# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Test 2
Groundwater, wetlands, water use, economics of water, probability
107
Environmental Studies
10/21/2014

Term
 Darcy equation: Q is flow  k is hydrualic conductivity of the layer defined by L. k has units of length/time, it is a function of the porous medium and the liquid A is the area of the pipe the liquid is flowing through dh is h1-h2 dL is the same as L, this the length of the tube the poruous medium takes up. What is the Darcy equation?
Definition
 [image]
Term
 what is the equation for porosity of a substance
Definition
 (Volume of air space)/(total volume)
Term
 in a flow net diagram, what is the same along any one equipotential line?
Definition
 in a flow net diagram, an equipotential line is a line along with the hydraulic head, or pressure head, is the same. This pressure head is equal to the elevation at which the equipotential line reaches the surface
Term
 4 delta hazards
Definition
 4 delta hazards include: 1. groundwater quality: in bangladesh they got arsenic in thier groundwater, and saltwater intrusion into groundwater is a common problem 2. flooding in places where people are: although flooding provides the benefit of spreading nutrients to soil, it can also displace people 3. earthquakes 4. avulsions, which are river migrations, can dispalce people much like floods can
Term
 wetlands are defined by ____
Definition
 wetlands are defined as areas with constant saturation with water, or recurrenet inundation with water. They can also be areas that physical, chemical, and/or biological features reflective of wetland environments even when they aren't saturated. Additionally, a wetland must have some soils that are wet enough to be anaerobic
Term
 what are hydrotrophic plants
Definition
 hydrotrophic plants grow on water
Term
 relationship between recurrance interval and residence time
Definition
 the relationship between the recurrance interval (aka renewal rate) and the residence time is: residence time= 1/renewal rate
Term
 what is the hydroperiod aka hydrologic signature
Definition
 the hydroperiod, also known as the hydrologic singature, is a graph of the change in wetland wetness over an entire year. Some wetlands get less wet during certain seasons, some stay wet all year long
Term
 water is the vocab word for when one uses water, but it doesn't leave the stream? give an example
Definition
 when water is used by stays in the stream, this is called in-stream use. Dams are an example of when water is used but it stays in the stream
Term
 what is the vocab word for water usage that requires taking water out of a stream?
Definition
 the vocab word for water usage that requires taking water out of a stream is off-stream use. This refers to pretty much all water use other than dams
Term
 what is the vocab word for the water used to make a product?
Definition
 water used to make a product is called virtual water or embodied water
Term
 describe the Environmental Kuznets Curve
Definition
 the Environmental Kuznets Curve is generally applied to one country and plots environmental impact in one dimension like deforestation, ppm of some pollutant in the atmosphere, etc with economic wealth. The shape of the curve is concave up, with environmental impact increasing with growth of the economy, until it peaks and a country has the resources to deal with it's enviromental problems
Term
 what is an exception to the general Environmental Kuznets curve that we looked at?
Definition
 water use stabilizes after it peaks instead of going down on the environmental Kuznets curve
Term
 what are the two biggest water uses in the U.S. after 2005?
Definition
 irragation and thermoelectric power are the two biggest uses of water in the U.S. since 2005. note that thermoelectric water use is non-consumptive
Term
 is thermoelectric water use consumptive?
Definition
 Thermoelectic water use is non-consumptive
Term
 what is the biggest consumptive water use worldwide
Definition
 agriculture uses more water than anything else worldwide
Term
 why is using less water for agriculture such a big focus?
Definition
 using less water for agriculture is a big focus because agriculture uses the most water worldwide
Term
 when we looked at the flowchart of U.S. water usage in class that was made in 2005, what is important to consider?
Definition
 that flowchart of U.S. water usage was made before hydrofracking is the major industry it is now. hydrofracking requires massive amounts of water to be shot into the ground, so it's extremley water intensive and changes the flowchart of U.S. water useage
Term
 what are the two observations we made in class about changes in water use in the U.S. other the last century
Definition
 over the last century, water usage for irragation has stayed about the same, while water use for thermoelectric has majorly increased to overtake irragation as the number one use by volume
Term
 increasing block pricing for water
Definition
 increasing block pricing for water is when the rate for water goes up as you use more water
Term
 when a user of water wants a bigger slice of the total avaible water "pie," where do often turn to first?
