Shared Flashcard Set


Criminal Justice
Undergraduate 1

Additional Criminal Justice Flashcards




State the role of a police officer regarding traffic
-Traffic enforcement and traffic investigation
Traffic Enforcement
• According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the primary tool used to reach the scene of a crime and to elude the police is a vehicle
-The criminal uses the vehicle to get to the crime scene
-The criminal uses the vehicle as part of the crime
-The criminal uses the vehicle to leave the crime scene
• As a peace officer, if you have probable cause to believe a violation of law exists, then it is your duty and responsibility to take appropriate enforcement action
• Traffic law enforcement is important in reducing general crime

-Crimes (robbery, rape, vehicle theft) may be prevented by a visible police presence
-The criminal wants to conduct activity without being detected or identified at or near the scene of a crime
-If the criminal knows there is a great possibility of being contacted by an officer, the criminal may choose not to commit the crime or move to a lesser enforced jurisdiction
Traffic Investigation
• Officers will investigate traffic collisions, including hit skip and serious injury involving felony charges
• They will also investigate specific complaints (violator’s passing school busses, traffic control devices not being followed, road rage incidents)
• Officer need to be aware that these investigations may turn into something more than just a traffic violation
1. Identify the primary reason for traffic enforcement.
-To reduce traffic collisions, their resulting injuries, and to facilitate the safe and expedient flow of vehicular and pedestrian traffic
2. Identify the Ohio Revised Code section that covers definitions related to motor vehicle offenses.
Is located .01 section of each chapter
3. Identify the Ohio Revised Code chapter that covers moving violations.
5. Identify the Ohio Revised Code chapter that covers equipment violations.
6. Identify the Ohio Revised Code chapter that covers license suspensions.
7. Identify the Ohio Revised Code chapter that covers motor vehicle crimes.
Describe a peace officer’s priorities in protecting the scene of a crash
• The first priority…protect the crash victims and the first responders

• Then…check for injuries

• Wear reflective vests at scene of crash

• Place sufficient warning devices

• Finally…protect the involved vehicles and other evidence at the collision scene
Explain the sequence of events in a traffic crash.
• Encroachment
• Point of Possible Perception
• Point of Perception
• Evasive Action
• Point of No Escape
• First Harmful Event
• Maximum Engagement
• Disengagement
• Final Rest
Identify the differences between contact and induced damage
1.) Contact Damage-caused by direct contact with some object which is not a part of the vehicle

External Contact Damage-most often appears as collapsed or deformed areas of vehicles, tears or punctures, scratches, or smeared material, transferred from one vehicle to another or one object to another

Internal Contact Damage-is found inside the vehicle and is caused when vehicle occupants strike the dashboard, steering wheel, windows, or when objects within the vehicle strike interior parts of the vehicle

Relating internal contact damage to injuries sustained by the vehicle occupants assists in determining the seating positions of the occupants

2.) Induced Damage-is when part of the vehicle is displaced

-induced damage is often found adjacent to or around the contact damage and is caused by the forces of the contact damage

-While the area may not have contacted any other object, it was damaged by the force of the collision

5. Explain what evidence at a traffic crash should be documented with photographs.

• Officers should photograph everything that was damaged and all physical evidence

• The entire sequence of events for OH-1

• The approach to the crash scene

-Photograph the approach and the departure directions of all operators

• Photograph the view from the driver’s perception point
• View from the driver’s reaction point
• View from the driver’s point of no escape

-Do the same for pedestrians

• Surface marks on the roadway

-Photograph debris and marks left upon the roadway and other surfaces
-Photograph debris and roadway marks in the direction of movement the vehical or object that made them was traveling

• The area of impact (i.e. the area b/w the vehicles involved)

• Final rest

-Show where the vehicles came to final rest and in what position

-If victims or pedestrian are thrown clear of vehicles, photograph their final rest positions in the same way as a vehicle’s final rest

• Evidence from the scene

-Tire marks should be documented from the beginning of the mark to the end of the mark

-Photograph areas of the tire mark that explain a vehicle’s movement (e.g. offset tire mark, the separation of front and rear tire marks)

-Photograph any traffic control devices

-Document the position of missing or damaged traffic signs

-Vehicle damage should be photographed at the scene as additional damage may occur when the vehicles are moved or removed from the scene of the traffic crash

• To corroborate eyewitness statements, take photographs of the scene from his/her position and eye level
State the information an officer must relay to a defendant concerning the defendant’s failure to appear in court at the time stated on the affidavit or pay for a traffic ticket.
• The defendant’s driver’s license or commercial driver’s license will be suspended

• The defendant is not eligible for reissuance of a license or certification of registration until the person appears and complies with all orders of the court

• The defendant remains subject to any applicable criminal penalties
Explain when an officer may arrest, rather than issue a citation, for a minor misdemeanor
• Offender requires medical care or is unable to provide for his/her own safety

• Offender will not or cannot offer satisfactory proof of his/her identity

• Offender refuses to sign the citation

• Offender has previously been issued a citation for the commission of that particular misdemeanor and failed to satisfy obligations to appear .
1. State the officer’s assumed authority for traffic control
RC 2921.331(A)
No person shall fail to comply with any lawful order or direction of any police officer invested with authority to direct, control, or regulate traffic
2. Identify traffic direction and control actions.
• Use the information received from communications as well as your knowledge of the immediate area and beyond
• Confirm your geographical location with dispatch
• Perform a preliminary analysis of current situation
• Identify actions required to mitigate the situation
• Identify resources required to support those actions
• Identify any unique safety situations as you arrive
3. Identify methods of controlling traffic.
• Let people know you are in command of the traffic situation
• Starting and stopping traffic
-Look at and point directly at the driver
-Give clear directions by using arm movement
-Make certain that traffic is completely stopped before starting traffic in another direction
-Slow or timid drivers may be urged to speed up by increasing the rapidity of the arm movement; however, wild arm gestures and shouting may confuse nervous drivers

• Turning movements
-look at end point directly at driver
-Point in direction of the turn
-Be sure to stop the traffic coming in the opposite direction before allowing left turns
• Pedestrian traffic
-Pedestrians are more difficult to control
-They tend to cross at will if you stop traffic thereby hindering turning movements

-Talk to them so that they know you haven’t forgotten about them

-To a certain degree, pedestrians will do what they want. AT an intersection with heavy pedestrian traffic, it may be of best interest to stop all traffic and let them cross in all directions until the group size is manageable
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