Shared Flashcard Set


USP 107 Final
Terms and Essay Questions
Political Studies
Undergraduate 4

Additional Political Studies Flashcards




New Regionalism

Judd & Swanstrom (p.290)


Meaning: New Regionalism is a reform movement that intended to replace political fragmentation with a more efficient and competent government structure. The main concerns of New Regionalism can be summarized as the conviction that "flight creates blight."


Significance: Governmental fragmentation undermines regional prosperity. New Regionalism aims to coordinate regional growth to improve regional economies and services. They believe intergovernmental inequalities must be reduced for metropolitan regions to prosper.

"Empire Strikes Back" Mayors 

From lecture 21


Meaning: Refers to the white Republican conservative that takes office after a minority mayor fails to address the problems that his election was supposed to solve. The minority mayor was elected to solve racial tensions, but he can not take strong stances b/c he must appeal to everyone. This makes him appear like Darth Vadar--black on the outside for appeal, but white on the inside due to his policies. After he's unable to make change, the polar opposite takes over his position--a white Republican conservative that usually worsens race relations.


Significance: Illustrates the use of systemic power in that the Darth Vader mayor is unable to implement change due to the system forcing him to place the needs of entreched producers rather than the consumers in a city first.

Paradise Plundered - Ch.3

This chapter focused on the pension scandal and how it led to the Fiscal Crisis.


The choices whether to cut desired benefits and services or raise taxes to pay them.


  • In the 70's, officials resorted to creative financial schemes to create new revenue--never asking citizens to pay.
  • Prop 13 hit SD hard b/c the state rewarded governments w/high tax rates with more revenue, and SD had low tax rates/revenue. SD received little from the state.
  • Residents approval was required to raise taxes, and 3 events enhanced the fiscal crisis in the 1990's:
  1. Prop 98--CA voted for more funding for public schools, so the state set aside 40% of state budget for local schools. B/c of this, the state used a portion of local property taxes to pay for it--reducing tax revenue for the city.
  2. The fall of the Soviet Union battered local defense industry. To offset, the city cut business taxes, further increasing strain on the budget.
  3. Priorities changed so that district services were placed  first before city issues due to creation of an 8-city council district.
  • In 1992, Mayor Golding revamped the baseball stadium and financed the 1996 Republican National Convention w/out raising taxes & keeping existing programs intact.
  • The city faced budget problems when MP-1 gave the city $11 million break on its annual contributions over 10 years.
  • A trigger clause was implemented: if system-funding ration fell below 82.3% then the city would make a lump sum payment to bring the ratio back up. There was optimism for this b/c the stock market was booming at the time. HOWEVER,
  • after 2001 recession, SD could not make the one lump payment so they changed the INTERPRETATION of MP-1, from fully paying to BEGIN paying.
  • In 2002, the ratio floor was changed from 82.3% to 75%
  • In 2004, Prop G changed the city charter to make underfunding the pension illegal--shutting SD out of the municipal bond market
  • Murphy resigned and MP-1 & MP-2 benefits were voided.
  • Newly elected Mayor Sanders tried to fight the pension fallout by passing 2-tiered retirement plan for municipal employees
Broken Windows

From TED reading by Kelling/Wilson


Meaning: Theory that states that the physical elements of a neighborhood matter and affect peoples' feelings towards their neighborhood. A single broken window in a neighborhood could give a sense of "no one cares" attitude, which would lead to more crime. A broken window could give the sense of disorder and lead to more window breaking (crime). The suggested solution is strong police control to maintain a good appearance of a neighborhood. Criminals could perceive a window left unrepaired as a neighborhood where they have a better chance of getting away with crime because it's disorganized.


Significance: Race was often used as a stereotyping factor to explain why crime occurs in certain places, but the "broken windows" theory illustrated that it can occur anywhere and that it has more to do with the built environment.

Paradise Plundered--Ch.4
  • In the late '90s, San Diego's population was growing faster than the money available to pay for fiscal needs. New dollars coming in were being used to pay off debt, leaving most publice services underfunded.
  • 4 out of 5 dollars in the city budget were being spent on personell, a greater share than any other city in CA.
  • San Diego's financial solvency can also be attributed to sharp investment losses (housing bubble popped in 2008)
  • Mayor Sanders actually had less power in controlling the budget b/c of 5-person council overriding many of his vetos (Sanders=Rep, coucil=Dem)
  • 1988=SD voters changed the city's electoral system from at-large to district elections. Conflicts b/w Dem's and Rep's, and racial minorities, although they made up a large portion of pop, they weren't being heard by affluent white officials.
  • Libraries were being built and exisiting ones were losing hours
  • Wildfires were the result of aging & inadequate equipment.
  • Increasing pop growth left SD w/shortage of public safety infrastructures--to fight understaffing, the city practiced cross-staffing and overtime.
  • Point Loma dealth with water, and when they didn't meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act, the EPA sued SD. SD plans to spend $632 million to upgrade sewer infrastructure by 2013.
Going forward, SD faces 3 problems:
  1. 1.3 million residents spread over 324 sq.miles--city's lowest pop.density of CA's 10 largest cities. SD has to maintain 3000 miles of sewer pipeline, double of LA's.
  2. The city's poor bond rating means higher borrowing costs to finance needed projects.
  3. The city is once again on a 5-year lifeline w/respect to Point Loma. Mandated sewer outlays have meant other infrastructre improvements have to wait.
Since the 1970s, SD has provided its constituents with significantly fewer public services than other major CA cities.
"Bastards of the Party"

