Shared Flashcard Set


VIS 128
faces of power
Art History
Undergraduate 4

Additional Art History Flashcards




Mambila, Zoomorphic bird mask (Africa) c. 1850?
Diadoumenos, 430-420 bce, marble roman copy of polykleitos bronze, 1st century bce

Roman, Portrait of a Roman, c. 80 BCE, marble Pal Torlonia, Rome

Sheldon Nodelman makes an interesting case for a kind of layering in the signification of Roman Imperial images, arguing that they condense a "forceful, propagandistic language" through a "shifting montage of abstractions from human appearance". The reading of these images through a coded system, then, requires the admission and interpolation of a spectator, and thus marks perhaps the first Complex acknowledgement of `audience' and `reception' in western visual culture.


Works didn’t simply imitate in a slavish manner.

Artist>the sculture>you again

Works become political icons, ideologically significant traits of character: 1.sobriety/stoicism/self restraint 2.semi “divinity”gaze



Kingdom of Commagene, West terrace, Zeus, Antiochus, Fortuna, Mount Nemrud, Eastern Turkey (circa Year Zero)

Neither quite Greek nor Roman, neither Persian nor yet Christian, the now-scattered sculptural faces on the mountain-top terraces of Nemrud Dag in the kingdom of Commagene are the faces of gods, heroes and kings. This remote, high sanctuary ("hierothesion") overlooking the Euphrates Valley was a sumptuous theater for the ritual elaboration of a man-king becoming-god, and taking his place in the "common throne-room" to which he had so conspicuously elevated himself.



Christ as the Good Shepherd, mosaic from the mausoleum of Galla Placidia, c.425-450 AD (detail)

first regime of representation of the figure of Christ,



Byzantine Empress Theodora, sculpture, c. 540 AD


“Leaf Face,” Bamberg Cathedral, Germany, c. 1007

Usually referred to in works on architecture as foliate heads or foliate masks, carvings of the Green Man may take many forms, naturalistic or decorative. The simplest depict a man's face peering out of dense foliage. Some may have leaves for hair, perhaps with a leafy beard. Often leaves or leafy shoots are shown growing from his open mouth and sometimes even from the nose and eyes as well. In the most abstract examples, the carving at first glance appears to be merely stylised foliage, with the facial element only becoming apparent on closer examination. The face is almost always male; green women are rare. Green cats, lions, and demons are also found. On gravestones and other memorials, human skulls are sometimes shown sprouting grape vines or other vegetation, presumably as a symbol of resurrection (as at Shebbear, Devon, England). The Green Man appears in many forms, with the three most common types categorized as:

-       the Foliate Head - completely covered in green leaves - the Disgorging Head - spews vegetation from its mouth - the Bloodsucker Head - sprouts vegetation from all facial orifices.

Eyes are inset while mouth is protruding, leaves don’t emerge from within, man and plant locked in mutual self production.



Pantocrator, Daphne, Greece, mosaic c. 1100

typical of early mediterannean churches, chist holds new testament in left hand, while making gesture of blessing with the other. One of the first types of images developed in the early Christian church



• used to signify holeiness, a code for a form of spiritual radiation

• head is infused with holy values,

• kind of zone of light which operates behind the head of a holy figure

• normative shape, circular,





Misericord, St. Walburga, Veurne, Flanders c. 1500


under belly the underside to the holy religous faces low relief, near lip of pues folding seat of ledge, this kind of figure, Miserizcord wooden carving underneath seats of church underside element made it’s way into the medievel church Goat Misericord tape hybrid figure of many different things, compounded into it’s ultimate form next bat like Misericord appearing in other dimensions of the church the expansion of grotesque in other archtectural elements of the church drip stone within gothic arch, the head orfigure might appear The long tunged grotesque, St Margrets how did these creature get into the holy presinct oxy moronic construction series of misericord alternative sites within the church two bodies share a single head, block heads


Human Monsters from Gregor Reisch, Margarita Philosophia (1517)

Gregore Reich

• 1517 Margerita Philisophia

• wood cut, series of monster types,

• unitary elements of body parts represent or suggests capacity to count

• one foot, man wiht no eyes, child two heads, figure where aysphalic figure, headless,

pushed down into the chest



Ghirlandaio, Domenico Portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni, née Albizzi (1488), mixed media on panel


     what we see here is a portrait is acompanied by an inscritption witht he date

     the work and inscriptionindicate that conduct and the soul were the most valuable praise worhty commodieties that women could posses

     gender issues

     in this portairt , very vigorous profile view, lock the subejct in to a rigigd heirachical postion enlsaved in the representation

     this image strives to depict a kind of mode of conduct, way od deportment and being

     subject died in 1488

     this portrait immortelizing her in remembrance in noble manner

     she a figure is forever as part of the Torna heritage, displayed in this image form , in order to seen by visitors

