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9th Grade

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Planet Distance Order
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, (Pluto)
Planet Size Order
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury, (Pluto)
He created the most clear and powerful telescope during his time.
With the telescope he discovered:
-the moon is not a perfect sphere it had ridges, valleys, & craters
-sun spots
-Jupiters 4 moons
-and observed the phases of venus
From all of these observations it helped him support the Copernican’ idea that the Sun was the center of the solar system not the Earth.
More than 96% carbon dioxide
•Surface temperature is 863 degrees
•Diameter is 12,092 km and its mass is 4.867E24
•Circumference is 23,628 miles
•Gets its name from the ancient Roman goddess of love and beauty: Aphrodite.
•It is the only planet named after a female.
•It was named this because it shone brightest of all the other planets to ancient astronomers
•The earliest written record of this planet dates back to 1500BC and it was written by the Sumerian people, but because it was so bright and noticeable it was probably seen by some of the first humans
- Only planet in the solar system that supports life.
- Third planet from the sun
- Has the largest moon of any planet in the solar system in proportion to its mass
- Contains oxygen and water
- Named after Zeus/Juno
-Great red spot= a 400+ year old hurricane twice as large earth
- Galilean satellites: 4 moons discovered by galileo.
-Ganymede: largest satellite in our solar system
- Europa: Frozen salt water ocean, scientist think that there is a possibility for life
- Io: most volcanic
- Callisto: Craterous surface with an age of 4.5 billion years
- 60+ Moons
- Composed of mainly hydrogen and some helium
-Coldest planet
-Discovered in 1781 by WIlliam Herschel
-Johaan Bode gave it its ultimate name
-The planet is tilted so that the poles are pointing towards the Sun
-Has 27 moons
- he went to Plato’s Academy in Athens
- he wrote over 200 treatises
- he had many discoveries and theories about physics related things including many new ideas about gravity which people didn’t know very much about
- he founded the Lyceum school in Athens
has 13 moons
It is a gas Giant
it has the strongest winds in the solar system
has four rings
-Was named after the Roman god Ares, which means war and death.
-Has two moons, Phobos and Deimos.
-You could not live on this planet, but they are working on it. The reason life is not possible is because the average temperature is -80 degrees fahrenheit, and there is no water on the surface of the planet.
-Can be seen very easily from the Earth with the naked eye because the planet is looks bright red.
-Temperatures range from 800 degrees fahrenheit to
-290 degrees fahrenheit.
-Rotates on it’s axis once every 59 Earth days and revolves around the sun once every 88 Earth days.
-Is a terrestrial planet, meaning it has a rocky and cratered surface.
-Once every 10 to 15 years, can be seen crossing the sun. This is called a transit.
-Is named after the Roman messenger god.
-Has been known since ancient times, because it can be seen without a telescope.
-Has no moons and no rings.
Issac Newton
- Was born prematurely in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire on Christmas Day, 1642.
- In June 4, 1661 arrived to Cambridge, and enrolled at Trinity College
- In 1609 used his new redesigned telescope for the first time.
- In 1664 easily passed his final exams and was promoted from a subsizar to the status of a scholar. He was finally a full member of the university. For this achievement was given a small salary, and special uniform. Was also guaranteed another four years of study at Trinity College.
Neil Armstrong
-Born on August 5, 1930
-Starting flying at age 15
-He flew over 200 aircrafts throughout his career at NASA
-Got multiple degrees, and doctorates in aeronautical and aerospace engineering from different universities
-On July 20, 1969, while in command of the spacecraft Apollo 11, he was the first man to ever set foot on the Moon
Albert Einstein
-He dropped out of High School.
-He created the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity.
-He won the Nobel Prize in 1921 for his physics works.
-His suggestion to President Roosevelt to research the splitting of uranium atoms lead to the creation of the Manhattan project (building the atomic bomb).
Identified as a dwarf planet in 2006
Its orbital period is 247 earth years
Average temp: -440 degrees, coldest planet
The “planet” farthest away from the sun
One/Sixth the mass of the moon
The surface of would not fit on the surface of South America.
Black Hole
Fact 1- Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity states that massive objects cause a distortion in space-time, which is felt as gravity.
Fact 2- In 1916, Karl Schwarzchild used Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity to define a this. He called it the Schwarzchild radius. In 1964, John Wheeler, a physicis and teacher created the term name.
Fact 3- Can be found anywhere in space, and they can also be big or small. The smallest are as small as an atom. Their masses are as much as a mountain. Another type of this is called “stellar.” These have masses of more than 20 times the sun’s mass. The largest of these are “supermassive.” These have masses of more than 1 million sun’s together.
Fact 4- Form by the center of a star falling in on itself, caving. Also some were created when the universe was created.
Fact 5- Even though these aren't visible, we do know they exist. Scientists can see how the strong gravity affects the stars and gasses around these.
Fact 6- Quasars are large objects putting extreme amounts of energy and light out that often contain these.
Nicolaus Copernicus
-Was a Mathematician, Physician, Scholar, Artist, Cleric, Governor, Diplomat, Military Leader, Translator, Economist, and Astronomer at some point in his life. aka extremely versatile
-Believed that Ptolemy was incorrect. Said that the Sun was the center of the universe. Not the Earth, like Ptolemy. Other people had casually mentioned the Heliocentric theory. Was the first to back it up with Math.
-He never had the tools to 100% back up his theory, but later Galileo came around and proved him correct with his newly invented telescope.
-Writings weren’t published until l later in life/after death, due to him trying to avoid conflict with the Catholic church.
-In his writings, didn’t just propose his ideas as theories, He said they were true descriptions of the universe and how it works.
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