# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

114
Engineering
Professional
10/14/2021

Term
 Radial Clearance in Turbine is maintained by ...
Definition
 Journal Bearing
Term
 What does part PG (of the ASME Code) applies too?
Definition
 General requirements for all methods of construction.
Term
 F° to C°   C° to F°
Definition
 F° = (1.8 (C°)) + 32   C° = (F° - 32) / 1.8
Term
 What is the Reciprocating pump flow rate formula?
Definition
 LANE ÷ 231   L = Length of stroke of the pump A = Area of water piston (in²) N = number of strokes per minute E = pump efficiency
Term
 What is the MAWP Formula
Definition
 P = (SET ÷ R(F))     P = pressure S = Tensile strength E = Efficiency T = Thickness R = Radius  F = Factor of Safety
Term
 522 CMR Sections
Definition
 1 - General Provisions 2 - Power Boilers 4 - Heating Boilers 7 - Air tanks 9 - Refrigeration / AC 10 - Material Specifications 11 - Welding Specifications 15 - NBIC 16 - Controls / safety division 17 - Piping 18 - Continuing Education 19 - Portable Boiler
Term
 Boiler Auto Start Sequence
Definition
 1 - Set the Boiler to Manual / Low Fire 2 - Air register cycles to minimum 3 - prove fuel is shut (double block) and bleed open 4 - Forced draft on 5 - Air register open, purge for 8 air changes 6 - Air register to minimum 7 - Igniter fires than pilot lines open 8 - prove pilot 9 - main fuel open than prove main fuel 10 - pilot closes 11 - close vent 10-15psi 12 - turn to Auto at 50% operating pressure
Term
 Third Engineer Classification
Definition
 To have charge of and operate a boiler or boilers not exceeding, in the aggregate, 150 Hp when solid fuel is burned a boiler not exceeding, in the aggregate, 500 Hp when steam is generated by atomic energy or any other source of heat engine or engines not exceeding 50 Hp each or to operate a Second Class Plant under the engineer in direct charge therefore.
Term
 Explain Differential / Absolute expansion
Definition
 Differential - difference from moving to stationary   Absolute - measurement of shell expansion with respect to a stationary point on the turbine
Term
 latent Heat
Definition
 Change in state without change in temperature
Term
 Sensible Heat
Definition
 Change in temperature without change in State
Term
 What are the two safety valves requirements?
Definition
 Smaller must be at least ½ or greater the size of the bigger one.
Term
 Thermal Efficiency (T.E.) formula
Definition
 Ws [ Hs - (TempFeedWater - 32)] Wf * C   Ws - Weight of the steam (lb/hr) Hs - Enthalpy of the steam Wf - Weight of the fuel C - Heat content of the fuel (BTU)    Temp of the feedwater - 32 = enthalpy of the feedwater
Term
 Laws of Thermodynamics
Definition
 1 - energy can neither be created or destroyed, energy can only be transferred or changed from one form to another   2 - no machine, actual or ideal, can both continuously and completely transform heat into mechanical energy. (no system is 100% efficient)
Term
 Dulong's formula (Heating Valve)
Definition
 14.540 (C) + 62,000 (H - (O/8) + 4050 (S)                  Carbon          Hydrogen   Oxygen      Sulfur