     in the panel painting the subject is framed by closed off room

     actually framed in a cornice made of gold, put on show in splended niche sealed

     piety and propriety, internally static specticle

     everything is taught and tense in impossible uprightness

     encased and contained within her husbands palace, left to us in state of idealized form,

     profile portraits participate in langauge of visual and social conventions

     not relfection of some preformed social visual reality

     in comparison to early portraits

     different empahsis on the truth of this reality

     a physcological truth, but not a social

     correct this view by notting a certain kind position in which subjects are caught or trapped



cosmetics, deocration, prohibited most of the time by legal and mroal codes this orderly creature was made visible by a window althrough bannished herself in the view of window


when prohibited from being viewed in window, another form of social control



Leonardo da Vinci, Portrait of Ginevra de' Benci (det.) c. 1474, National Gallery, Washington DC


Leonardo da Vinci, Five caricature heads, after 1490, Pen and ink on paper, Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice.

know for the most angelic facial representations

study for Judis for the last super


summerize what the face represented for Leonardo:

one:  literal convention of muscels and movements, scientific orientation of Leonardo, scientific diagram of the head in his analytic mode

two: head had a scheme of proportions, had tohave it’s elements held in a rigorous alignment


third: machine, among scientific machines and instruments, thought of the head as machinized object, layering of different strata of the skull



Fourth: head inderstood as a screen for the porjection of light

Fith: a sign of the soul and indication of morality and goodness, possibly of Beauty


In contrast to some of his works that exhibit and idealized beauty, da vinci was also interested in this sort of ideal ugliness. Caricature heads showcase particular deformities of features, exaggerated to the point of humor. Associated with condition of madness. Similar work: five grotesque heads, wherein


Look at this alternative tradition:


Notes about Leonardo

     key to differentiation the prof is making

     made these two bodies of facial representation

     author-, kwakkelstin

     Davinci  as Physiognomist

     whole set of arguments of leoarndo to the relationship of Physiognomy

     compares of Leo to study of science of the face,


     Leonardro ambigous relationship to the study of the face

     charaictures and gortesque are not pyschological projection or even revealing doodles, not causal they participate in logical project , along the lines of a systematic study that the artist undertaken , jsut not completed

     so invested in this discourse, that thier must be a lost work regarding physiognomy

     suggesting a lost work aswell

     the gortesque heads present and important case, described with a  significant systematic vocabulary

     position relative to the viewer, collected and discussed under these key terms



     expressive heads, pertaining to a particular orienation towards experession

     heads are also related ot he question of the Bizar

     assocaited with the tradition of monstrousity

     assocaited with the condition of madness , with bofoons and festival dancing


group of face clustered around central face,

bay leaves associated with victory

surounded by  grimising contourted, crowded out the warrior head witht he grotesque

two side of leonardos physiognomic work



Giorgione, The Impassioned Singer c. 1510, Oil on canvas, Galleria Borghese, Rome

next phase transition between Renisance and the Baroque

also the later traidtion or embody a kind of acentric tradition is characterized through nature of ambivelance, after the high point of ecactitude, new regime,in which  ambivelence is the essence,


these values are  first emblematized In Giorgione

different to fit into the reneissance paradigms

small collection of ouvre, work



the three ages, 1508-1509 oil on panel

self consciounsly giving us one representation but three moments of the face according to the deficits or plunderings of time

youth, man in middle years, man in professional prime, older man represented with a certain air of diginity



self portrait on paper early 1500’s

of works like this one, a self portrait , not symmetiracal or clean, every detail in full clarity

not given any of that ,is very spare image-nothing fomral at all, beginings of the mythology as the artist as a bohemian

a figure not really engaged in us, showing a figure caught in inward creative throught

haze of literary romance

haze not clear, figure himself is bit hazy in terms of behavioral characteristics,

literary, in the sense that in his work we get , one the first definitve, we get the sense their is story behind the image, we want kind of understand the demenoir of the figure through narrative construct


reference to Romantic period- fundemental to the way we understand modernity

new address to subjectivity and self formation



Giorgione Portrait of a young Man 1504


impassioned singer 1510


almost no ren have the eyes closed, how can you have a subject whos eyes were clsoed to the world, not a way to represent the individual, immodest,

the special permission of singing, hand gesturing emphatically , carried away in the rapture of performance, all these characterisc are signiture elements of what we will encoutner in the romanitic period



Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Water, 1566, Oil on wood

     portrait and the face, ridels and puzzles and games during high ren

     offer another history about the represnation of the face during the ren

     makes refrences to the temporal textual self protraiture to Montagne

     new account of portraiture almost anti-portraits of Arcimbaldo

     cryto physiognomic form


Annibale Carracci, The Bean Eater, 1580-90, Oil on canvas, Galleria Colonna, Rome

     important turn represntation toward real common every day subjects

     el greco , really dramatized , within continuity with relgious panting

     The butchers shop 1580’s

     figure preoccupied by thier trade, the burrden of the meat and durden that it gives


