Shared Flashcard Set


Test 3
NLETC test 3 material

Additional Criminology Flashcards




List the three key objectives of a thorough and complete crime scene investigation.
Time factor: The longer the suspect remains at large, the greater the likelihood
- Physical escape
- Inaccurate identification
- Destruction or disposal of evidence
- Victims and witnesses unwilling to testify
- Suspension of the case
- Alibis
- Contamination or loss of collected evidence
- Mutual contamination: In the process of committing the offense, the perpetrator
did so by passing over or through certain objects, moving or disturbing articles,
using certain tools or weapons, or causing some physical change to persons or
- The fundamental assumption: There is something to be found.
- The Golden Rule: The integrity of evidence obtained at a crime scene is
maintained by keeping it in its original state, therefore NEVER…
- Alter the position of, pick up, or touch any object before it has been
minutely described in an official note and a photograph has been taken.
- Disturbing the scene:
- Do not add material to the scene
- A person’s life or well-being and officer safety takes precedence over
- Record the injured person’s position and condition as well
- Responsibility: First officer on the scene…
- Perimeter
- Secure
- Identify
- Establish ingress/egress point
- Every officer on the scene has an equal responsibility to protect the scene
- Recording the scene:
- Field notes
- Photographs
- Long-range
- Mid-range
- Close-up
- Sketches
- A drawing that represents the scene
- Supplements photographs
- Accurate information concerning distances
- Permanent record
- Reference
- Correlation
- Eliminates confusing and unnecessary details
- Enlargement
- Records exact locations
- Video
- Field notes:
- Copious
- Pertinent information
- Statements
- Observations
Identify the police officer’s responsibility in protecting, examining, and recording a crime scene and list the processes associated with this responsibility.
Time factor: The longer the suspect remains at large, the greater the likelihood
- Physical escape
- Inaccurate identification
- Destruction or disposal of evidence
- Victims and witnesses unwilling to testify
- Suspension of the case
- Alibis
- Contamination or loss of collected evidence
Identify and explain what actions the first officer at a crime scene should take.
- Call for medical aid
- Admonish EMT
- Ascertain the facts
- Isolate and protect
- Detain and separate witnesses
- Continue to protect scene
- Evidence to pay attention to:
- Victim’s clothing and body
- Suspect’ clothing, body, weapon, vehicle
- House and garage
- Major steps taken at scene:
- Secure
- Attention to witnesses
- Searching
- Recording
- Collection and preservation of evidence
- Contact an investigator or outside help if necessary
Identify factors involved in a decision to seek outside help during the investigation of a crime scene.
Seeking out outside help increases the risk of the crime scene becoming
damaged or evidence being lost.
- Outside help may be necessary if the crime scene is extremely complicated, or if
a specialized opinion is necessary.
Identify the purpose and considerations involved in searching a crime scene with regard to specific types of evidence that may be encountered.
Nothing disturbed, moved, touched, or stepped on before the scene is recorded
- Examine the scene
- Reconstruct the crime
- Preliminary purpose…
- Clues
- Physical evidence
- M.O.
- Reduce the number of suspects
- ID perpetrator
Identify and explain typical crime scene problems.
… the victim
- … witnesses
- Lack of equipment
- News media
- Unauthorized personnel
- Environmental concerns
List and explain the five major considerations that dominate the crime scene search.
- Boundary determination
- Choice of search patterns
- Instruction of personnel
- Coordination
- Termination of the search
Name and describe the seven generally accepted crime scene search patterns.
- Increasing spiral
- Decreasing spiral
- Zone
- Strip
- Grid
- Straight line
- Pie or wheel
Define and differentiate between the rough sketch and finished sketch.
- A rough sketch is the initial drawing of the crime scene.
- A finished sketch is much more detailed, refined, and accurate
Identify and demonstrate ways in which to graphically depict a scene and locate items of evidence within the scene.
- Two dimensional
- Three dimensional
- Elements of a sketch:
- Measurement considerations
- Compass direction
- Inclusion of relevant material
- Biographical information
- Statistical and environmental data
- Offense classification
- Case number
- Location
- Scale
- Legend
- Chain of custody
Identify and explain the four basic plotting methods.
- Triangulation
- Baseline coordinate
- Rectangular
- Polar coordinate
Demonstrate the ability to assess a crime scene to determine if specialist processing is needed for the crime.