Term
 6 Methods to control superheat temp.
Definition
 1 - attemperator - De-super heaters 2 - combo Radiant/convection super heaters 3 - separately fired super heaters 4 - tilting burners 5 - Bypass dampers 6 - Soot blowing
Term
 A/C Inspection for Refrigerant unit
Definition
 Ac units over 20 tons be inspected every year
Term
 What is furnace heat released
Definition
 amount of BTU produced per cubic feet of furnace volume per hour.   (Electric boilers - 3.5lbs per hour per Kwh)
Term
 Ways to prevent trust
Definition
 Double flow Opposed flow Balanced Piston
Term
 Refrigerant ton
Definition
 The melting of 1ton (2,000 lbs) of ice in 24hrs   288,000 Btu total   12,000 Btu/h
Term
 Minimum thickness for Boiler plates
Definition
 ¼" - Refer to ASME sec 1
Term
 What does dispersant do
Definition
 Repels scale forming minerals from coming together
Term
 Ways to prevent steam leakage in Steam Turbine
Definition
 Labyrinth seals (forms a treacherous path)   Carbon rings   water seals   (all the above are types of steam seal)
Term
 Number of gallons in cubic feet
Definition
 7.48 gallons
Term
 Atmospheric pressure
Definition
 29.92 inHg   14.696 psi   33.95' Water Column
Term
 Two adjustments on safety valves and what must be done?
Definition
 Popping pressure / blowback Requires new name plate from manufacturer
Term
 Name 6 causes of Low Vacuum
Definition
 1 - loss o f vacuum pump 2 - plugged condenser tubes 3 - poor cooling 4 - loss of steam seals  5 - blown tube 6 - low hotwell level 7 - loss of capture discs 8 - loss of Air Injection 9 - loss of loop seal
Term
 What indicates excess air
Definition
 White smoke, excess stack temp, low load, higher than normal firing rate
Term
 Boiler heat loss (natural)
Definition
 1 - heat out the stack 2 - water vapor (hydrogen) 3 - unburned fuel in ash 4 - incomplete combustion 5 - moisture in fuel 6 - moisture in air 7 - radiation
Term
Definition
 - must relieve first  - protects superheaters - valve spring should be exposed for visual inspection so you dont have to take down the oiler - must be able to relieve at least 23% of reliving capacity   (ASME Section 1)
Term
 10 things on safety valve data plate
Definition
 1 - manufacture name or trade mark 2 - manufacture design or type number 3 - size of safety valve(in), seat diameter 4 - popping pressure setting (psig) 5 - Blowdown (psi) 6 - Capacity (lb/hr) 7 - lift of the valve (in) 8 - year built or code mark 9 - ASME symbol 10 - Serial number
Term
 1 BTU = .....
Definition
 778 foot pounds (ftlbs)
Term
 3 sizes of man holes
Definition
 elliptical 11"x15" or 12"x16"   circular 15"
Term
 High / Low / No   Combustions
Definition
 High - CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)   Low - O2 (Oxygen)   No - CO (Carbon Monoxide)
Term
 Pipping schedules
Definition
 40 = Heavy   80 = Extra heavy   160 = double extra heavy
Term
 Number of BTU in Ice to Water
Definition
 144 BTU (latent)
Term
 When are two or more safety valves required?
Definition
 More than 500 sqft of heating surface
Term
 Number of BTU from water 212° to steam at 212°
Definition
 970.3 BTU (latent)
Term
 Safety valve size formula
Definition
 W = (c) (H) (.75) 1100   W = weight of steam  C = Heat content H = heating valve  1100 = enthalpy of steam
Term
 BTU in one Boiler HP
Definition
 33,475
Term
 number of gallons in a barrel
Definition
 42 gallons
Term
 cycles of concentration
Definition
 determines blowdown frequency   (conductivity in the boiler compared to conductivity in the feedwater)
Term
 Saty bolts nees at least a ___" tell tale and submerges at least __" in water.
Definition
 3/16"   1"
Term
 Safety valves over ___ must be flanged.
Definition
 3"
Term
 How is turbine Hp determined?
Definition
 by the outside diameter (OD) of supply pipe
Term
 Definition of combustion
Definition
 the rapid oxidation of a fuel, producing both heat and light
Term
 what is boiler proper?
Definition
 Any part of boiler up to the first flange, weld or thread.
Term
 Why treating feed water
Definition
 to prevent all the following:   - scale -corrosion - caustic embrittlement - carry over - foaming - priming
Term
 BTU in one    1 - Mechanical HP   2 - one Kwh
Definition
 1 - 2,545   2 - 3413
Term
 What is external piping
Definition
 Where boiler proper end and goes to last required valve.