Definition
 usually agriculture is the first target of other uses who want to use more of the availible water
Term
 units that are specific to water consumption
Definition
 one acre-foot, the amount of water it takes to cover an acre of land with water, is the unit associated with water consumption
Term
 list six strategies for conserving water that we talked about in class
Definition
 six strategies for conserving water that we talked about in class: 1. efficient fixtures. For example, efficient toilets use far less water than normal ones 2 fix leaks 3. use less outdoor water 4. provide rebates to homes and businesses that use less water 5. rainwater harvesting 6. gray water use
Term
 in terms of profit-per-water use, which is more efficient, vegtables or cotton/alfalfa?
Definition
 vegtables provide far more profit per water use than cotton or alfalfa
Term
 what is the conceptual basis behind virtual water trade?
Definition
 the conceptual basis behind virtual water trade is that when a country exports or inputs a resource that requires water, they are also importing or exporting virtual water. Example: isreal, a country without excess water to waste,  discourages the export of goods that take a lot of water, like organges, because Isreal doesn't want it's water leaving it's borders
Term
 4 agricultural innovations that decrease water consumption that we discussed in class
Definition
 the 4 agricultural innovations that decrease water consumption that we discussed in class are: 1. modest crop shifting 2. smart irragation scheduling- water when sun isn't strong, for example 3. advanced irragation management 4. efficient irragation techniques
Term
 is this country, how has the combined water consumption of all industry changed overt time?
Definition
 the water usage of industry has stayed steady lately
Term
 list 5 water-intensive industries
Definition
 the five water-intensive industries we looked at in class are: 1. chemicals 2. petroluem refining 3. pulp and paper 4. primary metals 5. food processing
Term
 what are five water intensive industries we looked at in class?
Definition
 The five water intensive industries we looked at in class are 1. pulp and paper 2. chemicals 3. food processing  4. petroluem refinery  5. primary metals
Term
 Indirect water use is quantified by what study?
Definition
 Indirect water use is quantified by an economic input-output life cycle assessment
Term
 how much water use in industry is indirect?
Definition
 60% of water use in industry is indirect
Term
 economic input-output life cycle assessment is used to quantify what?
Definition
 economic input-output life cycle assessment is used to look at indirect water use?
Term
 about what % of industries have over 50% direct water use?
Definition
 for the vast majority of industries over 50% of the water usage is indirect
Term
 do a slide on water use and the energy sector after getting an answer to my question
Definition
Term
 water widthdrawal breakdown vs wealth: how does water usage change as countries get richer?
Definition
 poor countries use pretty much all thier availible water for irragation.  As countries get richer, they use more for industry and domestic. As a rule of thumb, industry usage will grow quicker than domestic
Term
 4 dam services
Definition
 1. provide water for irragation during dry periods (droughts or dry seasons) 2. generate electricity 3. control water supply 4. reduce floods
Term
 four dam services
Definition
 four dam services 1. reduce floods 2. control water supply 3. generate electricity 4. irragation. Resivoirs provide water for dry periods, either droughts or simply dry seasons.
Term
 when dams are built downstream of vegatated areas, water floods lush areas and kills plants. Other than direct ecosystem destruction, what environmental does this exacterbate?
Definition
 when dams kill plants it increases GHG emissions and takes away those plant's ability to remove CO2 from the atmosphere
Term
 what impact on sediments do dams have?
Definition
 dams stop water and cause sediment to fall out, so sediment doesn't make it downstream to maintain natural processes like deltas
Term
 what direct effect do dams have on the hydrological cycle outside of the river they obstruct?
Definition
 resivoirs behind dams are related to increased evaporation, which in turn increases precipitation
Term
 what did we study in terms of the intersection of water pollution and dams
Definition
 we studied how water pollution accumulates at dams
Term
 what are 8 environmental impacts of dams we looked at?
Definition
 the 8 environmental impacts of dams we studied are: 1. greenhouse gas emissions from flooded plants 2. lower sediment downstream 3. fish migration 4. increased precipitation from increased evaporation 5. water pollution accumulates at the dam 6. habitat alteration/fragmentation 7. erosions and landslides 8. altered flow patterns of the river
Term
 what was the only positive socioeconomic impact of existing (not building) dams that we looked at
Definition
 the one positive socioeconomic impact of dams that we looked at is that they reduce flooding that destroys farms and homes
Term
 what are the four negative socioeconomic impacts of dams?
