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Sustainable Management
Sustainable Management
1461
Agriculture
Undergraduate 4
03/15/2016

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Term
US law that officially defines sustainable ag
Definition
-1990 "Farm Bill"
-Public Law 101-624, Title XVI, Subtitle A, Section 1603
Term
legal USA definition of sustainable ag, 1st half
Definition
An integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will over the long-term:
Term
legal USA definition of sustainable ag, 2nd half, part 1
Definition
Satisfy human food and fiber needs.
Term
legal USA definition of sustainable ag, 2nd half, part 2
Definition
Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agriculture economy depends.
Term
legal USA definition of sustainable ag, 2nd half, part 3
Definition
Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls.
Term
legal USA definition of sustainable ag, 2nd half, part 4
Definition
Sustain the economic viability of farm operations.
Term
legal USA definition of sustainable ag, 2nd half, part 5
Definition
Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.
Term
definition of sustainability according to the report's authoring committee
Definition
progress towards... (1) producing enough to satisfy human needs; (2) enhancing environmental quality and protecting the natural resource base; (3) being profitable; and (4) increasing the quality of life for farmers, farm workers, and society as a whole.
Term
1st factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
Robust systems that will adapt, evolve, and continue to function in the face of stresses and fluctuating conditions,

robust and resilient
Term
2nd factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
Are productive,
Term
3rd factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
Use resources efficiently,
Term
4th factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
Balance the four goals within enterprises or farms across and at all scales
Term
5th factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
It is about assessing whether choices of farming practices and systems would lead to a more or less sustainable system as measured by the four goals

effect of choices towards the 4 goals
Term
6th factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
Identification of key metrics and indicators that can measure progress toward goals
Term
7th factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
Monitoring and Collecting those metrics

measuring
Term
8th factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
Re assessing
Term
9th factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
Adaptive management
Term
10th factor towards sustainable ag according to NRC
Definition
Positive dedicated people
Term
Creating a sustainable agricultural development path means improving ______, ensuring ______ and generating ______.
Definition
the quality of life in rural areas

enough food for present and future generations

sufficient income for farmers
Term
The thoughtful management of agro-ecosystems should be part of both a ______ and a ______.
Definition
rational production system

worldwide plan for biodiversity conservation
Term
the 3 areas of Nature's Matrix's argument
Definition
1: the nature of biodiversity itself;
2: how we have arrived at our current state of agro-ecosystem management; and
3: the current way that humans relate to tropical landscapes.
Term
From the biodiversity conservation point of view, this is perhaps the critical issue.
Definition
the quality of the matrix
Term
"The quality of the matrix," at its core, involves...
Definition
the management of agricultural ecosystems
Term
According to analysts, these 3 goals and other similar goals are at least equally as important as maximizing production.
Definition
environmental sustainability, social cohesion, and cultural survival
Term
What does Nature's Matrix claim is needed?
Definition
a production system that will preserve biodiversity and be based, to whatever extent possible, on the functioning of the natural local system
Term
the 3 parts of Nature's Matrix (simplified)
Definition
1: extinction vs. migration in the fragmented landscapes
2: Is the matrix biodiversity friendly?
3: movement towards more ecologically sound ag
Term
incremental approach to sustainability
Definition
expansion and enhancement of several current efforts to improve sustainability performance regardless of size or farming system type
Term
how the incremental approach is carried out
Definition
through development and implementation of specific sustainability practices