- Stages of crime scene investigation: - Arrival - Secure and protect - Identify witnesses and victim - Broadcast preliminary information - Examine - Preserve - Evidence identification, protection, and collection - Arrival at scene: Approaching the scene… - Officer safety - Proper arrest tactics - Awareness of persons or vehicles leaving scene - Safety of others - Render medical aid - Preliminary survey - Request assistance - Secure and protect the scene: - Ensure that evidence is not contaminated or removed - Establish perimeter with ingress/egress point - Identify witnesses and victims: - Preliminary statements - Keep them at the scene - Separate - Broadcast preliminary information: - Limited to… - Who - What - When - Where - Per department policy - Examine the crime scene: Detailed information… - Date - Time - Location - Summary of statements - Field notes - Examine the crime scene: - DO NOT RETRACE - Victims and witnesses attention to locations and evidence - Detailed search - Isolate evidence - Escape route - Preservation of the crime scene: - Immediately - Determine the extent of initial protection - Decision maker - Copious notes - Keep unauthorized persons out of the scene - Log - Evidence: - Identify and protect transient evidence - Sketch scene: Rough sketch, finished sketch, scale diagram - Materials for sketching… - Sketch board - Graph paper - Compass - Pencils and erasers - Triangle or straight edge - 20’ tape measure - 100’ tape measure - Photograph the scene - Photograph individual items of evidence - Evaluate evidence including latent evidence - Evaluate evidence including latent evidence - Collect, mark, and record - Final survey
Explain how communication with other officers can enhance the investigation.
- On-duty / on-call investigator
- Crime scene technicians
Identify the differences between class and individual characteristic evidence.
- Class Characteristic Evidence has no definite identification
- Individual Characteristic Evidence is from a specific source or person to the
exclusion of all others
Explain why evidence is critical to any criminal investigation.
Proving an unknown or disputed fact
- Establishes corpus delicti
- Essential to investigations
- Aids in the solution of the case
- MO’s
- Develop or ID suspects
- Alibi
- Connect or eliminate suspects
- Identify loot, booty, contraband
- Leads
- The success of the investigation:
- Recognize
- Record
- Collect
- Identify
- Package
- Use
- Factual information from potential sources of evidence
- People, documents, things
- Greater evidential weight to physical evidence rather than to personal testimony
- “Speaks for itself”
- Criminal evidence:
- That which furnishes any mode of proof, or which legally submitted to a
competent tribunal as a means of ascertaining the truth of an alleged
matter of fact before it.
- Testimony, writings, material objects, and other things offered to prove
the existence of or nonexistence of a fact.
List the three basic classifications of evidence.
- Real
- Tangible objects that can be presented in court for inspection, and which
speaks for itself as to the facts it tends to establish.
- Direct
- Directly establishes the main fact at issue.
- Circumstantial
- Does not directly prove a fact, but provides a logical inference that it
Identify the sources of physical evidence and differentiate between primary and secondary sources.
- Sources of physical evidence:
- Crime scene
- Participants
- Related locations or evidence scenes
- People
- Witnesses
- Victims
- Complainants
- Contacts
- Informants
- Clients
- Litigants
- Suspects
- Law enforcement
- Public records
- Private records
- Relevant documents
- Things
- Material objects
- Substances
- Impressions
- Prints
- Stains
- Marks
- Transfer evidence
- Liquids
- Secretions
- Personal observations
- The investigators own personal efforts
- Demonstrative evidence to help visualize
- Diagrams
- Sketches
- Impression casts
- Objects
- Photos
- Video
List and define the three elements that are necessary to make evidence admissible in a court of law.
Must be obtained in a lawful manner and must be…
- Relevant
- Logically tends to prove or disprove one or more of the principal
facts in issue.
- Tends to prove the proposition that is offered to prove
- Material
- The measure of proof which affects a fact or issue of the case.
- Refers to whether the evidence offered relates to a legal question
that is at issue
- Competent
- Legally adequate and sufficient
- Credible
Define “corpus delicti” evidence.
Evidence that serves to substantiate the elements of the case/offense
Define “associative evidence.”
Connects the perpetrator to…
- The crime
- Crime scene
- Victim
- Weapons, etc.
- Comparison
Define “tracing evidence.”
Locating the suspect
Define “corroborative evidence” and explain what it accomplishes during a criminal investigation.
upplements or strengthens the case
Define “negative evidence.”
Will block a possible defense
Identify the types of information forensic laboratory analysis may produce from each of the following:
Fingerprints - Individual
b. Foot wear – Class or Individual
c. Tire tracks – Class or Individual
d. Spent bullets/casings – Individual
