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Top 200 (141-150)
Info from book

Additional Pharmacology Flashcards









Losartan potassium/ Hydrochlorothiazide




BBW: Can cause fatal injury and death if used in 2nd & 3rd trimesters, D/C treatment if PRG detected


Uses: HTN, DN, prevent CVA in HTN and LVH


MOA: Angiotensin II receptor blocker, thiazide diuretic ↓ distal tubule Na reabsorption


Dose: 50 mg/12.5 mg PO QD, Max 100 mg/25 mg/day, ↓ in elderly/hepatic impair


Caution: C/D/D, ?/-, w/ NSAIDs, w/ K sparing diurectics, supl may cause ↑ K, w/ RAS, hepatic impair


CI: PRG, component sensitivity


Disp: Tabs 50/12.5, 100/12.5, 100/25 mg (Losartan/HCTZ)


SE: ↓ BP, ↑ K, ↑ urination, GI upset, facial/angioedema, dizziness, cough, weakness, ↓ renal function






Oxycodone HCl/APAP


Endocet®, Percocet®, Tylox®


Schedule: C-II


Uses: Mod-Severe Pain


MOA: Narcotic analgesic


Dose: 1-2 tabs/caps PO q4-6h PRN (acetaminophen max dose 4g/d)


Caution: C/D, M


CI: Allergy, paralytic ileus, resp depression


Disp: Tabs 2.5/325, 5/325, 7.5/325, 10/325


SE: ↓ BP, sedation, dizziness, GI upset, constipation






Dicyclomine HCl




Uses: Functional IBS


MOA: Smooth-muscle relaxant


Dose: 20 mg PO QID, ↑ to 160 mg/d MAX or 20 mg IM q6h, 80 mg/d ÷ QID then ↑ to 160 mg/d, max 2 wk


Caution: B, -


CI: Infants < 6 months, NAG, MyG, severe UC, BOO, Gi obst, reflux esophagitis


Disp: Caps 10, 20 mg; Tabs 20 mg, Syrup 10 mg/5 mL; Inj 10 mg/mL


SE: Anticholinergic SEs may limit dose


Notes: Take 30-60 min AC; avoid EtOH, do not administer IV








Biaxin®, Biaxin® XL


Uses: Upper/lower resp tract, skin/skin structure infxns, H. pylori ifxns, & infxns caused by non-tuberculosis (atypical) Mycobacterium, prevention of MAC infxns in HIV-infxn


MOA: Macrolide antibiotic; ↓ protein synth. Spectrum: H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, & H. pylori


Dose: 250-500 mg PO BID or 1000 mg (2x500mg XL tab)/d. Mycobacterium: 500 mg PO BID, ↓ w/ renal impair


Caution: C, ?, Antibiotic-associated colitis, rare QT prolongation & ventricular arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes


CI: Macrolide allergy; w/ ranitidine in pts w/ Hx of porphyria or CrCl <25 mL/min


Disp: Tabs 250, 500 mg; Susp 125, 250 mg/5 mL; XL tabs 500 mg


SE: ↑ QT interval, causes metallic taste, N/D, Abd pain, HA, rash


Notes: Multiple drug interactions, ↑ theophylline & carbamazepine levels, do not refrigerate susp 










Uses: HTN


MOA: Competitively blocks beta-adrenergic receptors, thiazide diuretic, ↓ distal tubule Na reabsorption


Dose: 2.5 mg/6.25 mg PO QD, Max 10 mg/6.25 mg/day (Bisoprolol/HCTZ)


Caution: C/D/D, +/-


CI: Component sensitivity, Sinus bradycardia, AV conduction adnormalities, uncompensated cardiac failure


Disp: Tabs 5, 10 mg


SE: Fatigue, lethargy, HA, ↓ HR, edema, CHF, ↑ urination


Notes: Not dialyzed






Glyburide/ Metformin HCl




Uses: Type 2 DM


MOA: Sulfonylurea, ↑ pancreatic insulin release, Metformin, peripheral insulin sensitivity, ↓ hepatic glucose output/production, ↓ intestinal glucose absorption