The Bean eater

     caught in everyday moment

     much more than that ,

     real point of this image, show a person in the act of eating many things about that gesture that were extremely taboo

     never show the mouth open

     the act of eating is not common

     typical form of anticipation

     all sorts of things going on in this common act

common subject common things



Johann Casper Lavater, a head interpreted (see caption)

Lavater “The nose of this face [pictured] is not that of an ordinary man; neither are the eyes ordinary, especially the right one, although it wants the character of greatness which marks the nose. Such eyes, however, and such a nose, promise great services in the cause of humanity and religion, for they announce great things; and one would be tempted to expect a great deal from them: but the rest of the face corresponds not to the expectations which these had raised. Those gatherings above the nose, that half-open mouth, the irregularity and the imbecillity of the under-lip, mark an extreme listlessness, a debility of mind, an incapacity, which is seeking to conceal itself under the cloak of knavery and cunning.”

Between 1774 and 1778 the Swiss pastor Johann Caspar Lavater (1741-1801) wrote a book called Physiognomische Fragmente zur Beforderung der Menschenkenntnis (translated as "Essays on Physiognomy: Physiological Fragments, for the Promotion of the Knowledge and Love of Mankind", 1774-78). It was an instant best-seller, and physignomy became the hottest scientific cult of the 18th century. Lavater supplied his own illustrative line drawings, and interpreted the faces of illustrative contemporaries. There have been more than 150 editions in all languages.



Honoré Daumier, "The Cranioscope-Phrénologistoscope: Yes, that's it I have the bump of ideality, of causality, of locality, it’s a remarkability" 1836, caricature


third discourse: anthesis of Pathonomy- expressions and passion int erms of facial movement,

     Phrenology: rejects the idea of expression or the face in movement

     the brain was subdivided into sectors, growth exerted stress on the shaping skull

     the bumps could be used to determine the disposition of the owner

     a bump in particular location would be assigned a signification or trait

     discourse was subject to elaborate forms of characture

     wide spread following into the 20th century

     Daumier-Characturist- non believer in Pathology

     to make obsurd the notion of reading the bumps on the head

     multiple form of commentary

     feeling his own bumps, you can’t self analysis

     figners on second bust, trying to stage a comparison on portrait bust, redicules

satirical deconstructionof the physiognomic assumption



Edward Curtis, Hopi Man, 1921-22, plate 420 (see caption)


“In this physiognomy we read the dominant traits of Hopi character. The eyes speak of wariness, if not of downright distrust. The mouth shows great possibilities of unyielding stubbornness. Yet somewhere in this face lurks an expression of masked warm-heartedness and humanity.”

Edward H. Curtis

     misguided nature of what curtis was trying to do

     in this phy we read the dominant traits of hopi character

     some where in this face lurks humanity, attempt to speak in western terms(ridiculous)



Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Charisma is the Perfume of your Gods), 1982, photograph

Mount Rushmore finishing touches 1941. Photograph. Look at the General questions about the face, issue of caricature, history and theories , willful distortion of face and question screening, facial scale, amplitude and expansion historical and theoretical signification achieved in the giant face. how expression is controlled and even emptied out of the social, political, religious, and aesthetic norms amplitude speak too.... blah blah... I got nothing deliberate exaggeration of scale for particular purpose, ahh inspiring, scale to fit the historical significance of leaders, rulers head projected on large scale, similar to Barbra Kruger. Ex. Of the gigantic face & scale-2nd mode of appearance of giant scaled face- face of the leader-Literally- “Power Head”-reproduced accordingly to certain idealized character traits-Image and circulation of that image of a central leader probably originated with Alexander the Great-Association of these presidents with the mountain- the monumental/colossal  -iconic faces of 4 former pres. of  U.S  -George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt & Abraham Lincoln  -Chosen 2 represent 1st 150 yrs of American hist. & heritage-Christ as the Pantocrator-an ex. of one of the points of origin of the expanded territory of facial signification.  -One of the points of origin of the giant or outside face.-Carved in2 Black Hills of S. Dakota
Goya y Lucientes, The Colossus (1808-12), oil on canvas, Prado, Madrid
colossal upper parts of giant figure over populous ravaged by war
we don’t quite understand the causal relationship
deliberate exaggeration of scale for particular purpose
This giant figure standing above this battlefield scene, his fists clenched and ready for a kind of conflict. The landscape below is full of streams of people who are fleeing or running away. The painting makes it clear in a sense that mankind, the fleeing small people, is dominated by a form of fate, an unearthly force situated between heaven and earth. He has to a certain extent a demonic element with power over the earth. The image is depicted in a manner of a dream. He uses as a Baroque device, the allegory, making the painting difficult to interpret. We don’t know if the figure is a personification of revolution itself or of mankind exploding in range or danger itself taking on a visionary form. It’s a very speculative and interesting figure that turns precisely on the figure of the giant.,
* Cover page of the Italian magazine, La Difesa della Razza (The Defense of the Race), 1938.

