# Shared Flashcard Set

Unit 4 Exam 1270
Test 4
31
Physics
11/18/2011

## Additional Physics Flashcards

Term
 A flute is an open pipe because at the embouchure hole and at the foot joint there are
Definition
 A pressure node and a displacement antinode.
Term
 In a brass instrument of fixed length (called a “natural horn”) on
Definition
 can easily play only the harmonics of the pipe
Term
 In an oboe (which has a conical bore), what is the fundamental frequency for a 0.5 m long air column at 20 C ?
Definition
 686 Hz
Term
 In a closed tube at 30C(for which the velocity of sound is 350 m/s), what is the fundamental mode frequency for a stopped tube with an effective length of 0.35 m?
Definition
 250 Hz
Term
 The frequency produced by blowing against the edge of the embouchure of a flute is determined by
Definition
 - The width of the hole- The velocity of the air jet- The frequency of the standing waves in the pipe- The effective length of the air column
Term
 The chief difference between a xylophone and a marimba is
Definition
 the deeper undercutting in a marimba (compared to the xylophone for which first overtone 3f1) that makes the first overtone frequency 4x the fundamental
Term
 The factor or factors that control the pitch of the human voice is (are)
Definition
 the length, tension and density of the vocal folds.
Term
 An open hole in the side of a tube
Definition
 decreases the effective length of the tube by shifting a pressure node toward the hole location.
Term
 The vocal folds are:
Definition
 classified as a hard reed.
Term
 The vocal chords are/do NOT:
Definition
 - Inharmonic- Classified as a soft reed- Vibrate only in resonance with the vocal tract- Vibrate at only one frequency
Term
 Brass instruments are characterized by sound initiated by
Definition
 buzzing lips. NOT BY b) blowing across a hole. c) cane reeds. d) mallets. e) vocal folds
Term
 Overblowing causes
Definition
 a clarinet to jump to a register one octave and a perfect fifth higher.
Term
 For brass instruments,
Definition
 the bell causes a shift in the low frequency modes to higher values.
Term
 A trumpet differs most significantly from a cornet
Definition
 in the amount of cylindrical and conical tubing in their construction
Term
 Vocal folds oscillate because of:
Definition
 The Bernoulli Effect
Term
 The vibration recipe of a cymbal:
Definition
 is inharmonic
Term
 Vocal folds are:
Definition
 - Ridges of mucus membranes.- Determine to the pitch
Term
 Vocal folds:
Definition
 - Are NOT long strips of tissue- Do NOT oscillate independent of any muscle tension
Term
 Brass instruments are effectively closed end tubes, however...
Definition
 the mouthpiece and bell strongly affect the harmonic recipe of brass instruments.
Term
 Vowel sounds from the human voice can be characterized by their formants.
Definition
 Formants are broad resonance bands of the vocal tract
Term
 T/F: Formants depend on muscle tension in the vocal folds.
Definition
 False
Term
 T/F: Formant values are not determined by the vibration recipe of the vocal folds.
Definition
 True
Term
 T/F: Formant values are independent of the shape of the vocal resonator cavity
Definition
 False
Term
 T/F: If any two individuals say the same word, the values of their respective formants are not identical.
Definition
 True
Term
 The phoneme b is...
Definition
 A voice plosive.
Term
 Percussion instruments in genera
Definition
 vibrate at the frequencies of their natural mode
Term
 Sopranos open their mouths when they sing high notes, primarily
Definition
 to shift formants higher in frequency.
Term
 Vibration modes on a drum membrane:
Definition
 are generally inharmonic
Term
 A mallet is in contact with a drum head for 1 millisecond. The highest frequency excited is
Definition
 2 kHz
Term
 The striking of a drum head at a particular point
Definition
 excites modes in proportion to their amplitudes at that point.
Term
 A timpani set produces an approximately harmonic series by:
Definition
 - Suppressing certain modes of vibration with an enclosed air volume.- Maintaining a certain tension in the drum head.- Being struck in the appropriate spot on the head.- Loading of the drum head by the air it moves.
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