Term
 When are blowdowns to be composed  of extra heavy metal?
Definition
 125 psi
Term
 When are two blow downs valves required
Definition
 100 psi  (and must be composed of material suitable for pressures up to 250psi)
Term
 Blowdown pipe sizing...
Definition
 1" and  2½"
Term
 Hydrostatic pressure
Definition
 .433 psi = hydro pressure   1 psi of hydro pressure = 2.31' WC   (how much is the hydrostatic pressure for 10' W.C. Answer: 10*.433 = 4.33)
Term
 1 pump Hp =
Definition
 33,000 ft pounds per min
Term
 Bends allowed on safety valve discharge
Definition
 1 - 90° or 2 - 45°
Term
 Info on a boiler certificate of inspection
Definition
 Location Name of plant/owner Size / unit # Inspector signature MAWP Date
Term
 Ways to control superheaters
Definition
 Soot blowing Bypass damper Separately fired super heaters tilting burners attemperators
Term
 Ligament Efficiency Formula
Definition
 P - d P   p = pitch d = diameter
Term
 What is an Air Heater and what types?
Definition
 designed to retrieve heat from gases of combustion located between boiler and chimney. Two types: -convectional (tubular/plate) -Regenerative   40° size = 1% efficiency increase
Term
 Items on a boiler stamp
Definition
 lbs/steam hr manufacturer - serial # year built boiler heating surface WWHS (water wall heating surface)
Term
 Define:   - Safety Valve    - Relief Valve
Definition
 - Safety Valve is an Automatic pressure relieving device which opens wide (full open) used for gas/vapor   - Relief valve is an automatic pressure relieving device which opens proportionally ( opens wider as the pressure increases). usually used for liquids
Term
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 No machine actual or ideal can both continuously and completely transform heat into mechanical energy. Nothing is 100% efficient.
Term
 First Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
Term
 What are Chlorides
Definition
 Undissolved Salts
Term
Definition
Term
 Tubular glass MAWP ____   Flat glass above ____
Definition
 250 psi
Term
 First safety valve set at _____   Second safety valve set at _____   Superheater set at ____
Definition
 First safety valve set at MAWP   Second safety valve 3% above MAWP   Superheater 10% above the second
Term
 7 Headings on a MoLLier Chart
Definition
 enthalpy entropy constant pressure cons. temperature cons. moisture cons. superheat saturation line / standard atmosphere
Term
 Causes for Turbine Trips
Definition
 - Vibration - Over speed  - High back pressure - Low Steam Temp  - High exhaust temp - High differential
Term
 ASME preamble
Definition
 Jurisdiction - Boiler proper and to external piping, superheaters, economizers, and other pressure parts connected directly to boiler. without intervening  valves.
Term
 When is a Second Gauge glass needed?
Definition
 400 pig
Term
 Enthalpy
Definition
 Total Heat
Term
 Water column pipe sizes:   water column to boiler ___ water column to blowdown ___ water column pipe to gauge glass ____ gauge glass blow down ____
Definition
 water column to boiler 1" water column to blowdown ¾" water column pipe to gauge glass ½ gauge glass blowdown ¼"
Term
 Entropy
Definition
 Energy not available for work
Term
 1 Kw is equal to how many Hp?
Definition
 1.34
Term
 Two probes for turbine speed.
Definition
 - contact probe - proximity probe
Term
 7 heat loses in a boiler
Definition
 1 - moisture in fuel 2 - moisture in air 3 - up the stack 4 - Radiant losses 5 - unburned fuel in the ash 6 - Incomplete combustion 7 - water vapor hydrogen in the fuel
Term
 Describe as Hydro in detail
Definition
 - At the direction of inspector!!!   Remove or bag safety valves, valve out gauge glass, fill boiler with clean treated water at 70 to 120°F until water comes out the vent, then close it. increase pressure with pump until reading 1 ½ times MAWP, hold as long as inspector wishes, then reduce to MAWP for a close inspection. Upon completion, remove pressure and test to NOWL.