caricature is physiognomy registered in convex mirror, less about the sensible divinity of human
kind, demonic possession

god impulse is replaced by , the devil fall, tendency towards, god impulse, degeneration and
decay, immorality and falling off
Caricature Elements

• platonic dry-caricature aims as kind of pure form, truer condition , deep character, or personality
•job even through distortion to bring to the surface, hidden by the surface effects of natural portraiture- Winkleman


•second aspect of psychological work of cari.
•no longer deal with the specific idea of particular individual , promotes and emphasis on the stereo type, type cast into a role,
•mark of character artless and play full caricature, unstudied un belabored, immediate force coupled with playfulness, deliver this aspect of perception

•reduction made by artists
•they claim that caric. manifest an absence of skillful or technical drawing,
• renounce artist skill, appear to unfold itself in child like references , cartoon like symbolization,
•simplification and reduction, example simple outline,
•second crucial relation,
•look at the purpose and general style of caric.
• map this onto the forms of simplification that we associate with modern art, something

practices, renunciation of artistic skill, Gombirch child like reduction,


•aggressively imagery of propagandistic art, which in their view lies outside the realm of the aesthetic or art properly considered,
•set out on behalf of an image, singular, their is now other message,
•simplification aligned with propaganda, message needs to be underlined, color. style gets in the way of the image, align the work of caricature with
notions of prog.

•the reason for this association, pictorial symbolism(picture symbolizes something) is not the same as artistic transformation
•looking at art as kind of transformation, change the perception of the viewer, something transforms, the work of cari. ,
• it underlines or underscores, it is like a set of injunctions, rather than asking a view to dwell on an image, all in the process of being transformed,
perception wise

•the image stuck once presented in this form, immediacy of the image, and dependence on association.

•carac. thrives on logical of psychological association


•make the contention, look for structure of car. within the nature of the pun, word means two different things, two meanings
through psychological association and language
•work of art considered as a projection of an inner image, connection of carac and other modern art movement

•notion of the projection of inner image, not looking for the things that lie on the surface of the work
•getting something out of the inner sanctum, model of communication can be perceived by the viewer in terms ,never looking at surface,

innate caricatitural about modern art

high and low art: another conceptual complication, relation of caric. to high or low, by defualt must be on the side of low art, at a certain historical moment,
the high low, and popular are merged,
taking statement into poetics transforms, removes from low, becomes high, joining of high and low, political and aesthetic
Agostino Carracci, Sheet of caricatures and studies, chalk and graphite, Courtauld c.1605

definition of caricature:

could define kind of heated up pathonomy, moving a little more
quickly, not just a study of ordinary emotions but the
exaggeration and deliberate distortion of expression and

seeking explicitly for dramatic expression

political and social caricature predicated on exaggeration and

socially immediate, often highly perishable, realtes to things that are
very contemporary

derives is energy form mutation of certain traits, or infer from
particular types: whole range of other types, the stereo types,
doctors lawerys childern, the peasant, the aristorcrat

usually with each type. excess chained to empirical


•profile, hovering between portrait of likeness and something other

•The Sheet:

•getting all sorts of things emerging here

•first of all, tradition of the animal head, who went back to animal
first, dela porta

•pig like face, off an skeleton like, carnival faces, dressed up in
costume, animal human compound figures, close to grotesque
William Hogarth, The First Stage of Cruelty, 1753, print,

toturing small animals,

definition of caricature:

could define kind of heated up pathonomy, moving a little more quickly, not
just a study of ordinary emotions but the exaggeration and deliberate
distortion of expression and emotion

•imbedded satirical message, historical context

•minute particularity, any kind of facial particularity, this should not be

•timless, classical refrence

•classical idealizing resistance, caricature, obviously
resisting, produced through distortion and deviation, you
can only due so from a norm

•what it actually does, draws attention to what is normative,
in so far as it goes beyond it.

•perversion of psychological constant,

•what does caricature distort from? what is the psychological
importance of that distortion.

•How cari. goes against classical norms:

•Reynolds: genreal ideas and general nature, in contrast to partial view of

•not individual or particular but generalized, unusual or fluctuating or subject
to change

•articulation from center of artistic discourse, rules of generalization, outlaws
all the kind of representation he is interested in, basically against cari.
Goya y Lucientes, They are hot! (from Caprichos plate 13), c. 1798

Goya: "They are in such a hurry to gobble it down that they swallow it boiling hot. Even in pleasure, temperance
and moderation are necessary."

they are in such a hurry, swallow boiling hot, temperance and moderation are necessary

kind of signifying territory,

Goya is found in negotiated third terms, caricature and everyday observation
Honoré Daumier, Gargantua lithograph, December 15, 1831

Description of Artwork: When Honoré Daumier was 24 he was first censored for his caricature of the French king
Louis-Philippe. This took place within the first years of the July Monarchy, and the king felt paranoid and
insecure in his seat of power.