e. Stains – Individual
f. Piece of cloth – Class or Individual
g. Hair/fibers – Individual/Class
h. Blood (including DNA) - Individual
i. Glass – Class or Individual
j. Handwriting – Individual
k. Fingernail scrapings – Individual
l. Typewriting exemplars – Individual
m. Tool marks – Class or Individual
n. Serial number restoration – Individual
o. Paint chips – Class
p. Physical matching – Individual
Fill out Lab/Case Submission Reports properly to request analytical services.
Look at the Lab/Case Submission Reports to become familiar with them
Demonstrate and explain proper procedures for packaging and preservation of various forms of physical evidence from a crime scene.
Marked to show
- Original position
- Location
- Recorded in field notes
- Marked distinctly
- Identifying who found the item
- On the container
- Each item should be:
- Described exactly and completely
- Corresponding case numbers
- Date and time
- Packaged to prevent cross-contamination, damage, or loss
- Sealed to retain evidence, prevent unauthorized handling, and maintain
- Show proper disposition
- Evidence locker/storage location
- Property office
- Crime lab
- FBI lab
- Proper records showing:
- Chain of custody
- Reflecting any and all movement
List examples of physical evidence elements of a crime.
Transfer evidence on suspect’s clothing
- Stomach contents
- Bullets
- Residue at scene of fire
- Semen
- Blood
- Tool-marks
- Footprints
- Auto paint on clothing
Explain the basic purposes of the criminal justice system.
To prosecute individuals charged with a crime
- To provide a court system to enforce the criminal laws while protecting the due
process rights of the accused
Differentiate the roles of the criminal justice system from the roles of the juvenile justice system and the civil justice system.
Criminal Justice System:
- The purpose is retribution
- The government deals with persons who commit crimes on behalf of
- Accused persons who are found guilty are punished by fines and
- Juvenile Justice System:
- The purpose is to rehabilitate those juveniles and parents who fall under
the system’s jurisdiction
- Civil Justice System:
- The purpose is to make the victim whole again
- The system seeks to restore what has been lost by awarding monetary
- Based on the belief of restitution, not punishment
Provide the definition of a crime.
- A crime is a wrong against society
– Identify the various sources of criminal laws.
- Common Law
- US Constitution
- Nebraska Revised Statutes
- City Ordinances
- Federal Code
Identify the key parties in the criminal justice system and state the roles of each.
- Prosecutor: Attorneys who file charges on behalf of the government and present the case-in-chief
- Defense Attorney: Attorneys who zealously represent criminal suspects within
the boundaries of the law
- Clerk Magistrate: In Nebraska, the Clerk Magistrate performs many judicial
functions when a judge is otherwise unavailable
- Judges: An attorney who has been appointed to the bench and acts as the trier of
law, the finder of fact, or both, overseeing all aspects of the legal process
Explain the basic structure of the Nebraska State Court and the Federal Court Systems, from the filing of charges through the trial, the sentencing and the appeal process.
Nebraska State Court System
- County Court:
- Venue: Defined by the boundary lines of the country
- Jurisdiction: Misdemeanors, village and city ordinances, and conducting
preliminary hearings on felony cases
- District Court:
- Venue: Defined by the boundary lines of the county
- Jurisdiction: Misdemeanors, village and city ordinances, and conducting
preliminary hearings on felony cases
- Court of Appeals:
- Venue: Entire state of Nebraska
- Jurisdiction: Any case which has been appealed with the exception of
cases where the death penalty or life imprisonment have been issued;
also not applicable is cases regarding the constitutionality of a statue
- Nebraska Supreme Court:
- Venue: Entire state of Nebraska
- Jurisdiction: Appellate and original trial jurisdiction; Primarily hears
appeals cases from lower courts
Federal Court System
- US District Court:
- Venue: The entire state of Nebraska
- Jurisdiction: Both civil and criminal cases
- 8th Circuit Court of Appeals:
- Venue: Nebraska, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, North Dakota, South
Dakota, and Minnesota
- Jurisdiction: Appellate jurisdiction only from the US District Court
- US Supreme Court:
- Venue: The United States of America, its territories and commonwealths
- Jurisdiction: Primarily appellate jurisdiction from the Circuit Court; and
from the Nebraska Supreme Court on matters of constitutionality
Differentiate between the stages of a felony and misdemeanor court case as it progresses through the Nebraska Criminal Justice System.
Misdemeanor Case Court Process
- Crime Committed à Investigation à Arrest, Citation, or Referral à Case Filed by Prosecutor à Arraignment Bail/Bond Set à Plea
- Guilty: Pre-Sentence Investigation à Sentencing à Appeal