this is the focus of ongoing research
Term
transformative approach to sustainability
Definition
major improvement in sustainability performance by approaching 21st century agriculture from a systems perspective that considers a multiplicity of interacting factors
Term
how the transformative approach to sustainability is carried out
Definition
Multiple research areas are brought together to design farming systems that balance the competing demands.
Term
some Incremental Approaches for Improving Sustainability
Definition
1)Conservation tillage systems
2)Cover cropping
3)Crop diversity or rotation or intercropping or using different genetic varieties
4)Traditional plant breeding and modern genetic engineering (GE) techniques
5)Efficient water use and reuse
6)A Best management practice
7)Soil and plant tissue tests or nutrient or management plans, or precision agriculture technologies
8)Use of manure, compost, and green manure
9)Genetic improvement of livestock
10)Integrated pest management
Term
some High-Priority Research for sustainability
Definition
1: Productivity and Environmental Research
2: Socioeconomic Research
3: Policy Research
Term
factors of the transformative approach to improving sustainability
Definition
1) Developing interactive efforts between disciplinary experts and civil society to construct a collective and integrated vision for a future of US AG that balance the 4 goals
2) Encouraging and accelerating the development of new markets and legal frameworks that embody and pursue the collective vision of the sustainable future
3) Pursuing research and extension that integrate multiple disciplines relevant to all four goals of agriculture sustainability
4) Identifying and researching the potential new forms of production systems that represent a dramatic departure from the dominant systems of present day US AG
5) Identifying and researching system characteristics that increase resilience and adaptability in the face of changing conditions
Term
transformative approaches to improving sustainability
Definition
1: Business and Marketing strategies
2: Practices for improving community Well-being
Term
Business and Marketing strategies to improving sustainability
Definition
1) Diversification of farm enterprises
2) Sales to niche markets or direct sales
Term
Practices for improving community Well-being that improve sustainability
Definition
3) Diverse farm systems, diversified landscapes that include non-crop vegetation
4) Community supported agriculture
5) Farm-to-school programs, and agritourism
6) Integrated pest management
Term
According to FAO, sustainable development is...
Definition
“the management and conservation of the natural resource base, and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such sustainable development (in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors) conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable”.
Term
Social sustainability needs to consider...
Definition
Gender
Race/ethnicity
Class & privilege
Term
essential question for social sustainability
Definition
What are the current gaps in the social sustainability of agriculture?
Term
socially sustainable ag
Definition
Food & work that is:
Safe
Healthy
Equitable
Connected
Term
issues of safety in socially sustainable ag
Definition
-food safety
-worker safety
Term
challenges of sustainability
Definition
-development of national and international policies
-climate change certainties and uncertainties
-energy security
-sustainable forms of land use
-efficient ag production
-lack of info flow between scientists, practitioners, and policy makers
-working together
-multiple goals...no priority
-time to accomplish the added work
-added work
Term
What amplifies the problem of food insecurity and malnutrition?
Definition
-increased purchasing power and dietary shifts in parts of the globe
-barriers to food access and distribution, particularly in the poorest regions
Term
Research soulhd be directed at ______ and be ______, enabling public science and policy institutions to become ______ rather than ______.
Definition
issues that influence current and future policy frameworks