In the caricature, entitled "Gargantua", the king is represented as a giant gourmand, a character taken from
Francois Rabelais' series of stories, which were themselves censored by the Sorbonne.

The fat king sits in front of the National Assembly on a large commode. A huge plank comes out of his mouth on
which rewards travel down to the eager officials beneath. Standing around his small, crippled legs are tattered
workers and starving mothers who drop coins into the baskets on ministers.

Description of Incident: In late 1931 the publishing business La Maison Aubert submitted
"Gargantua" to the "depot legal" for publication and put it on display in the window of the shop. It was soon seized,
along with other prints done by Daumier, by the Paris police. They ordered the owner of the publishing house to
destroy the lithographic stone and all the remaining proofs. In February 1932 Daumier, the owner of the publishing
house, and the printer, were all brought to trial for arousing hatred and contempt of the king's government, and
for offending the king's person. In the trial the argument was over whether "Gargantua" represented the king
personally or if it was a symbolic representation of the king's swollen budget. All three of the men were
convicted, but only Daumier served a prison term.

Results of Incident: Daumier continued to produce political caricatures, even during his
imprisonment and later when he was in a psychiatric clinic. In 1935 the September Laws were passed,
which silenced oppositional press, and Daumier and most of his colleagues turned to social caricature.

•caricaturing king or prince who is being made over into giant fat ugly fellow

•pear shaped head

•being made into this kind of machine for processing things, food, documents,
massively open mouth, excreted at the bottom

•overseen by the people giving goods to king and then documents coming out are
being savage

•inditement of over consumption, taking by government bureaucracy, government
overkill, sucks in all that is productive and issues only proclamation and collecting
•engorgement of head, tiny body, focus all energy, portrait charge in french, inflating
the head,
* Cover of book: Sander L. Gilman, ed. The Face of Madness:
Hugh W. Diamond and the origins of psychiatric photography
(New York: 1976)

On May 22, 1856 Hugh W. Diamond read an address before the British
Royal Society titled "On the Application of Photography to the Physiognomy and
Mental Phenomena of Insanity" which has been claimed as the founding moment of
―psychiatric photography.‖

This new alliance between photography and faces bearing apparent witness to
different manifestations of madness or insanity anticipated a long history of
clinical, medical, criminological, forensic, and surveillance deployments of the
photographic subject-

-purportedly for the social or physical betterment of that subject, or of the
environment in which the subject circulated.

•long history of clinical depravity
•beginning of discourse of photo, aimed at the immoderation of not just
individual but of the wider societial milieu or environment
•social context is put under representation
from Lutz, Practical graphic figures, 1925

simplified and skewed schematic representation of human body

embodiment of reduction, type, over dramatization of features to create types, sterotyping in pictorail form
Theodor Géricault, Four Studies of the Severed Head of a Man, 1818-1820. Black
chalk on paper. Besançon,
Gustave Courbet, Burial at Ornans (1849). Oil on canvas.

"The massed figures bear ordinary human features, mostly plain, marked
in the usual way by time and work. These were faces done from the life of
Courbet's fellow citizens of Ornans."

"Local audiences had no difficulty in recognizing and accepting this
representation of people they knew either individually or by type . . . But in
Paris they became ugly caricatures, willful distortions." Sarah Faunce
and Linda Nochlin, Courbet Reconsidered (New York: The Brooklyn
Museum, 1988)

•imaginary hundred heads of excellence, stand in for us , as
surrogate heads, mob of heads, that will be the work of modernism
to defeat, erase and mask

•in respect to the Burial at Ornans
•beginning to end commentary on the face
•vivid portrayal of ugliness and ignobility, not noble, frankness
•character conclusively belies appearance, character and appearance are joined together in ways that are not conventional
•immoral character is not made demonstrable by appearance, reacts against the whole association of the ugly and deviant
in the form of character which might not be nobel
•snuff men not ugly, divorce between character, inner, account of ugly and appearance exterior account,

•divorce between character and appearance
•even exaggerated satirical formation of character

•point two: delicate and charming physiognomy, turning his back on the first assumption, finding in midst of all the characters,
one physiognomy which tends to drift against, even the fineness is not connect with passive idealization of Couture,
different fromt he assumptions of academic traditional beauty
•new sense of beauty, not found in idealization
•attentive particularization, contemporary actuality against standardization of classical beauty

•real stuff of here and now against academic beauty

•another standard of judgement, back to Le Brun,
•physical encoding of physiognomy, Characters of the Noble passion, ideal forms of beauty by category-

•not painted up with noble passion, refusal of the caricature even though the image is superficially ugly
•faces makes last appearance for what it really is, before the discourse of likeness is surrendered to the camera and
camera obscura
•another kind of determination, making of subject, produced not scene, not superficially visible, formed by the
economy labor, alienation, contextual association
•faces appears in Courbet, last examples in which likeness and similitude survive, surrendered by the visual arts, mechanical
reproduction, and to another kind of determination,
•making of subject, the way a subject is produced but scene, deeply formed by the economy, alienation itself is
mapped onto the face
•look at intro
Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère, 1881-82. Detail of face