- Not Guilty: Discovery & Pretrial Motions à Trial and Verdict
- Guilty: Pre-Sentence Investigation à Sentencing à Appeal
- Not Guilty: Release
Felony Case Court Process
- Crime Committed à Investigation à Arrest, Citation, or Referral à Case Filed by Prosecutor à Arraignment Bail/Bond Set à Preliminary Hearing
- Dismissed: Release
- Bound to District Court: Filing of Info and Arraignment à Plea
- Guilty: Pre-Sentence Investigation à Sentencing à Appeal
- Not Guilty: Discovery Pretrial Motions à Trial and Verdict
- Guilty: Pre-Sentence Investigation à Sentencing à Appeal
- Not Guilty: Release
Define the following terms and explain each:
- Court: The types of cases that an individual court can preside over
- Officer: The limitations of an officer’s authority to enforce laws within a
set boundary
- Venue:
- The physical area which gives courts the authority to hear a case (county
lines in Nebraska)
- May be the city limits for violation of city codes
- Statute of limitations:
- The period of time after which the State can no longer file charges
relating to a specific offense
- Exclusive and concurrent jurisdiction:
- When a court has shared jurisdiction with another court
- Felony:
- A crime for which the possible penalty exceeds one year of
- Misdemeanor:
- Offenses not punishable by more than one year imprisonment
- Infraction:
- Minor offenses which are not otherwise misdemeanor or felony offenses.
This includes traffic violations or violations involving the possession of
one ounce of marijuana or less or drug paraphernalia
State the authority of a law enforcement officer and the limitations of each type of law enforcement officer found in Nebraska.
- Police Departments:
- Each department and its officers possess the same arrest powers as the
Sheriff’s Office
- Law Enforcement powers are typically restricted to the city limits with
the exception of State Statute 29-215
- Does not possess civil process authority
- Sheriff’s Offices:
- Possess both civil and criminal authority
- Process Server
- Bailiff in District and County Court
- Coroner when delegated by the County Attorney
- Powers are limited to the country except as in State Statute
- State Deputy Sheriff:
- Possess the same powers as the Sheriff’s Office with statewide authority
- Includes State Patrol and Carrier Enforcement Officers
- Game and Parks Conservation Officers:
- Authority to enforce fish and game laws
- Similar arrest powers to the Sheriff’s Office
- Statewide authority
- Nebraska Brand Committee Inspectors/Department of Agriculture Inspectors:
- Brand Inspectors can only enforce brand and livestock laws
- Agriculture Inspectors can only enforce state animal disease laws
Identify the two major law enforcement regulatory bodies and state the purposes and duties of each.
Commission on Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Crime Commission):
- Mission is to educate the community with regards to the problems
encountered by law enforcement, to promote respect for the law, and to
encourage community involvement
- Controls federal grants and the allocation of those grants for law
enforcement purposes
- Police Standards Advisory Council:
- Controls federal grants and the allocation of those grants for law
enforcement purposes
Identify the various Nebraska State Courts and Federal Courts; the duties and responsibilities of the County Federal Court and Appellate Judges.
- The various courts include Worker’s Compensation Court, Juvenile Court, County Court, District Court, Court of Appeals, Nebraska Supreme Court, US District Court, Circuit Court of Appeals, and US Supreme Court
- County Judges:
- 59 sitting County Judges (one Judge may preside over multiple counties
- Has jurisdiction over misdemeanor and traffic offenses
- Selected by a nomination committee and appointed by the Governor
- District Judges:
- 55 judges in the state of Nebraska divided into 12 districts
- Holds exclusive jurisdiction over felony cases
- Holds concurrent jurisdiction over misdemeanor and traffic cases with
other courts
- Appointed the same as County Judges
- US Attorney:
- Prosecutes federal crimes
- County Attorney:
- Files criminal charges
- Prosecutes misdemeanors, ordinances and infractions
- Clerk Magistrate:
- Performs many judicial functions when a judge is otherwise unavailable
- Search warrants, bond hearings, etc.
- Federal Appellate Judges:
- Same as District or County Judges
- Hears only appeals cases
Name the four possible outcomes that can occur after a law enforcement officer has completed a criminal investigation and explain how each outcome affects the criminal justice system.
- Deter from taking action: Officer decides to take no action because a crime has not been committed or the harm is ever so slight
- Issue a citation in lieu of arrest: Traffic violations, misdemeanors, and violations of city or village ordinances
- Arrest: Once probable cause is established, offenders of Class W misdemeanors and above are arrested and transported to jail