relevant to the needs and issues in different parts of the world

proactive

reactive
Term
horizon-scanning approach
Definition
-overall term for analyzing the future: considering how emerging trends and developments might potentially affect current policy and practice
-makes policy more resistant to future uncertainty
Term
social capital
Definition
includes the social and political environment that shapes social structure and enables norms to develop
Term
the world's leading driver of climate change
Definition
animal ag
Term
USDA definition of farm
Definition
any place from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products were produced and sold, or normally would have been sold, during the year
Term
how economic well-being of farms is measured
Definition
ERS compiles several measures of the economic well-being of farm households using data from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS)
Term
The economic well-being of farm-operator households is determined by...
Definition
a combination of on-farm and off-farm activities
Term
ARMS-based indicators of economic well-being center on...
Definition
the households of principal operators of family farms
Term
Is the well-being of farm-operator households equivalent to the financial performance of the associated farm business or farm sector generally?
Definition
no
Term
Key indicators of economic well-being
Definition
-income
-wealth
-health insurance
Term
on-farm sources of income
Definition
income from the farm business
Term
off-farm sources of income
Definition
including wage income, nonfarm business earnings, dividends, and transfers
Term
wealth of a farm
Definition
net worth of a farm household is the sum of all farm and nonfarm assets, less farm and nonfarm debt
Term
current definition of a family farm, since 2005, based on the Agricultural Resource Management Survey
Definition
the majority of the business is owned by the operator and individuals related to the operator by blood, marriage, or adoption, including relatives that do not live in the operator household
Term
farm assets include...
Definition
-land and buildings
-farm equipment
-financial assets
-other farm assets
Term
farm debt includes...
Definition
-real estate debt
-non-real estate debt
-short-term debt
-long-term debt
Term
nonfarm assets include...
Definition
-cash
-checking
-CD's
-money market accounts
-IRA 401k Keogh and other retirement accounts
-corporate stock
-mutual funds
-cash value of life insurance
-other nonfarm assets
Term
nonfarm debt includes...
Definition
-credit cards
-car payments
-nonfarm business and real estate debt
Term
challenges to landscape level research
Definition
-sparse scientific data
-underdevelopment of public policy tools
-variability in ag landscape
-variability in local conditions
Term
farming systems likely to offer the greatest potential
Definition
those that make use of locally available resources and natural biophysical processes
Term
examples of promising technologies
Definition
-soil organic matter management
-reduced tillage
-integration of crops and livestock
-water harvesting
-stress resistant crop varieties
Term
drivers that shape the decision to use a particular farming practice
Definition
-market forces
-public policies
-advances in knowledge
-farm operator's individual goals and resources
Term
what converting land from tilled row cropping to sod or kudzu does to the soil organic matter
Definition
builds it up
Term
what converting land from native forests to tilled row cropping does to soil organic matter
Definition
decreases it
Term
what microbial and fungal byproducts do to the particles in soil
Definition
glue them together
Term
[image]
Definition
1: profitable
2: environmentally friendly
3: quality of life for farmer and community
Term
how the top 100 questions were selected
Definition
selected by
policy makers and practitioners and the target audience was the academic community
Term
target audience of the top 100 questions
Definition
the academic community
Term
objective of the top 100 questions article
Definition
to compile a list of the top 100 questions that, if addressed, would have a significant impact on global agricultural practices worldwide, while improving the synergy between agricultural policy, practice and research
Term
criteria the top 100 questions had to fulfill
Definition
(i) they had to be answerable and capable of a realistic research design;
(ii) they had to be capable of a factual answer and not dependent on value judgments;
(iii) they had to be questions that have not already been answered;
(iv) questions on impact and interventions should have a subject, an intervention and a measurable outcome;
(v) questions for which yes or no are likely answers were unsuitable; and
(vi) questions should be of the scale that in theory a team might have a reasonable attempt at answering.
Term
How many questions were submitted before narrowing it down to 100?
Definition
618
Term
themes and expert groups relating to ag priorities
Definition
(a) climate, watersheds, water resources and aquatic ecosystems;
(b) soil nutrition, erosion and use of fertilizer;
(c) biodiversity, ecosystem services and conservation;
(d) energy, climate change and resilience;
(e) crop production systems and technologies;
(f) crop genetic improvement;
(g) pest and disease management;
(h) livestock;
(i) social capital, gender and extension;
(j) development and livelihoods;
(k) governance, economic investment, power and policy making;
(l) food supply chains;
(m) prices, markets and trade;
(n) consumption patterns and health.
Term
4 main sections of the results section in the top 100 questions article
Definition
Natural resource inputs
Agronomic practices
Agricultural development
Markets and consumption
Term
Which categories of food are we eating too much of?
Definition
whole grains, fish, and red meat