"... a tall handsome girl, but strangely lusterless, her eyes clouded with fatigue or boredom beneath her blond bangs." (Georges
Bataille, Manet, New York: Rizzoli, 1983, p. 88)

•definitely modern artist,on account of his ambiguity and unresolvablity of his work

•set up the visual image for multiple regiments of interpretation,
• the painting is about the irresolution
•face after realism
•not decode in one correct interpretation

•foreground this painting that is about reflection,exchange, rep between pictorial subject and spectator, us and male
•we are gathered up and put into place of the male spectator
•face of server, account of TJ Clark, makes the persuasive claim,
•gathered up into the face of this working class subject, suggest the way her face offers itself to us, kind of contact that moves right through our encounter
•slightly adjusting the eyes, slight different directions, not starring at or at us but by or through us
•face emblimitizes the condition of urban or social alienation, alienated modern face

•this very intricate and hard kind of face to represent, how to represent slight slight distraction, boredom, out of odds, self consciousness, feeling yourself to be overcommitted by economic and gender situation, sexual social, economic , pictorial codes which converge onto the face

•This is a painting, above all of the paintings by Manet, is about reflection, exchange, the relationship between a pictorial subject and a spectator, but in this case not just as the viewer but also as a male customer who is also looking at the woman, which you can see at the slightly odd angle of the reflection shown in the image. To a certain extent, we are gathered up as viewers and put into place of the male spectator so we are the top-hatted male. The face of the server. Clark makes the extraordinary and persuasive claim that, gathered up into the face of ths particular gendered working class subject, is someone who, despite the relatively elaborate costume that she’s wearing, is a working class young woman who is not working for much money. He suggests that the way her face offers itself to us in a kind of contact that moves right through our encounter. If you look at the eye alignment, both eyes seem to be looking ever so slightly in different directions. She doesn’t seem to be staring at the male protagonist or at us, but staring by or through or past us. What Clark does is to suggest that this face emblematizes the very condition of urban or social alienation. We’re looking in this sense at the first alienated modern face, or at least the first face that enters representation. This is a very intricate and interesting and hard face to represent. Representing alienation is hard shit. The slight self-consciousness, boredom, feeling of being out of sorts or out of odds, all those kinds of conditions that make up the complex experience of alienation, feeling overwhelmed and overcome by your social, economic, and gendered situation. There’s a whole overlay of sexual, psychological, social, economic, and pictorial codes that converge in this idea of the alienated face that Clark claims.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Arrangement in Grey and Black Number 2, Portrait of Thomas Carlyle (1872-73)

William Allington noted of the sittings for the portrait of Carlyle that: "C[arlyle] afterwards said that all W[histler]'s anxiety seemed to be to get the coat painted to ideal perfection; the face went for little ..."

In his "Ten O'Clock" lecture Whistler rhapsodized about the historical inevitability of the aesthetic disposition: "This man, who took no joy
in the ways of his brethren--who cared not for conquest, and fretted in the field--this designer of quaint patterns--this deviser of the beautiful--who perceived in Nature about him curious curvings, as faces seen in the fire--this dreamer apart, was the first artist."

for it was organization and rhythmic placement of form and color took precedents over traditional concerns of imitative likeness
•his theory the marks and surface were to be applied and apprehended for their own sake and on their own terms, independently of mimetic reference
•famous for offering titles that always foreground modes of composition and musical analogies

•form over appearance

•priveldegeing of form over imitation became standard in the affirmative criticism of whistler

•critics found equivilance of face with other objects
•back ground was as much aparts of deign as the face
•rendered explicitly , the musical and formal designation offers,
•rhetorical dissolution of the face into the compositional discourse of pure pictoriality
•arrangement, organization, composition, next seems to be musical analogy

•sensation modeled on sounds, which generate over all coloristic impression more important than, those things are more important than, particularity , individuality or likeness

•This form of argument, this privileging of form over imitation, eventually became standard in the affirmative criticism of Whistler. Commentators established the equivalence of the face with other objects and spaces in the artist’s paintings or it’s co-emergence with the background. For example, one writer, William Allington, noted of the sit-ins for the portrait of Thomas Carlisle that Carlisle afterwards said that all Whistler’s anxiety seemed to be the coat painted to ideal perfection and the face went for little.The musical and formal designation or titling of his portrait paintings offer a ―rhetorical dissolution‖ of the face into the compositional discourse of pure pictoriality. What’s important here is composition. Arrangement. Organization. What’s important next seems to be a musical analogy, a sensation modeled on that of sound, which generates an overall coloristic impression. Those things are more important than particularity, imitation, individuality, or likeness
Vincent van Gogh, Head of a Peasant Woman with White Cap, 1884-85. Oil
on canvas