- Referral of report to the prosecutors office: Officers may forward a report to the prosecutors office if a known suspect has fled or they are unsure if a crime has been committed
Identify, in order, the steps of a case through the system, and describe, in order, the parts of the trial and explain each.
Reference pages 22 and 29-45 in the self-study article
Define and identify the purpose of bail, preliminary hearing, and initial presentment.
- Bail:
- Purpose: To insure the defendant’s presence at trial, however, there is a
right to be free from excessive bail
- Three types:
- Own recognizance/personal recognizance: No money is posted.
Failure to appear (FTA) results in an arrest warrant
- Cash: Defendant posts face value of bond. FTA results in arrest
warrant and forfeiture of posted amount
- Percentage: Defendant posts a certain percentage of the total
bond to be released. FTA results in arrest warrant and forfeiture
of posted amount
- Preliminary Hearing:
- Held in felony cases
- Used to determine if there is probably cause to believe a felon has been
- Initial Presentment:
- Held in County Court for felony charges
- Court briefly summarizes charges against defendant
- Court determines if the defendant needs council
- Court determines inn the defendant wants a Preliminary Hearing
Define arraignment, and describe in detail what happens at an arraignment.
- The arraignment is the court proceeding where the defendant is informed of the
charges in the case as per the 6th Amendment
- The arraignment includes the following:
- The judge covers a brief explanation of the charges
- The maximum and minimum penalties are covered
- The right to have an attorney present; one will be appointed if the
defendant can not afford one
- The right to confront the state’s witness through cross-examination
- The right to plead not guilty and demand a trial
- The right against self-incrimination
- The right to have the case transferred to juvenile court if under 18
- A plea of guilty waves the above mentioned rights
Define the terms:
- Extradition:
- The process by which a state can bring a fleeing felon back to the state to
stand trial for a felony charge
- Probation:
- Alternative to a straight or indeterminate sentence
- The court orders the defendant to abide by the terms and conditions of
probation and then releases the defendant back into the community
- Failure to comply results in a motion to revoke probation
- Parole:
- The conditional release of a defendant from prison based upon good
- Occurs after the defendant has served part of his or her sentence
- Pardon:
- A pardon serves to erase or nullify a conviction
- The pardon acts as forgiveness of the crime committed and operates to
restore the person’s rights as if the crime had not been committed
- Given by the governor and Board of Pardons
- Set-aside:
- Similar to a pardon
- The offender must be on probation and have successfully completed the
terms of the probation
- If granted, the defendant regains all rights previously held with the
exception of the right to carry a firearm
Identify the differences between jury trials and bench trials, between a complaint and information.
- Jury Trial: The jury is the Finder of Fact and the judge is the Trier of Law
- Bench Trial: The judge holds dual roles as the Finder of Fact and Trier of Law
- Complaint: The process by which formal charges are filed in court. Court cases
begin with the complaint
- Information: A document which alleges criminal offenses against a defendant
Identify who may file or press charges in a criminal case in Nebraska.
- County Attorney
- Deputy County Attorney
- NOTE: In the state of Nebraska, the victim is not allowed to file charges
Based upon the character of the evidence, state how the evidence should be disposed of after it is no longer needed as evidence in a criminal prosecution.
As provided by 29-820, evidence shall be handled accordingly:
- Property which has been stolen, embezzled, or falsely obtained shall be
returned to the rightful owner
- Lost money shall be returned to its owner unless it was obtained by
illegal means such as gambling which results in the forfeiture of such
- Unclaimed property shall be sold at public auction
- Contraband shall be destroyed accordingly
- Firearms, ammunition, bombs, and explosives used in the commission of
a crime shall be destroyed accordingly
- Firearms which may have lawful use or goods/contraband which may be
reasonably returned to a condition which may be lawfully used shall be
disposed of as ordered by court
- Animals shall be disposed of as ordered by the court which may include
adoption, return to the original owner, or destruction
Identify a communicable disease.
xamples: HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B, tuberculosis
Define exposure.
Expose is direct contact of an infectious agent such as a body fluid, droplet, or aerosol with an open wound, area of broken skin or mucous membrane of the eyes, nose, or mouth or piercing the skin with a contaminated, sharp instrument.
Identify the chain of transmission.
-Presence of an infectious agent