red meat's the outlier
Term
Which food categories are we eating too little of?
Definition
-veggies
-nuts and seeds
-fruit
-milk
Term
FAO predicts ______ increase in livestock demand by 2050.
Definition
70%
Term
According to FAO, how can the livestock sector potentially curb GHG emissions by 30%?
Definition
thru better practices and technology
Term
To protect the soil, make sure there's a ______ on it.
Definition
vegetative cover
Term
Is frozen Johnson Grass toxic?
Definition
yes
Term
big corporations and even some jobs are moving towards...
Definition
sustainability
Term
Many scientists have gone organic because...
Definition
a cheap source of nutrients has left
Term
Many corporations are using ______ to make more money.
Definition
the sustainability movement
Term
optimizing
Definition
taking a bunch of measures and tweaking them
Term
precision ag
Definition
knowing what you need where
Term
biggest part of food systems production
Definition
optimization
Term
Walmart started doing sustainability because...
Definition
they were losing social capital
Term
______ of farms are smaller than 2 hectares.
Definition
97%
Term
Putting on buffers is a great solution to...
Definition
water quality
Term
If you leave the soil uncovered,...
Definition
water escapes the soil
Term
Removing the cover on the ground creates...
Definition
bipolar microclimate
Term
factors in food safety
Definition
risk and production scale
Term
factors of worker safety
Definition
-exposure to hazards on the job
-life experiences
-exploitation
Term
reasons for (im)migration
Definition
Violence
Political and social instability
Poverty
Term
issues of health in socially sustainable ag
Definition
Protection from workplace hazards
Access to healthcare
Food security
Term
What can limit access to healthcare?
Definition
Poverty
Time & Transportation
Immigration status
Term
issues of equity in social sustainabiiity
Definition
Access
Privilege
Agency & Opportunity
Term
factors of access pertaining to equity
Definition
Food security
Natural resources
Term
factors of agency and opportunity pertaining to socially sustainable ag
Definition
Education & advancement
Political voice & participation
Food sovereignty
Term
relationship with other pillars of social sustainability
Definition
-synergies
-tensions and trade-offs
Term
tensions and trade-offs among the pillars of social sustainability
Definition
Which pillars are privileged?
Often overlook the needs of the least powerful
Term
Strategies for expanding social sustainability require ______ and must be ______.
Definition
deliberate & ongoing attention to social justice

addressed at all scales
Term
Why is crop rotation important?
Definition
it's key to make conservation tillage work- allows carbon to sequester
Term
Mustard family crops release ______, which deters ______.
Definition
glucosinate

parasitic nematodes
Term
extensions relevant to sustainability
Definition
-forage team
-sustainable and organic management team
-Integrated Pest Management
Term
Key indicators of economic well-being
Definition
-income
-wealth
-health insurance
Term
A transformative approach to improving sustainable ag is more than...
Definition
the on-farm operations
Term
What affects the measures of the values of sustainability?
Definition
who the stakeholders are
Term
Sustainability comes from...
Definition
the stakeholders
Term
Global ag is under pressure to ensure ______ in ways that are ______.
Definition
food and energy security

environmentally and socially sustainable
Term
the goal of ag research
Definition
enabling public science and policy institutions to become proactive rather than reactive
Term
some factors of social sustainability
Definition
-cultural development
-human health and safety
-equity
-labor rights
-fair trading practices
-decent livelihood
Term
some factors of economic sustainability
Definition
-investment
-vulnerability
-product quality and info
-local economy
Term
some environmental factors of sustainability
Definition
-atmosphere
-water
-land
-materials and energy
-biodiversity
-animal welfare
Term
some governance factors of sustainability
Definition
-holistic management
-rule of law
-participation
-accountability
-corporate ethics
Term
[image]
Definition
1: governance
2: development goals
3: food wastage
4: sustainability assesments
Term
[image]
Definition
1: people
2: smallholders
3: urbanites
4: youth
Term
[image]
Definition
1: economy
2: local procurement
3: payments for ecosystem services
4: greening the economy
Term
[image]
Definition
1: nature
2: livestock
3: mountains
4: bioenergy
Term
some info about social sustainability
Definition
-regards standard of living, education, community, equal opportunity
-this includes the farmer
Term
some info about environmental sustainability
Definition
regards natural resource use, environmental management, pollution prevention (air, water, land, waste)
Term
some info about economic sustainability
Definition
regards profit, cost savings, economic growth, and research & development
Term
some info about social-environmental sustainability
Definition
regards environmental justice, natural resources stewardship, locally and globally
Term
some info about economic-social sustainability
Definition
regards business ethics, fair trade, and worker's rights
Term
some info about environmental-economic sustainability
Definition
regards energy efficiency and subsidies/incentives for use of natural resources
Term
[image]
Definition
1: social
2: environment
3: economic
Term
[image]
Definition
1: bearable
2: equitable
3: viable
Term
ways for sustainable ag to be profitable
Definition
-over long term
-maximizes farmer/rancher control
-standard of living
Term
ways for sustainable ag to be better at environmental stewardship
Definition
Builds soil carbon
Balances nutrient inputs and outputs
Produces clean water
Maximizes water conservation
Minimizes use of fossil fuel
Minimizes use of toxic substances
Encourages biodiversity
Minimizes air pollution
Minimizes solid waste generation
Term
how sustainable ag can improve quality of life
Definition
Allows time for family hobbies, and/or community participation
Provides safe, nutritious food, fiber, and/or biomass
Treats farm workers ethically
Treats animals humanely
Increases surrounding community economic and civic well-being
Contributes to scenic beauty
Contributes to farming/ranching being seen as respected professions
Term
The key to sustainable ag is ______. However, you have to recognize ______. There are no ______!
Definition
evidence based, regenerative agriculture