Term
 Air tank Inspection
Definition
 unless otherwise exempt, air tanks over 50 psi be inspected every two years
Term
 Linear expression of carbon steel
Definition
 .00000734 inch per inch inch per degree
Term
 Super heated steam efficiency increase.
Definition
 1% for every 35°F
Term
 P.H.
Definition
 How acidic or alkaline   the algorithm  of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ions concentration.
Term
 What regulations pertain to pollution in MASS?
Definition
 310 CMR section 7.00 Air pollution control
Term
 Where to find instructions for prepping boiler for inspection?
Definition
 522 Cmr 2.06 paragraph 4 Accordance with NOIC
Term
 Chapter 146 sections?
Definition
 1-90 2 - Board of boiler rules 6 - Anual inspection / extension / first inspection 21 - prep for inspection / forbidding operations 34 - compressed air tanks / inspection / (36) 46 - Necessary of license 46 A - Steam boiler maintenance log 48 - Ascertainment of horse power 49 - Classes of licenses / work permitted / renewal
Term
 NBIC
Definition
 Composed of chief inspectors of states/municipalities in the U.S. and provinces of Canada that have adopted the NBIC. Administers / enforces NBIC.   1 - Installation 2 - Inspection 3 - Repair / alterations 4 - pressure relief devices
Term
 310 CMR
Definition
 Environmental Protection    - sec 7: Air Pollution  7.06 opacity  violation:   >20% (or 1 on chart) for more than 6 minutes during a one hour period or 2 min (when required) violation: 40% at any time or #2 on chart 7.13 - stack testing 7.27 - NOX allowance
Term
 Clean Air Act
Definition
 1970, ammende in 77 and 90   reduce - particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and mercury emissions   EPA - 250 million Btu hr/greater no particulate in excess of .10lb per million Btu input   Opacity - no greater than 20, except to 40 for 2min   Surfur dioxide - 1.2lb for every 1 million Btu fired
Term
 Responsibilities of the chief.
Definition
 CMR 2.02   daily operations, maintenance and personnel. Make daily visits  leave daily instructions sign book
Term
 Periodic Attendance
Definition
 9-250 Hp - Daily maintenance required by log - same building - equipped with Auto shutdown devices - safe operation is primary duty
Term
 Non continuos attendance
Definition
 251 - 500 Hp   - everything included in periodic attendance - remote monitoring station with shutdown switches  - inspected 4-6 times per shift
Term
 Boiler stamps
Definition
 A - Boiler Assembly S - Power Boiler M - Miniature Boiler E - Electric Boiler V - Safety valve H - Heating Boiler PP - Pressure pipping  U - Unfired pressure vessel
Term
 The three Hp calculations
Definition
 1 - manufacturer tag Steam output ÷ 34.5   2 - manufacturer tag on burner BTU input ÷ 41.840   3 - Manu. tag on boiler BTU output ÷ 33.475
Term
 List the 4 different turbine Hp and pipe sizes
Definition
 up to / including 1¾" = 9HP   over 1¾" and up to 3½" = 50 HP   over 3½ and up to 5" - 150 HP   Over 5" = 500 HP
Term
 How should a boiler be built according to ASME section 1?
Definition
 Pressure > 15psi, (steam)   160 psi / 200°F for water
Term
 Describe operation of an air ejector
Definition
 Steam passes through nozzle, velocity increases (pressure drops), creates low pressure across the suction drawing non-condensables into the diffuser which converts velocity to pressure.
Term
 Size of hand hole...
Definition
 2¾" x 3½"
Term
 Cations take out what?
Definition
 Positive charged ions   - calcium - magnesium - maganese - Iron - Potassium - Sodium   Regens with ACID
Term
 Anions take out what?