Lecture 25


Meaning: The creation of LA gangs as Sloan traces the evolution of violence by whites against blacks and the forms of black self-defense that evolved as a result. Current and former gang members are interviewed.


Significance: Young black men began to form their own groups for self-defense and this was perceived as a threat by the police, so they created a campaign of repression, which culminated in the Watts riot of 1965.


The documentary also gave insight of how The Black Panthers became a more trusted and reliable source of protection for the black community--"In those days, if your husband hit you, you didn't call the police-you called the Black Panthers."

Paradise Plundered: Ch.6
  • San Diego's residents are unwilling to pay taxes for desirable services, so the government partners with private developers to provide these services.
  • In 1975 the CCDC was created with sole task to mediate the transfer of public funds to private sector. Members of this council had the power to determine what needed to be developed in SD, but this was difficult b/c many of the members had vested financial interest through SD.
  • They ultimately spent the gov't money on the revitalization of downtown in accordance to Growth Machine theory (local elite's common goal is to intensify land development to yield returns).
  • SD made deals to renovate the Chargers stadium and build the Padres stadium--private investors benefited while the tax payers were left with the bill.

Judd & Swanstrom (p.259)


Meaning: Common Interest Developments are otherwise known as gated communities. They are governed by homeowner's association who enforce CC&Rs.


Significance: By creating privately governed common interest developments, homeowners are able to escape many of the burdens of the public realm altogether. Most CIDs are made up of homogenous populations, and they undermind any sense of shared social responsibility.

Four Enclosures

Lecture 23


Refers to the segregation of space that originated in the 1600s when rural people were evicted to make way for the wool industry. The modern four enclosures are work, residence, consumption, and leisure.


  1. Work occurs in "Downtown, Inc.," which refers to segregation of people into working groups/hiearchy, and occurs in downtown office buildings that are privately owned.
  2. Residence takes place in gated communities where living space is enclosed
  3. Consumption is focused on shopping malls
  4. Leisure and entertainment are enclosed within the "tourist bubble" (e.g. Visitors are treated to a Disney Main Street-like "Potemkin Village" rather than the real city.
Managing Marginalization

TED - "Hollow Prizes" by Katz


Meaning: Civil violence in Americn history has usually involved marginalized populations. Since the 1960s, however, deprivation rarely has translated into civil violce due to American learning to manage marginalization through five mechanisms:


  1. selective incorporaton: Gateways to better education, jobs, income, & housing have opened up for minorities like affirmative action.
  2. mimetic reform: Measures that respond to insurgent demands w/out devolving real power or redistributing significant resources.
  3. indirect rule: Claims on city government would be directed toward African-American elected officials, public bureaucrats, and police.
  4. consumption: By facilitating the rise of the Consumers' Republic, the private sector developed an indirect mechanism for deflecting the potential for civil violence.
  5. repression & surveillance: Money grants & legislation specified that no more than 1/3 of federal grants go to personel, thus LEAA fueled repression & control.
Significance: Together, they set in motion a process of de-politicization that undercuts the capacity for collective action.

Meaning: Not In My Backyard describes oppositions by residents to a proposal for new development in their neighborhood, but does not object to it being sited elsewhere. Examples include the development of tall buildings, chemical plants, industrial parks, landfills, etc.


Significance: Allows community members to have power over their community & reject developments that may be damaging. These projects are then moved to low-income cities, plaguing them with industrial & toxic projects, affecting their environment and health. Although NIMBY was meant to help communities, it has broadened the gap b/w low & high income communities. It has benefited high-income communities, giving them power/control.

Exclusionary Zoning

Judd & Swanstrom (P.278)


Meaning: Used as a tool for creating & perpetuating residential exclusion. Those that lived in exclusive neighborhoods felt threatened by the idea that the poor might disperse throughout the metropolitan areas. Zoning became the legal means to ensure what informal social barriers might not have been bale to achieve. The court ruled that separating residential from other land uses was a legitamite use of the city's police power to promote the order, safety, and well-being of its citizens.


Significance: In the 70s, exclusionary zoning was challenged in the federal courts on the ground that it violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment. The courts have consistently held that it does not prohibit discrimination on the basis of income or class. This situation paves the way for de facto segregation, since developers & owners legally exclude the poor (usually low-income minorities).