Van Gogh craved the studied immediacy of prolonged contact with a
singular model. The financial and personal problems of securing a steady
supply of appropriate model-types is another of the recurring themes of the
letters to Theo. In 1884, lamenting the expense of colors and models, he
itemizes the facial qualities of the figures he most desires for his
paintings: "if only I could get suitable models, just of the type I want
(rough, flat faces with low foreheads and thick lips, not sharp, but full
and Millet-like) ..."

fetich of the itemized face

identified as peasant type
worker in small industrial productions
no real indication of the labor, no hint of anguish through action,
relates to theory of types: early work caught up in discourse of producing types,
indigenous local culture, more traditional, not contaminated by modernism
not working people tied to place of work
Peasant type
set out to cultivate the experience of other kind of types
emotional impact of artist, the living face, reading the expressive attributes of his own face
reading faces in public,

• “looked up into half faded women’s face, life in it’s reality has left it’s mark here
• social sublimation, lack of motherly love into female subjects on the street, substitution of mother.
• faces marked by lines of reality

• Van Gogh craved the studied immediacy of prolonged contact with a singular model. The financial and personal problems of securing a
steady supply of appropriate model-types is another of the recurring themes of the letters to Theo. In 1884, lamenting the expense of colors and models, he itemizes the facial qualities of the figures he most desires for his paintings: ‖if only I could get suitable models, just of the type I want (rough, flat faces with low foreheads and thick lips, not sharp, but full and Millet-like) …‖The focus of his interest was workers and peasants. Representing people who worked on the land. Common, ordinary persons. The women are not posed like Millet or Courbet’s figures. In Millet’s case, the workers/peasant woman were represented in the scene of their labor, going about the business of sowing, planting, gleaning, whatever. With Courbet, most often but not always, the working person will be caught up in a group or assemblage of people (like in Ornan). He tended to reserve the individual portrait for self-portraiture. With Van Gogh, something different is happening. This peasant woman is obviously identified as a peasant type, she’s wearing a bonnet, there’s no real indication of the labor. This woman is looking straight at us, unflinchingly. It is in a sense a ―real‖ portrait in the tradition of imaging individuals in the sense of looking at us and as fully possessed and competent of their own status and situation.What’s important about this work by Van Gogh is that it relates to a theory of types. Van Gogh’s early work is very much caught about in the discourse of producing ―types‖, images of ―types‖ or ―kinds‖ of people, almost stereotypes of people. This notion needs to be situated in relation to Van Gogh’s belief in the ideal of an indigenous or autonomous (local and specific) popular culture that was more or less traditional and uncontaminated by a modern culture industry.Theory of types is underwritten by a belief that Van Gogh had in the specific nature of indigenous working people. Working people who were tied to their place of work, land, country, point of origin, in very specific and deliberate ways.―Bravant‖ peasant type. Van Gogh explicitly set out to cultivate the experience and appreciate of ―other‖ types of figures.Two genres of portraiture and landscape emerge. Portraiture itself is a representation of the theory of the type of impress, contextual conditions (landscape, place, time, history), on the individual, how the individual is formed or sculpted by these conditions.
Vincent van Gogh, Head of the Postman, [Joseph-Etienne] Roulin, 1888-89. Oil on canvas

Van Gogh: "What do I care whether the portrait of an honorable citizen tells me exactly the milk-and-watery blueish, insipid color of that pious man's face--which I would never have noticed. But the citizens of the small town, where the above-mentioned individual has rendered himself so meritorious that he thought himself obliged to impress his physiognomy on posterity, are highly edified by the correct exactness.‖

As with later discussions of his models in the south of France, he several times insisted on the need for an intellectual approach to sitting and approach. Faces that reminded him of ―things from many years ago‖ interested him. He insisted on the kind of emotional nostalgia… while he demanded the physical inscription of history, some trace of typology in faces he desired.. **History is crucial for a face. But only history as a kind of substance which would weather into the face. In that sense, become bonded with it. The faces of the past idealized visages in the neo-classical tradition or conversely bizarre, grotesque, or fantastic faces… even faces achieved from memory… all these kinds of faces were too distant from the palpability, the immediacy of the ―type‖ that was reached for by Van Gogh in his portraits and figures. While he never relinquished his faith in the faces of the working poor, or the everyday figures, these types do not in fact predominate in his portraiture. For while Van Gogh claims to overlook the dull and boring physiognomists of the middle class, there were other faces which strike him immediately and poetically. Wherever he lived, or sojourned, Van Gogh was viscerally affected and sometimes overwhelmed by the faces and figural energies that surrounded him. Nowhere is the sense of facial power and possibility made more explicit but in the course of a three month visit to Belgium in 1885.
Paul Cézanne, Apples, Peaches, Pears, and Grapes c. 1879-80 Oil on canvas, The Hermitage

• apple to head correlation, both always have a culminating point
• formal equivalence between all spherical objects
• the treatment of spherical objects is rapped into formal approach to color
• yet another de privileging of the head, diminish head to that of inanimate objects
• perceives the sphere in space, physical apprehension of object in space, caught in multiple glances
• over scrutinizing the object, process of looking carried over in process of producing
• pictorial reconstitution , apple and face become interchangeable

―Still life with apples from 1890

Lets the apple exist on its own with out transfusing it with personal emotion, lawrence on cezanne: shoves the apple away from himself and gives it a life of its own.