-efficient mode of transmission

-presence of a portal or entry into the body

-susceptible receiving host
Define infectious pathogens.
An organism that causes disease. Can be a virus, or bacteria.
Identify three examples of an exposure.
through cuts and puncture wounds while you are conducting searches and pat downs

-through saliva, respiratory secretions, and vomit while giving CPR or first aid

-through biting and spitting

-through contact with urine or feces

-through proximity to someone who is coughing
Identify the two types of pathogens.
Bloodborne pathogens: microorganisms found in human blood that can cause disease in humans. EX: Hep B, HIV, syphilis, hep C, malaria, certain herpes

-Airborne pathogens: disease-causing organisms, such as TB bacteria that are concentrated in saliva and mucous. EX: TB, meningitis, mumps, measles, rubella, chicken pox
Define body substance isolation.
-It is an infection control strategy that can help you break the chain of transmission and prevent the spread of communicable diseases.
Define personal protection equipment.
Any equipment or clothing that offers protection for the hands, body, or mucous membranes of the eyes, nose or mouth.
Identify three types of personal protection equipment.
-face shield -gown -slippers
List two precautions you can take to better prepare yourself against tuberculosis and hepatitis.
-Hepatitis B vaccination and Annual TB screening
Define infectious agent.
-It is an organism that causes a disease.
Define mode of transmission.
-The way an infectious agent moves from one person to another.
Define portal of entry.
-The way disease organisms get inside the body
Identify how to effectively disinfect a contaminated surface.
-After precleaning with soap and water, wipe or spray surfaces with a bleach solution or other EPA registered disinfectant to disinfect them. 1:10 to 1:100 bleach water concentrations are acceptable
List the two cornerstones of body substance isolation.
You must treat every individual as if he or she has a communicable disease.

-Treat all body substances as if they are infected with HIV, Hep B, or other blood-borne pathogens.
Explain the risks of contracting a communicable disease through being spit on.
-Spitting carries a low risk of infection by a communicable disease. To combat spitting, wear eye protection and a face mask, or place a mask on the subject. Cleanse contaminated areas thoroughly.
Explain the virulence of the Hepatitis B virus.
-It has high virulence (degree of infectability), which makes it more infectious than others. It can survive in either the body or the environment. Hep B can survive for at least 7 days, dried at room temperatures, on environmental surfaces. Thus it is possible to be spread merely through contact with contaminated surfaces, such as bloodstained equipment or clothing, even if the bloodstain is dried.
the means employed for the purpose of proving an unknown or disputed fact. Data on which a conclusion or judgment can be established.
Identify and explain the processes involved in the identification, collection, and preservation of specific types of evidence.
Arrival at scene

i. Officer safety (clear scene, plus 1 rule)

ii. ID victims and witnesses

iii. Broadcast preliminary information

iv. Exame scene (walk-thru and sketch scene)

1. Walk-thru – take time, note areas of possible evidence

a. Establish dimensions of crime scene

b. First opportunity to record crime scene obersvation

2. Sketch scene – location of evidence and detail

v. Preserve scene (establish perimeter, scene log: ingress and egress, gloves, suit)

1. Leave NOTHING behind

b. Evidence Collection

i. Identify and protect evidence (what is it? And what isn’t it)

ii. Document (photo, notes, video, sketch)

iii. Evaulate evidence

iv. Collect, mark, and record evidence (sequential number, associate number to skecth, photograph with and without scale)

1. Collect evidence that can or will be easily lost first

2. “transient evidence” is fragile

v. Maintain chain of custody
List and explain various investigative leads and specific determinations that can be made from the examination of specific types of evidence
Physical evidence

i. Compare identification and individuality

ii. Is it evidence? If so, what is it?