Definition
 the four negative socioeconomic impacts of dams that we looked at are: 1. settlement 2. permanent loss of livlihoods for fishermen, farmers and other people whose jobs depend on the land 3. health impacts 4. cultural loss
Term
 describe 1st order ecosystem impacts of dams
Definition
 1st order ecosystem impacts of dams are directly caused by the dam. 1st order impacts include physical, chemical, and geomorphological consequences of blocking a river and altering the path/timing of the flow
Term
 describe 2nd order ecosystem impacts of dams
Definition
 2nd order ecosystem impacts refer only to changes in biological productivity resulting from 1st order impacts
Term
 describe 3rd order ecosystem impacts of dams
Definition
 3rd order ecosystem impacts of dams refer only to changes in fauna from 1st or 2nd order ecosystem impacts. an example of a 1st order impact changing fauna would be fish not being able to migrate due to a dam. An example of a 2nd order impact affecting fauna would be less food because a decrease in plankton availibility.
Term
 what is notable on greenhouse gas emissions that resulted from flooded land upstream of the Tocuri Dam?
Definition
 Depending on which estimate you use, the Tocuri Dam may have created more or less greenhouse gas emissions that oil or coal
Term
 what are the 7 environmental categories of study of dams that we looked at?
Definition
 the 7 environmental categories of study of dams that we looked at are: 1. greenhouse gas emissions 2. affects of resivoirs 3. impacts of altered flows 4. impacts of changing flood cycle 5. impacts of dams on fisheries  6. cumulative impact of multiple dams 7. ecosystem enhancement
Term
 5 biological implications of dams that we studied
Definition
 the 5 biological implications of dams that we studied are:  1. small floods can trigger fish/vertabrate migration 2. dams maintain/create habitats 3. "variability sustains complexity" 4. dams change temperature and chemistry of the water they block up 5. dams cause downstream algal growth
Term
 hydropower dams release water from the reservoir  at a rate proportional to ____
Definition
 hydropower dams release water from thier reservoirs at a rate proportional to the energy they must generate. So they let out more at peak power
Term
 why does the flow in cfs from a hydropower plants vary a lot on a daily basis, but less so on a year-to-year basis?
Definition
 because hydropower plants need to release more water to spin more turbines and/or spin turbines faster during peak hours when demand for electricity is high
Term
 what were 6 impacts of sediment trapping from dams that we studied?
Definition
 the 6 impacts from sediment trapping from dams that we studied are: 1. reduction in downstream nutrients 2. degredation in downstream river channel  3. reduced vegatation 4. reduced fish habitat 5. degredation of deltas 6. increased coastline erosion
Term
 what did we say is the most significant ecosystem impact of dams?
Definition
 the most significant ecosystem impact of dams is blocked fish migration
Term
 blocked fish migration occurs at what % of dams?
Definition
 blocked fish migration occurs at 60% of dams
Term
 what percent of dams that block fish migration did not see the problem of blocked fish migration coming?
Definition
 36% of dams that block fish migration don't see the problem of fish migration coming
Term
 what % of human-induced speices loss is due to resivoirs?
Definition
 55% of human-induced species loss is due to resivoirs
Term
 what percent of human-induced species loss is due to blocked migration?
Definition
 19% of human induced species loss is due to blocked migration
Term
 dams cause these two things that both make a substational amount of human-induced species loss
Definition
 human induced species loss from dams comes from resivoirs (55%) and blocked migration (19%)
Term
 are fish passes, aka fish ladders, common in U.S. dams?
Definition
 fish passes aka fish ladders are not common in U.S. dams, they are present in 9.5% of U.S. dams
Term
 what is one big problem with fish passes aka fish ladders
Definition
 one big problem with fish passes aka fish ladders is that you need different sized steps for different sized fish
Term
 do fish passes aka fish ladders work well?
Definition
 fish passes aka fish ladders do not work very well. in norway 32% don't work at all, and 41% don't work very well
Term
 what are two ecosystem benefits of dams?
Definition
 the two ecosystem benefits of dams are  1. dams create wetlands, which are biologically diverse, are good for tourism, protect against floods, sequester carbon from the atmosphere, and have many other benefits 2. dams create habitats for threatened species
Term
 what are two positive social impacts of dam construction specificalyl?
Definition
 two positive social impacts of dam construction are  1. high employment during construction 2. roads, power lines, etc. are built to support the workers which stick around after the dam is done
Term
 what are two negative social impacts of dam construction specfically?
Definition
 two negative impacts of dam construction specifically are: 1. temporary workers bring disease  2. temporary worker result in "loss of social cohesion", i.e. they piss people off
Term
 what is the problem with data on displacement due to dams?