trade-offs

silver bullets
Term
why soil carbon is critical to soil productivity
Definition
Improved soil structure
Increased infiltration
Decreased erosion
Increased water holding capacity
Increased nutrient holding capacity
Source of nutrients
Energy source for soil organisms
Increased disease resistance for crops
improved water quality and quantity
Term
What do plugged pores do to soil?
Definition
decrease water and oxygen exchange
Term
Increased infiltration leads to...
Definition
increased ground water recharge and stream flow
Term
Nutrient holding capacity increases when ______ increases.
Definition
the # of exchange sites
Term
Hutrient holding capacity is an issue of...
Definition
water quality
Term
how soil can be an energy source for microbes
Definition
Nitrogen fixation
Plant growth promoters
Release nutrients in soil organic matter
Disease suppression
Term
organisms that fix nitrogen in soil
Definition
Rhizobium with legumes Freeliving nitrogen fixers -Burholderia sp.
Term
things in soil that can suppress disease
Definition
Biopesticides and competition
Induced systemic resistance
Term
farming systems that increase soil carbon
Definition
-Management Intensive Grazing
-Heavy Residue Conservation Tillage Systems
-Organic Production
Term
heavy residue conservation tillage systems
Definition
Reduce tillage
Use cover crops
Use crop rotations
Term
conservation tillage systems
Definition
-Fall drilling of cover crop
-Kill cover crop with herbicides, rollers, or natural senescence
-Direct seed into cover
Term
benefits of conservation tillage
Definition
•Increased soil carbon
•Improved long-term productivity
•Improved soil tilth
•Decreased erosion
•Improved water quality
•Increased biodiversity
•Less fuel use
•Reduced time in the field
Term
challenges to conservation tillage
Definition
•Reliance on herbicides
•Increased management i.e. timeliness
•Spreads risk over several years, but may not maximize yields in any given year
•Cover crop needs to be planted during harvest
•In current system, most farmers lease land
Term
management intensive grazing
Definition
Systems where animals graze only a small portion of the pasture (an individual paddock) while other paddocks are rested and allowed to recover.
•NZ style low input system
•Cows moved every day
•About 4 lbs/concentrate
•Minimal time in barn
•Irrigation of forage and mist to cool cows
Term
benefits of management intensive grazing
Definition
Can increase the yield of animal products/acre and net profit/farm
•Daily intake of forage and supplemental feed is more efficiently rationed
•Pasture plants are allowed to recover and are more persistent
•Pasture yield is increased
•Cost of machinery, fuel, and facilities are reduced
•Animal waste more uniformly distributed, improving soil quality and fertility
•Soil organic matter increases
Term
challenges to management intensive grazing
Definition
•Management intensity
•Forage availability
+Droughts and other weather
•Reduced rolling herd milk average
•More “extensive” production practice
Term
organic production systems
Definition
•Works with ecological principles and natural cycles
•Stresses building soil fertility as fundamental
•Has to draw on many linked management tools (many little hammers)
Term
some "little hammers" used in organic production systems
Definition
-organic amendments
-cover crops
-biocontrol
-rotation
Term
Organic amendments do this.
Definition
improves soil tilth, water holding capacity, etc. so reduces plant stress
Term
organic system plan
Definition
•Building the soil
•Managing diseases and pests
•Crop rotation
•Cover crops
•Organic fertilizers –composts and manures
Term
benefits of organic production systems
Definition
•Builds soil organic matter
•Increased biodiversity
•Correctly done can reduce environmental impacts
•Less exposure of farmworkers to pesticides
Term
challenges to organic production systems
Definition
•Reliance on tillage for weed control
•Very management and labor intensive
•Can have increased loss of crops
•More “extensive” land use??
Term
Ag production systems should be evaluated in terms of...
Definition
-all 3 spheres of sustainability
-evidence based approach
Term
Instead of ______ productivity, we need to ______ productivity.