b. Forensic examination

i. Medical

ii. Criminalistics/Forensics

1. Application of science to legal matters

iii. Role of Evidence Technician

1. Responding officer or investigator

2. Process crime scene

3. Process evidence

a. Search, identify, collect, process, transport, document, testify

4. Crime Lab

a. Personnel with physical science background

b. Areas of expertise (ballistics, latent print, xerologist, etc)

c. Provides answers
Explain and demonstrate how to properly collect and preserve materials of evidentiary value.
Tools and Tool marks

i. Impression

ii. Striations

iii. Combination

iv. If possible, collect the marked surface – alternative method using putty-like substance and close-up photography

v. Collect tools, protect working surfaces

vi. Preserve for fingerprints

vii. Never place tool into impression

b. Weapons

i. Notes as to appearance

ii. Consider....blook, fingerprints, and other transfer evidence

iii. Stains, dust, and other trace evidence

iv. Check and note mechanical position and condition of firearms and make safe

v. Wrap in paper and package in box

vi. Edged weapons made safe

vii. Spent casings and projectiles

1. Document, record and collect all

2. Individually wrapped and placed in container (paint can)

viii. Laser pointer to determine trajectory

ix. String technique for trajectory

x. NEVER place object down barrel

c. Shoeprints and Tire tracks

i. Cut out carpet/flooring

ii. Dental Stone

iii. Oblique lighting (lighting at 45 degree angle)

iv. Take accurate measuremnts (measure to smallest increment)

d. Bite Marks

i. Photograph

ii. Swab for DNA and obtain a control

e. Glass

i. Trace evidence (hair, blood, fibers, fingernails, etc)

ii. Clues about how committed, which side struck, location of impact, bullet hole order and angle

iii. Transfer evidence (wrap in paper or paper bag)

iv. Photograph and collect all

f. Hair and Fibers

i. Use tape or tweezers/foreceps to collect and put in envelope or small platic baggie

ii. Cloth....collect entire piece of clothing

iii. This is considered “transient evidence”

g. Bodily fluids

i. If it’s dry use a swab, distilled water, or scrape

ii. If it’s wet, use plain dry swab

iii. Collect the clothing

iv. Package in PAPER, never plastic

v. If possible collect entire object, air dry, take to lab ASAP

h. Documents

i. Handle with tongs or forceps to protect from wrinkling, rolling edges, or tearing

ii. Do not fold

iii. Use thin tissue and cardboard and do NOT trace

i. Drugs and Narcotics

i. Never handle with bare hands

ii. Must use a leak proof package, use paper if its a damp plant, and package paraphernalia separately

iii. Syringes

1. Transfer to controlled location for processing

2. Use distelled water to clean out the needle to flush out any drugs

iv. Vehicle Lamps (head lights)

1. Pacage, box or paper

2. Make sure its secure

3. If you package the whole light, wrap it in paper

v. Accelerants

1. If liquid or soaked then swab to collect sample. Take the clothing and cloths and put in an air tight, unused clean pain can

vi. Computers

1. Turn off properly, disconnect peripherals, obtain documentation

vii. Bodies

1. Document the location, position, condition, presence of lividty or rigor, wounds, and seal it in a body bag

2. Firearms, Sexual Assault Deaths

a. Visually inspect hands and fingernails for trace or transient evidence

b. Collect with swabs or tweezers

c. Place hands in paper bags and secure with evidence tape, intial and date
Identify conditions under which glass evidence is most likely to be encountered and explain some determinations possible from the analysis
Trace Evidence (hair, blood, fibers, fingernails, etc)

b. Clues about how committed, which side struck, location of impact, bullet hole order and angle

c. Transfer evidence

i. Wrap in paper or paper bag

d. Photograph and Collect all

e. Anaylsis

i. Physical properties

ii. Refractive index (tenting) and refractive range

iii. Inductively Coupled Plasma-atomic emission spectormetry (ICP-AES)

1. Currently available through FBI lab
Identify the twelve major categories of specific physical evidence as discussed in class comparing their relative value in terms of class and individual characteristics
Tools and tool marks b. Weapons c. Shoeprints and tire tracks d. Bite marks e. Glass f. Hair and fibers g. Drugs and narcotics h. Bodily fluids i. Documents j. Bodies k. Accerlants
Identify the determinations possible from examination of hairs and fibers as evidence

i. Human or animal, color, straight or curly, natural or artifical wave, kinky, dyed or bleached, taperd or squared ends, burned, crushed, singed, strectched, race, foreign substances, naturally fallen out or pulled out

b. Body Region

i. Scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, facial, pubic, arms, legs, chest, back, ears, nose, armpit

c. Not Determined

i. Age, sex, postmortem growth
Explain “trace” evidence and define the “Theory of Transference”
Trace evidence is not easily visible and it is minute in detail

b. Theory of Transference is when two objects touch each other

i. Trace substances are frequently exchanged

ii. Locard’s Theory
Describe the differnce between secretors and non-secretors and explain the concepts of blood typing
Secretors are about 83-85% of the population