Definition
 the global data on displacement due to dams often underestimates the number of displaced people
Term
 what is the problem with the what displaced poeple are "given" after they are resettled?
Definition
 when people are resettled, they are often paid but don't have jobs or usable skills to find jobs
Term
 what particular group of people are most often taken advantage of when their homes are about to be flooded by reservoirs?
Definition
 indigenous people are often taken advantage of when their homes are flooded due to dam creation. they aren't properly resettled and don't have the ability to live lives outside of thier home
Term
 what is one social factor other than displacement that is rarely considered before dam construction
Definition
 the affect of dams on human health is rarely considered before construction
Term
 what are 5 human health impacts that result from dams?
Definition
 5 human health impacts of dams are: 1. parasites breed in still or slow-moving waters. Dams increase instances of malaria in areas that already had malaria 2. eutrophication in reservoirs can lead to toxic cyanobacteria, in china they saw increased liver cancer from toxic cyanobacteria in drinking water 3. mercury accumulation in reservoirs can lead to disease 4. food shortages caused by dams 5. HIV/AIDs can be spread by migrant workers
Term
 you are looking at an energy balance of a power grid, and there won't be enough power to go around in a few years. you either need to ____ or ____ or both
Definition
 to keep electricity going in the grid, you either need to increase production or reduce demand
Term
 three general categories of flood management strategies
Definition
 the three general categories of flood management strategies are: 1. reduce the size of floods 2. reduce the threat of the existing floods 3. increase people's capacity to cope with floods
Term
 since 1960, what is the approximate ratio of costs: costs of damages prevented that the U.S. government says is the result of dam?
Definition
 the U.S. government claims that since 1960, every dollar spend on dams has prevented 10 dollars worth of damage. 38 billion spent, 387 billion dollars worth of damage prevented
Term
 when we look at the cost-benefit anaylsis of U.S. flood control, what numbers don't we see?
Definition
 when we look at the numbers the U.S. puts on on the cost-benefit of dams, we don't see the damages caused by dams in the numbers
Term
 what are two human impacts on the hydrology of the Yangtzee Basin
Definition
 two human impacts on the hydrology of the Yangtzee Basin are 1. forest area reduced by 50%, which doubled the area exposed to rapid erosion 2. land reclimation and siltation filled in lakes which increased flood size and frequency
Term
 in the Yangtzee Basin, humans cut down many trees. What effect did this have on the land?
Definition
 in the Yangtzee basin, desforestation lead to increased erosion
Term
 in the Yangtzee Basin, humans filled in lakes to have more land to build on. What affect did this have on hydrology?
Definition
 less lake volume in the Yangtzee Basin increased flood frequency and intensity
Term
 in 1998 there was a flood in the Yangtzee basin that caused a ton of damage, but the flood volume was actually not that high. What does this tell us?
Definition
 a not particulary large flood destroyed a particulary large amount of damage, showing how susceptible that area is to floods
Term
 what are three impacts of development on hydrology that the guest lecturer talked about?
Definition
 the three impacts of development on hydrology that the guest lecturer talked about are: 1. impereable surfaces drop the water table 2. imperemeable surface cause more drastic storm peaks in hydrograph  3. less vegatation means less evapotranspiration
Term
 modern development of green infrastructure is really driven by what law?
Definition
 modern development of green infrastructure is really driven by the EPA's Clean water act. This is because the EPA's clean water act treats runoff as a pollutant, and incentivizes reducing groundwater runoff
Term
 how is the EPA's Clean Water Act related to green infrastructure?
Definition
 the EPA's Clean Water Act wants to reduce waterborne pollutants. Groundwater runoff carries pollutants. Thus, the Clean Water Act wants you to reduce groundwater runoff
Term
 what is the example the Guest Lecturer gave of an older strategy involving water that did nothing to reduce the volume of runoff?
Definition
 it used to be that developers would just put ponds next to their developments so the water would have a place to go, the ponds did nothing to reduce groundwater runoff
Term
 what are three 2010 NYS Design Standards on Green Infrastructure that the guest lecturer spoke about?
Definition
 the three peices on the 2010 NYS design standards on Green Infrastructure the guest lecturer spoke about were 1. avoid impacts to hydrology by preserving open space and not changing stream paths 2. reduce runoff by reducing paved areas 3. used green infrastructure to absorb groundwater instead of letting it runoff
Term
 the main goal of green infrastructure
Definition
 the main goal of green infrastructure is to let rainwater soak into the ground instead of running off into ponds and streams
Term
 what are three examples of green infrastructure that the guest lecturer told us about?