Dose: 1st line (naive pts), 1.25/250 mg PO QD-BID, 2nd line, 2.5/500 mg or 5/500 mg BID (max 20/2000 mg); take w/ meals, slowly ↑ dose; hold before & 48 hrs after ionic contrast media


Caution: C, -


CI: SCr > 1.4 mg/dL in females or >1.5 mg/dL in males; hypoxemic conditions (sepsis, recent MI), alcoholism, metabolic acidosis, liver disease


Disp: Tabs 1.25/250 mg, 2.5/500 mg, 5/500 mg


SE: HA, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, anorexia, N/V, rash


Notes: Avoid EtOH, hold dose if NPO, monitor folate levels (megaloblastic anemia)










BBW: May ↑ risk of CV events & GI bleeding, perforation, CI w/ post-op coronary artery bypass graft


Uses: *OA, RA,* pain


MOA: NSAID, ↓ prostaglandins


Dose: 1000-2000 mg/d ÷ QD-BID w/ food


Caution: C, -, Severe hepatic disease


CI: w/ peptic ulcer, NSAID sensitivity, after coronary artery bypass graft surgery


Disp: Tabs 500, 750 mg


SE: Dizziness, rash, GI upset, edema, peptic ulcer, ↑ BP










BBW: Prescribers should be familiar w/ complete prescribing information before use


Uses: *Prophylaxis and treatment of malaria, SLE,* Rheumatoid arthritis


MOA: Binds DNA, interferes w/ parasitic vesicle functions, inhibits phospholipid metabolism, inhibits plasmodial erythrocyte stage; antirheumatic/immunosuppressive effects, inhibits rheumatoid factor, acute phase reactants, and many enzymes


Dose: Malaria Tx: 400 mg PO q24h x2; 800 mg PO x1, then 400 mg q6-8h later. Malaria Prophylaxis: 400 mg qwk, start 2 wks before and continue x6-8wks after exposure. RA: 200 mg PO BID; give w/ food or milk


Caution: C, -, Hepatic impair, Alcoholism, concurrent hepatotoxic agents, pediatric pts


CI: Component sensitivity, retinal or visual field changes, psoriasis, PRG


Disp: Tabs 200 mg


SE: Dizziness, ataxia, HA, abd pain, N/V/D, itching, wgt loss, photosens










Uses: Parkinsonism, Drug-induced extrapyramidal disorders


MOA: Partially blocks striatal cholinergic receptors


Dose: Parkinsonism: Initial 0.5-1 mg PO/IM/IV qHS, ↑ q 5-6 d PRN by 0.5 mg, usual dose 1-2 mg, 6 mg/d max. Extrapyramidal: 1-4 mg PO/IM/IV q day-BID. Acute Dystonia: 1-2 mg IM/IV, then 1-2 mg PO BID


Caution: C, ?, w/ urinary symptoms, NAG, hot environments, CNS or mental disorders, other phenothiazines or TCA


CI: <3 y


Disp: Tabs 0.5, 1, 2 mg; Inj 1 mg/mL


SE: Anticholinergic (tachycardia, ileus, N/V, etc.), anhydrosis, heat stroke


Notes: Physostigmine 1-2 mg SQ/IV to reverse severe symptoms 






Ropinirole HCl




Uses: Treatment of Parkinson disease, restless legs syndrome


MOA: Dopamine agonist


Dose: Initial 0.25 mg PO TID, weekly ↑ 0.25 mg/dose, to 3 mg max, max 4 mg for RLS


Caution: C, ?/-, Severe CV/renal/hepatic impair


CI: Component allergy


Disp: Tabs 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg


SE: Syncope, postural ↓ BP, N/V, HA, somnolence, dose-related hallucinations, dyskinesias, dizziness


Notes: D/C w/ 7-d taper

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