Shared Flashcard Set


United States
Second Test for Great Powers
International Studies
Undergraduate 2

Additional International Studies Flashcards




US's International Role
US have resources from farms and mines that exported a lot
Trade relations helped America become a great power
US Expansion
bought Alaska from Russia (more land and more power in Pacific)
Colony of Philippines - interact more with Eastern Powers
1899 - got Samoa
1898 - annexed Hawaii (resources and agriculture)
Panama Canal - connecting Atlantic and Pacific
US Strength in Pacific
1910 - established role in Pacific
West established and trading posts
Particularly Hawaii
Hawaii's Role
trading post for fur and whales
missionaries found Hawaii desirable, so US connect with Hawaii culturally
connect with Hawaii economically as well
White Americans in Hawaii were afraid of racial inundation and Japan
Conflict with Japan when Hawaii Annexed
1893 - Hawaii independent republic and later annexed
while Hawaii independent, white americans want to annex Hawaii and wage a naval battle with Japan
US realizes that it must strengthen itself in Pacific because Japan is strong
Japan mad because US is racist
New US Navy
1898-US had naval construction program
Used fleet when battling Japan
One fleet for Pacific and one for Atl.
US's New Navy vs Spain
Teddy use navy in Spanish-American War to show navy's strength
Ready to send fleet to Spain
US see possibility in Philippines because leader there fought Spain
Spain lost because not enough resources
US suppressed Philippine uprising
US and Panama Canal
Helped Panama achieve independence from Colombia
Construction - 1904-1914
Largest engineering project up to that point
US/Jap relations increase b/c of canal, since both countries have been growing
"Fortress America"
US should go to war and involve itself in a power position
"Arsenal of Democracy"
title referring to fact that US should provide artillery (tools of war) for countries to defend themselves (mainly Britain and Republic of China)
US production (WW2)
Produced 1/3 of all manufactured goods in the world
Both Soviet Union and Britain were getting ready for war
US also had a large population compared to Germany
US production is 2x greater than Germany (100 vs 48)
US military decisions
Did not have much of a fleet, for US to deploy forces to Britain would be in question
Strategic decisions in mid-1940: need of time to mobilize, would be more defensive to defend themselves from Germany and Japanese offensive
Once American forces are mobilized, then it and its allies would switch to offensive
BUT Germany was the opposite, would want to go on the offensive and strike before others could mobilize
US preparing for WW2
1940: Roosevelt decided that he would mobilize US economy by mobilizing US capital, change in personnel of Washington: meaning that there are now ideological changes (idealists to producers)
1939: US stopped producing goods made out of steel (such as ovens and stoves) in exchange for producing arms
US production with WW2
In February 1942 - War production board decided that production of steel goods (cars, washing machines, etc.) should stop, so they can produce more machine guns, rationing was also introduced (gas and rubber especially), centralized (government) allocation of goods (things like machine tools, rubber, steel), extensive government control of the economy but done by capitalists, Henry Stinson (Department of Defense): mastermind of these actions
Contracts were modified to use resources more efficiently
US society in WW2
During 1941 (between Jan and Dec): US production of munitions increased more than double, over 2 million men were drafted and in training to be soldiers
expansion of munitions required construction of new factories (would have to build factories to make more products)
Even though this mobilization was intense, standard of living didn't decline even though other countries suffered
US supplying arms to other countries
3 ways US could get stuff to Russia: Vladivostok, Iran, and Mermannes
US was supply arms to Britain, Republic of China, and Soviet Union
US and the reality of war
Not ready for huge global struggle
What shifted America's opinion was the shifted balance of power in Europe
All of Europe would have been under the power of Germany
but...Germany didn't want to deal with US, they are ok with having US in their western hemisphere
Germany just wanted the Eastern hemisphere
Committee for Non-Participation in Japanese Aggression
Formed in 1938
US was Japan's major supplier for resources
NGO that called for boycotts of Japanese goods
Held rallies and demonstrations
US made Rape of Nanjing movie from clips
US had more sympathy for Chinese than Japanese
Geo-strategic threat of Japan toward US makes it more of a threat than the Holocaust
US perspective of Axis Treaty
Axis Treaty was going to make resources in SE Asia available to Nazi Germany
If Japan had some then they would give to Germany as well
Makes sense because only oil fields that Germany had were in Eastern Romania
Absence of oil would be a problem for them
Keeping gas out of Germany was a key motive of the west
Using coal but problem was that very expensive and plants were easy to bomb
Germany and Japan vs US
Japan hoped that US would step aside and would acquiesce from SE resources
US even became more opposed to Japanese domination - and would have resources to Germany as well
US starts thinking about how to weaken Germany - Britain would target Persian Gulf and US would control Asian front
Differences between Germany and Japan
Japan had strong anti-war forces in its government, they thought that war with US would be catastrophic, Japanese industrials didn't want it, people in foreign ministry and court didn't want it
(from 1938-41): debates took place between both groups in Japanese government
A few factors that led to Tri-partied Treaty
Hitler gave up a relation with China to have a closer relationship with Japan
Sino-Japanese War starts in 1937: German support for China risks messing up relationship with Japan
Debate between pro-Japanese and pro-Chinese forces in German government
Navy and industrial forces favor China
USSR is happy about Germany no longer supporting China
Japan's proclamation about new world order - Japan wants East Asia to be organized under Japan
pro and anti-war factions based on reorganization of Balance of Power system
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