Fruit is readily available, but they have no aroma, no sensual or tactile appeal, an exploration of seeing.
* Paul Cézanne, Little Girl Holding a Doll, 1900-02, Oil on canvas

In a reported discussion with Émile Bernard in Aix-en-Provence on July 25, 1904, Cézanne made the following remark: ―In an orange, an apple, a ball, a head, there's a culminating point; and this point is always--despite the tremendous effect: light and shadow, color sensations--closest to our eye; the edges of objects flee toward a center placed on our horizon.‖

•analytic detachment from subject
•face reduced to smudge
•seated outdoor setting
•left eye sculpted gauging out
•negative space , aperture in the face, have to removed in late work
•head of doll, twisted toward the viewer, scale is minute in comparison
•effaced all traces of appearance
•pictorial reconstitution , apple and face become interchangeable

•Girl represented in an outdoor setting. Foliage and rocks marked in with heavily faceted brushstrokes that characterizes his style. Face as intensely scaled version of same technique. Facial features rendered out in astonishing series of scooped out souls. Left eye sculpted gouging, closest gesture to cubist faces in Picasso achieved in the formative moments of cubism. The real astonishment of this image is not in the face or the young girl but of course in the head of the doll she cradles in her arms. Even though the face of the doll is twisted towards the viewer, unlike in the Bathers work, and despite the fact that the scale is not absolutely minute, the head is actually facing us, Cezanne has taken away all traces of particularizing detail, perhaps because of the inanimate nature of this little subject. He painted the head like the apples and pears that he laid in his still lives. The female face and the apple have become interchangeable. The doll is the first gesture in a long lineage of disfigured female faces which culminate in the asyphallic headless women and violent eroticism of Hans Belemer’s photographed dolls
Odilon Redon, The Marsh Flower, a Sad and Human Face, lithographic print, 1885

• pictorial reconstitution , apple and face become interchangeable
• imaginative form, successful execution of abstract thought
• new shape of imagination, fictive approaches stand at center of poetic imagination
• face through compounded myth
• new orientation to geography of the face
• human plant compound
• odd botanical human interface

• In Redon, we encounter a new kind of address towards the making of the image in which fictive, visionary, and fantastic apparatus stands at the center of a poetic imagination. The elliptical redrafting of the face ?? of dreams, fantasies, and myth. Wide range of compounds and metaphorical projections.The first of these new orientations arrived in his signature series of human-plant compounds, a doomed allegorical botany (as one observer put it) that gave rise to works such as Little Flowers Human Heads, Little Sisters of the Poor, Marsh Flower. It also gave rise to images such as Cactus Man. Anthropomorphization and facification of the flower. The making of the flower into a human or human-shape and doing this preeminently by the face. Odd botanical human facial interface.
Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Ambrose Vollard, 1909-10. Oil on canvas

• reduction of color palette within the effort of spacial articulation

• Intimation of things you cant see in normative view
• Cezanne is asking: how do you look at a sphere? At a face?
• Picasso is asking: imagine that you can look behind the ears
from multiple perspectival point of views.

• Intersection of planes
René Magritte, Le paysage fantôme (The Phantom Landscape), 1928. Oil on canvas

• faces marked by lines of reality
• verbal description which does not relate to the face
• face landscape mergence, we first saw in the work of van gogh
• geography played out on the face
Salvador Dali, Face of Mae West which may be used as a Surrealist apartment, 1934-5. Installation.

•importance of female face, female as other,
Salvador Dali, Apparition of Face and Fruit Dish on a Beach, 1938. Oil on

face works within psychological project of unconscious, with particular interest for Dali in playing out phobia,

facial landscape merging

―Salvador Dalí offered an important, far-reaching, if typically unsustained, reallocation of the relations posed between the forms and consumption of food, a disorienting, centripetal theory of identity, and the production, and inhabitation, of architectural space. Food objects, facials signs and space-production are bound together in Dalí’s vertiginously metaphoric dream-life and the Paranoid-Critical Activity that simultaneously constructed, invaded and annotated it. Each of these three clusters—food (raw or cooked), faces (real or projected), spaces (built or fantasized)—are mapped in a fractal system of unpredictable exchanges within which their forms and surfaces, interiors and exteriors, histories and fictions are split or compounded in a logic dependent only on Dalí’s devouring interpretation.‖ [JCW, "Dalí's Edible
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