i. Secretors are those that have their blood type show up through their bodily fluids

b. Non-secretors are about 15-17% of the population

i. No blood type in bodily fluids
Identify specific items of trace evidence that may be found at various crime scenes and explain the problems in handling trace evidence
Not easily visible

b. Found on persons and at scene

c. Glass, hairs/fibers, any of the bodily fluids, gun powder residue on hands, trace metals
Demonstrate the ability to identify, collect and package evidence
Paper container

b. Evidence tape (may use masking or scotch tape)

c. Label and identify (date, time, agency case number, badge number, initial the seal)

d. Property page

i. Agency case number, property owner, suspect name, officer name and badge number, location recovered, date and time recovered and make, model, serial number

ii. Chain of custody documented
Demontrate a working knowledge of products such as “dental stone” used to collect physical evidence
Pancake batter consistency, pour slowly, pour over mixing spoon, pour from side and work to center
Explain how to locate owners of stolen property and vehicles
Check NLETS or NCIC and give the VIN # and/or serial # or property
Identify common VIN locations on a vehicle
Driver’s side door, frame, dashboard, engine block

b. NATB (National auto theft bureau) – call them, very helpful
Define ethics
A system of moral principles.
A system of moral principles.
The aggregate of features and traits that form the individual nature of some
person or thing.
Identify why the highest ethical and moral standards are necessary for law enforcement officers
Further or preserve your career
- Raise and preserve morale
- Develop better public perception of law enforcement
Identify the principle elements of a police code of ethics.
Tangible sign of an agency’s belief in a fail administration of service and justice
for the community
- The code represents an ideal for each officer to commit themselves to reaching
Identify situations the officer might encounter which would constitute unethical or immoral acts.
The free cup of coffee
- Correctional officer’s dilemma
- Rocky home life
Identify how immoral conduct by an officer adversely affects the officer in the performance of his/her duties.
- Career/liability
- Morale
- Perception
List examples of a code of ethics.
The Ten Commandments
- The Boy Scout Law
- West Point Honor Code
- Rotary Four-Way Test
- Is it the truth?
- Is it fair to all concerned?
- Will it build goodwill and better friendships?
- Will it be beneficial to all concerned?
- IACP Law Enforcement Code of Ethics
List the six pillars of character
- Trustworthiness
- Respect
- Responsibility
- Fairness
- Caring
- Citizenship
List the four categories of character.
Bad Character
- Uncontrolled Character
- Self-Controlled Character
- Excellent Character
Describe the elements of ethical appearance.
- Speech/Conversation
- Actions
List the three ethical pitfalls for law enforcement officers.
- Entitlement
- Societies changing status
- Pressure from public perception
List the five key features of most cameras.
Viewing system: “Frame” the picture
- Focusing system: Fixed vs. manual focusing
- Aperture: F-stops
- Shutter: Camera “door”
- Lens: Normal, wide angle, and telephoto
Name the three elements that control light exposure and explain how each controls light exposure.
Shutter: Opens and closes to allow light exposure
- Aperture: Controls the amount of light exposure based upon size
- Film: Controls the amount of exposure based upon type of film and its chemical
Describe how aperture creates “depth of field”.
The larger the aperture (larger numbers) the smaller the depth of field (close
- The smaller the aperture (smaller numbers) the larger the depth of field (wide
Explain how aperture can maximize “depth of field” while maintaining a proper exposure setting.
The depth of field is maximized by balancing the f-stop and shutter speed.
- Example: If you want a large depth of field, you will need to make the aperture
smaller. This will limit the amount of light that can enter the aperture, so you
will often need to slow down the shutter speed to allow more light into the
Name the three “ranges” utilized when photographing crime scenes and describe examples of each.
- Long Range: Overall photo of the crime scene
- Mid Range: Shows relevancy with other objects of evidence
- Close Up: Picture of the individual item of evidence
Identify and describe the “data” needed to properly maintain evidence integrity and change of custody with film and digital prints.
Data to identify photos with the offense
- Data to identify the photographer
- Data to orient the camera position
- Exposure number and corresponding log
- Data regarding shutter speed and F-stop
- Data indicating the type of camera and film used
- Chain of custody documents for film and prints
Define “bracketing” and explain how to bracket photographs at a crime scene.
Taking a photo and then adjusting the shutter speed and F-stop one setting above the original and below the original in order to ensure the clearest picture possible.
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