Judd & Swanstrom (P.401)


Meaning: Community Development Corporations; small non-profits organized in a specific community to provide services & programs that support community development. Activiites usually include job training, advocacy, community planning, etc. to invest in less-privileged populations, mostly relying on public funding.


Significance: CDCs are another governmental entity that complicates the way services are provided, but they are essential in providing services to needy neighborhoods. They "help mobilize citizens, supply critical services, & bring additional public & private resources into communities." However, b/c the majority of their funds come from federal sources, they are constantly in danger, putting the communities that depend on them at risk.

Intra- vs. Inter-Ethnic Coalitions

Lecture 20


Meaning: Intra-Ethnic Coalitions are also known as bloc voting. African-Americans create bloc voting b/c solidarity was beaten into them. It is difficult for other minorities to accomplish b/c of nationality, generation, class, and language differences, as well as some being at war with each other.


Inter-ethnic coalitions represent people from different intra-ethnic coalitions and appeal to multiple ethnic groups. For example, when Jesse Jackson ran for US President in 1984, he appealed to multiple ethnic groups, but he still needed to appeal to his original support as to not appear "bland."


Significance: This is why it is difficult for minority leaders to gain power in politics. They rise up with support from intra-ethnic coalitions; however, to gain support on the mainstream level, they need to expand throughout multiple ethnic coalitions.

Incorporation Barriers

TED reading by Erie


Meaning: The article examines external and internal barriers of minority ethnic groups and their political incorporation in LA. External barriers are institutional--topics such as redistricting policies, naturalization, voter registration, etc.


Internal barriers include age, SES, language, etc. These barriers severely cut the number of voters represented of minority ethnic groups. For example, undocumented Lations in the US are an untapped voting population, even though they make up a large population of LA. There is also low voter registration, where members of minority ethnic groups become citizens, but never register to vote.


Significance: 25% of California's population is Latino, but only 7% are active voters. The Asian Pacific population make up 10% of population, but only 3% are active voters. There are large portions of communities whose voices are not being heard in elections. This is significant because officials that are being elected are not properly represented by all groups.

Minority Political Incorporation

Judd & Swanstrom


Meaning: Judd states that a democratic system should reflect the needs of the constituency & if any group feels left out, they will protest and stop participating. This can be seen as governmental failure to incorporate minorities in the political system. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s greatly improved the incorporation of the black community; however, the ethnic complexities & differences made it difficult for mixed coalitions to find commond ground. Ethnic miorities are still largely behind in education, income, & participation in the work force.


Significance: This is a measure of how urban government looks at its members. The political marginalization of large ethnic groups shows a democratic failure.

Afro-Caribbeans vs. Blacks

TED - Rogers


Meaning: Article describes why the assumption that African-American & non-white immigrants would form a grand rainbow coalition is actually not happening. The two major conclusions are:


  1. Race has serious limits as a site for coalition building among non-White groups and
  2. Whatever potential race has may be undermined by a city's political institutions.
Rogers believes that these rainbow coalitions SHOULD happen b/c of
  1. racial division & inequality
  2. little or no voice in local government
  3. racial commonalities (skin color, experiences in segregation)
Significance: This shows that support of certain groups may want to go in different directions than a candidate running on the strength of their race. This shows the importance of the intra-ethnic coalition building b/c it leads to inter-ethnic coalitions, which tend to win.
Biracial Coalitions

TED - Sonenshein


Meaning: Article dicusses the possible biracial coalitions b/w Blacks & Whites. The formation of trust among elite activists, nurtured & sustained over time & often supported by common beliefs is crucial to coalitions. Article focuses on 4 eras:


  1. Blacks particially succeeded incorporating on their own by electing a single black candidate--Mayor Tom Bradley
  2. Bradley appealed to block & white votes for council
  3. Secondary support from Hispanics brought full incorporation
  4. Groups that were not in competition before, now were (Hispanics & Asians).
Significance: Shows how any coalition based on race have to have the right political framework for it to work. LA had the perfect combination, but over time the coalitions started to decrease in power & the groups realized that they no longer needed the coalition.
Paradise Plundered - Ch.1
  • Fiscal crisis exacerbated by pension fund scandal
  • Severely underfunded public services/infrastructure
  • Privatized downtown & bay front
  • By 2010, a $2.1 billion unfunded pension liability placed San Diego in a nearly bankrupt state. With no new revenues & growing pension out lays, SD faced a chronic, long-term, structural-deficit budget crisis.
  • Governing SD is about achieving public objective rather than exercising power over its citizens.
  • The absence of corporate civil leadership has removed a strong source of monitoring of local governments' performance
  • San Diegans highly value the public sector & thus believe that local government should do little--they also believe that government wastes their taxes.
  • Too much favor on the private side vs. public good. (Ex: Financing for new, but not old neighborhoods)
  • Continuing pressures of globalization & suburbanization have accelerated the decline of corporate leadership in civic affairs.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!