, sharpness, or flavour; insipid; flat: 
     
    vapid tea.
     
     
    - Without liveliness or spirit; dull or tedious: a vapid party; vapid conversation.
     
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