Shared Flashcard Set


7 things to know about 10 medications

Additional Pharmacology Flashcards




Multiple vitamins:
Adavite, Certagen, Dayalets, Hexavitamin, Multi-75, LKV drops, Nutrox, One-A-Day, Optillets, Poly-Vi-Sol

• PO special formulations are available for pt with particular needs, ex: prenatal etc.
• IV Tx and prevention of vitamin deficiencies in patients who cannot take PO.

Dose: PO 1-tablet, IV amount sufficient to meet RDA for age group
Timing: Unknown
Route: PO, IV
• Assess pt s/s nutritional deficiency before and during Tx. Patients at risk are geriatric, burned victims, debilitated, and chronic alcoholism.
• Overdose is rare, but if it happens Tx is emesis (throwing up) or gastric lavage (stomach pumping).
• Do not use direct IV injection
Documentation: None
E-Mycin, Citamycin, E.E.S, Eryc, Ery-Tab, Erythrocin, Erygel

Indications: Antibiotic used to treat infections caused by bacteria, such as bronchitis; diphtheria; pertussis (whooping cough); pneumonia; rheumatic fever; venereal disease (VD); and ear, intestine, lung, urinary tract, and skin infections. (Useful when penicillin is appropriate drug but cannot be used because of hypersensitivity)

Route: PO, IV (can be topical for acne)
Dose: PO; 250mg every 6 hours, 500 mg evey 12 hours
IV; 15-20mg/kg/day continuos IV or 4g/day every 6 hours
Timing: Onset Peak Duration
PO 1hr 1-4 hrs 6-12hrs
IV rapid end of effusion 6-12 hrs
Precautions/Contraindications: Hypersensitivity, concurrent primozide, liver/renal disease, alcohol intolerance
Documentation: Document if Hypersensitivity occurs

Indications: Anti-infective. First generation cephalosporin. Treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms that may affect the skin, respiratory tract, urinary tract, otitis media, or bone.

Action: Binds to bacterial cell wall membrane, causing cell death.
Route: PO
Dose: 250-500mg every 6 hours for most infections.
500mg every 12 hours for infections of the skin or for strep pharyngitis
Max dose is 4g/day
Available in tablets, capsules or suspension
Timing: Onset Rapid
Peak 1 hour
Duration 6 to 12 hours
Contraindications: Those with sensitivity to penicillin and cephalosporins, observe for anaphylactic response. Also observe for signs of superinfection.
Precautions: Renal impairment, history of GI disease
Documentation: Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity before initiating therapy. First dose may be given before receiving results.
Potassium Chloride :
K-Dur, Cena-K, Gen-K, K+ Care, K+ 10, Kaochlor
- Treatment or prevention of potassium depletion per (PO, IV) IV: Treatment of cerain arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity

Route/Dosage: 13.4mEq potassium/kg/day
PO,IV Adults: 40-80 mEq/kg/day
Timing: Based on lab values normal values (3.5-5.0 mEq)

Contraindication/ Precautions
: Hyperkalemia sever renal impairment, Untreated Addisons disease, Sever tissue trauma, Hperkalemic familial periodic paralysis, (FDC yellow dye #5 or alcohol, avoid using in patients with known hypersensitivity intolerance
Record lab values, Monitor pulse, Blood pressure, ECG periodically throughout IV therapy
Phenytoin :
Indications: Treatment or prevention of tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures and complex partial seizures, and as an Antiarrhythmic

Dose: P.O. loading dose 15-20 mg/kg XR cap in 3 divided doses every 2-4 hrs.
IV and PO: usual dosing range is 200-1200 mg/day
IV: status epilepticus loading dose 15-20 mg/kg
Route: PO, IV
Timing: Administer with or immediately after meals to minimize GI irritation. Loading dose P.O. every 2-4 hrs.
Loading dose IV: rate not to exceed 50 mg/min
Peak: 15-30 minutes after administration
Precautions: Contraindicated for Hypersensitivity to propylene glycol, alcohol intolerance, sinus bradycardia, sinoatrial block, or 2nd or 3rd degree heart block. Hepatic/renal disease may increase adverse reactions
Geriatric patients and patients with severe cardiac or respiratory disease may increase risk of severe adverse reactions.
Monitor patient for signs of suicidal behavior or thoughts. Watch for Phenytoin toxicity especially at peak levels.