Definition
 the three examples of green infrastructure the Guest lecturer told us about are: 1. bio retention areas. These are generally converted paved areas that now that dirt, they are meant to let some water soak into the dirt and have storm sewer overflow drains  2. roof leader disconnection: these send water from your roof through your gutters to your garden instead of the storm sewer. They are just a little extension  3. porous pavement. Like outside the fucking crime lab
Term
 describe green infrastructure's affect on: 1. surfacewater runoff  2. groundwater recharge 3. water quality
Definition
 green infrastructure: 1. reduces surfacewater runoff 2. increases groundwater recharge  3. improves water quality
Term
 what are the three benefits of green infrastructure that we discussed?
Definition
 three benefits of green infrastructure that we discussed are:  1. improved water quality 2. better groundwater recharge 3. less surfacewater runoff
Term
 how does the mobility of water make it a distinctive good?
Definition
 water is very mobile, so it moves around on it's own and makes it hard to measure/allocate, and provides uncertainity to the system
Term
 what about water's variability makes it a distinctive good?
Definition
 water supply is often variable, you have floods, storms, and droughts that affect supply
Term
 water is used to generate steam and turn heat energy to electricity energy at a nuclear plant, then flows back into a river and is used for a fish farm a mile away. what quality of water does this demonstrate?
Definition
 water often has sequential use. whether it is going from a sink to a lawn as gray water, or from a power plant to a stream that people fish in, water often is used sequentailly and this makes it difficult to put a price on processes that only change the water, not make it unusable
Term
 I can either use water from this river to irrigate a farm that will make money this year or save it for domestic use in a housing development that will be done in four years. What quality of water does this demonstrate?
Definition
 this demonstrate's water's complementarity of outputs. water can be used for many things, and we have to make hard choices
Term
 water's bulkiness affects what particular aspect of water markets?
Definition
 water's bulkiness brings up the transaction costs of moving water around, which cuts into your profit margin. Water isn't very expensive on a per volume basis
Term
 water's high transaction cost is partially defined by this
Definition
 water's high transaction cost is partially defined by it's bulkiness, how much room it takes up
Term
 how does economies of scale affect water distribution?
Definition
 the fact that bigger dams and bigger reservoirs are a cheaper way to capture water is a function of economies of scale. The fact that bigger dams are more efficient leads to a lot of water/power being consolidated in the hands of a few people
Term
 define conditional probability
Definition
 conditional probability is the probability that B occurs if A occurs
Term
 binomial distrbution is about carrying out _____
Definition
 binomial distribution is about carrying out n independant bernoulli trials
Term
 a bernoulli trial is useful in situations with a _____ outcome
Definition
 a bernoulli trial is used when you have binary outcome
Term
 I have an amount of time that is how long it most likely is until we see a storm of X size. what is this number called?
Definition
 a return period is an amount of time that says how long it most likely is until a storm of X size occurs
Term
 what is the equation for the return period of a storm of x size?
Definition
 the equation for return period of a storm of X size: 1/(probability that a storm is X size or bigger)
Term
 P[A "conditional symbol" B] =?
Definition
 P[A "conditional symbol" B]  = (P[A+B])/P[B]
Term
 if P[A "conditonal symbol" B] = P[A]
Definition
 if P[A "conditional symbol" B] = P[A], then A and B are independant and aren't related in a probabalistic sense
Term
 what would the water economics reading call a use of a communal resource that doesn't deplete the resource?
Definition
 if your use of a communal resource doens't deplete the resource, your use is non-rival
Term
 what would the water economics reading call use of a communal resource that can deplete that resouce?
Definition
 if a use of a resource depletes that resource, we call that use rival
Term
 give an example of excludable rival resources
Definition
 pretty much all goods are rival and excludable like compueters, bricks, or condoms. Within the context of water usage, if you have absolute priority to use water consumptivley, like a senoir user in the western U.S., the system allows for excludable, rival use of water
Term
 describe a partially excludable, rival use of water
Definition
 a partially excludeable, rival use of water is when water is being consumptively and there are rules to who gets how much. It isn't a free for all, like non-excludable, but no one person gets to use as much as they want, like with excludeable resources. Riparianism is an example of a partially excludable system of water usage
Term
 what system of usage allows for a free-for-all of a depletable resource?
Definition
 when a good is rival (depletable) and non-excludable (no rules for keeping anyone away from it), then you have a free for all where anyone can take as much as they want
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