Definition
 Negative charged ions, normally:   - Nitrates - Sulfates - Silica - Chloride  - Alkalinity   Regen with CAUSTIC
Term
 None-destructive examinations
Definition
 Ultrasonic, visual inspection, eddy current, magnetic particle, radiographic (X-ray)   ASME sec 5
Term
 Turbine horse power
Definition
 Based on External diameter of steam supply   up to 1¾ - 9Hp > 1¾ to 3½ - 50 HP > 3½ to 5" - 150HP > 5" to unlimited   Steam flow HP = [WS(h1-h2)]/2545   Generator:   1Kw = 1.34Hp.        1.34 * #Kw(h)        1.34 * #KVA * PF
Term
 How is Hp of electric boilers obtained?
Definition
 Kw * 3.5 34.5
Term
 Volume and Weight in air for  O2 and N2
Definition
 Volume:   O2 = 20.91%. (21%) N2 = 79.09%. (79%)   Weight:   O2 = 23.15%. (23%) N2 = 76.85%. (77%)
Term
 Auxiliary Turbine start up
Definition
 1 - Open exhaust 2 - line up drains 3 - check lubrication 4 - open throttle/start and listen 5 - open steam slowly / let governor take over 6 - activate overspeed trip / close throttle / reset trip 7 - open throttle / bring up to speed 8 - close all steam drains
Term
 Condensing turbine start up
Definition
 1 - start aux oil pump / check level and pressure 2 - open up drains  3 - open bleed valves 4 - cooling water on  5 - establish seals (high/low pressure) 6 - open steam then close and listen 7 - if no noise run at 200rpm for ½hr to warm casing 8 - close drains 9 - start condensate pump 10 - start air ejector 11 - bring turbine to speed/trip  12 - close steam  13 - reset trip and bring back up to speed (governor working) 14 - place online ASAP at least 20% load 15 - cut in bleed 16 - check frequently during first few hours
Term
 Turbine horse power (steam flow) formula
Definition
 Hp  = [Ws h1-h2)] / 2545
Term
 Information on chief log book
Definition
 Boiler # type of boiler name of plant location psi allowed safety valve set at Reviewed operations log book boiler / turbine notes signature / license #
Term
 Info. on operators log sheet
Definition
 Name of plant pressure allowed safety valve set point / #s hr type of boiler   Ex: date/time continuous blowdown settings; surface blowdown valves open; gauge glass blowdown; low water cutoff tested; safety valves manually tested aux equipment checked; boiler ignition verified; boiler room cleaned; internal conditions; operators notes / signature and license #
Term
 Popping point range (safety valves)
Definition
 ≤ 70 psi = ± 2%   > 70 ≤ 300 psi = ± 3%   > 300 ≤ 1000 psi = ± 10 psi   < 1000 = 1%
Term
 CMR 522 sections
Definition
 1 - general provisions 2 - power boiler 4 - heating boilers 7 - air tanks 9 - refrigerant / AC systems 10 - materials specifications 11 - welding specs. 15 - NBIC 16 - controls / safety devices 17 - pipping
Term
 ASME sections
Definition
 1 - construction of power boilers 2 - material 4 - construction of heating boiler 5 - non destructive examinations 6 - recommended rules for heating boilers 7 - recommended guidelines for care of power boilers 8 - construction at pressure vessels 9 - welding / brazing qualifications (they stablished rules of safety governing design, fabrication, and inspection during construction of boilers / pressure vessels)
Term
 Board of boiler rules
Definition
 5 member board that promulgates regulations on boilers and pressure vessels for 522 CMR.   (Edward Kawa, Anthony Lucia, Charles Perry, Leah Francis, Max Greig
Term
 Steps to finding heating surface
Definition
 1 - remove units must be in feet 2 - find circumference (Π * Diameter) 3 - multiply circumference by length (ΠDL) = equation   (fire tube subtract wall thickness from your diameter)
Supporting users have an ad free experience!