Documents: Monitor blood pressure, ECG (for arrhythmias), and respiratory function throughout administration of IV phenytoin and especially through peak serum phenytoin levels.
Document any changes in behavior that can indicate suicidal thoughts/behaviors
Document CBC, serum calcium, albumin, and hepatic function during therapy.
Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin

Indications: Heart failure, Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter (slows ventricular rate), Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

Route: IV* or PO; IM is not generally recommended
*administer over at least 5 minutes
Dose: Digitalizing dose for IV (Adults) 0.5-1 mg
PO (Adults) 0 .75-1.25 mg,
Maintenance dose PO of 0.125-0.5 mg/day as tablets or 0.350-0.5mg/day as gelatin capsules
Route Onset Peak Duration
PO 30-120 min. 2-8 hr 2-4 days
IV 5-30 min. 4-6 hr 2-4 days
IM 30 min. 1-4 hr 2-4 days
*Duration listed is that for normal renal function; impaired renal function duration will be longer
Documentation: Monitor apical pulse for 1 full min. before administering. Withhold dose and notify physician if pulse rate is <60 bpm (notify doctor if the there are any significant changes in rate, rhythm or quality of pulse). Monitor bp periodically in patients receiving IV Digoxin. Evaluate serum electrolyte levels (especially potassium, magnesium, and calcium) and renal and hepatic functions periodically during therapy.
Precautions: Digoxin has narrow therapeutic range. Monitor therapeutic drug levels; therapeutic serum digoxin levels range from 0.5-2 ng/ml. Serum levels may be drawn 6-8 hr after dose is administered, although they are usually drawn immediately after next dose. Notify healthcare professional before giving dose if patient is hypokalemic, has hypomagnesemia, or hypocalcemia.

Indications: Used to treat Hypertension, Angina pectoris, Vasospastic angina, Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT: a rapid, regular tachycardia in which the pacemaker is found)

Route: PO, IV
Dose and timing: PO 30-120 mg 3-4 times daily; max dose 360 mg/day
IV 0.25 mg/kg ; May follow with continuous infusion at 10 mg/hr for up to 24 hr.

Precautions: Contraindicated in: hypersensitivity, Sick sinus syndrome, Systolic pressure <90 mm Hg. Use Cautiously in: CHF, Severe hepatic impairment (↓dose recommended) due to the fact that this drug is metabolized by the liver,

Geriatric ( ↓dose; slower IV infusion rate recommended; ↑risk of hypotension)
Documentation: PO- May be administered with meals if GI irritation becomes a problem. Do not open, crush, break or chew capsules or tablets. Empty tablets that appear in stool are not significant.
Drug-Food interaction: Grapefruit Juice (↑levels and effect)
Indications: Used to treat edema due to heart failure, hepatic impairment or renal disease. Hypertention.
Loop diuretic that prevents the body from absorbing too much salt by excreting it in the urine.

Route: PO, IM, IV
Dose: PO 40-120mg/day; max dose 600mg/day
IM/IV 20-40mg; max dose 0.4mg/kg/hr
Timing: PO qd or bid
IM/IV q1-2hrs
Precautions: Contraindicated in: hypersensitivity, hepatic coma, Anuria (decreased urination < 50ml/day), arrhythmias, Pregnancy C, Breast Feeding
Adverse rxns & side effects: Hypovolemia, hypotension, hypochloremia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesium, hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis, increased BUN
Documentation: Fluid status/electrolytes (BUN, Glc, Creatine, Ca+, K+), BP

Indication: Hypertension, Angina pectoris, MI. Management of heart failure

Dose: 100-450mg(common dosing 25-100mg) maximum 450mg when angina
Route: IV, PO
Timing: QD, BID
PO: Onset 15min, Peak 1hr, Duration 6-12hr
IV: Onset immediate, Peak 20min, Duration 5-8hr
Precaution: Check BP, HR(apical pulse) before admin;
HR < 60 or systolic < 100 Call physician
Contraindication: Bradycardia, Cardiac failure
If DM: Rx masks S/S of hypoglycemia; check glucose before admin
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