Definition
-maximizing
-optimize
Term
how to optimize productivity
Definition
Rural development
Environmental services
Social justice
Food consumption outcomes
No significant increases in food prices
Term
With conservation tillage and organic ag, you at first...
Definition
lose money
Term
Small farms produce ______ of world's food.
Definition
50%
Term
Agroecology tries to mimic...
Definition
an ecosystem
Term
first country to have a national agroecology policy
Definition
Brazil
Term
Aquaculture with fish and ducks produces...
Definition
some nitrogen
Term
When you till soil,...
Definition
it releases carbon into the atmosphere
Term
Movement and trampling does this to soil.
Definition
covers it
Term
Dying grass must decay...
Definition
biologically
Term
Use this to mimic herds and predators to mimic nature.
Definition
bunched up livestock
Term
Use ______ to mimic nature.
Definition
planned grazing
Term
food security
Definition
Access to affordable, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food
Term
What can affect food security?
Definition
war & political instability
Term
factors of privilege pertaining to equity
Definition
-gender
-race/ethnicity
Term
types of connectedness in social systainability
Definition
-geographically
-socially
Term
geographic connectedness
Definition
Connection to the land, to a particular place
Term
social connectedness
Definition
Connection to people
Social capital
Tradition
Participation
Term
synergies with other pillars of social sustainability
Definition
“Triple Bottom Line”
Win-Win-Win
Term
a production that needs to be doubled
Definition
grain production
Term
sustainable ag
Definition
a way of producing food and fiber we need without destroying the ecosystems we depend on
Term
To protect the soil, make sure there's a ______ on it.
Definition
vegetative cover
Term
The well-being of farm-operator households is determined by...
Definition
a combination of onfarm and off-farm activities.
Term
transformative vs. incremental in terms of direction
Definition
transformative not as clear and pointed as incremental
Term
the 3 pillars of sustainability
Definition
-social
-environmental
-economy
Term
Social sustainability is concerned with...
Definition
people
Term
Environmental sustainability is concerned with...
Definition
planet
Term
economic sustainability is concerned with...
Definition
profits
Term
What often exacerbates difficulties in ag research policy?
Definition
the complexity, and often lack, of info flow between scientists, practitioners, and policy makers
Term
the challenges facing agriculture
Definition
-feeding the world
-increased demand and input costs
-climate variability
Term
effect of conventional tillage and/or no cover crop
Definition
decreased infiltration/increased erosion
Term
effect of conservation tillage with cover crop
Definition
increased infiltration/decreased erosion
Term
Infiltration and erosion are issues of...
Definition
water quality and quantity
Term
Plant growth promoters in soil
Definition
Fungi that promote plant growth hormones
Term
At the heart of the goal to meet the demands is...
Definition
the idea of sustainability in agriculture
Term
As the probability of failure ______, the likelihood of sustainability ______.
Definition
increases

decreases
Term
Sustainable ag has to have some ______ plans.
Definition
fallback
Term
Should you just monitor productivity?
Definition
NO!
Term
To be concerned with biodiversity in general, we have to be concerned with...
Definition
what's happening in the tropics
Term
What stops the extinction of a metapopulation?
Definition
the migration of individuals from one cluster to another
Term
example of a body plan that no longer exists
Definition
trilobites (segments along the body from front to back and 3 longitudinal lobes from side to side)
Term
plankton paradox
Definition
so many plankton occupying the same niche

disproved classical biodiversity theory
Term
After WW2, farmers went from being stewards of the farm to using lots of pesticides. How?
Definition
After ww2, pesticide manufacturers faced underconsumption. Media used "war metaphor" to attract farmers.
Term
highest demand and least supply
Definition
beef and sugar
Term
What does biofuel do to the soil?
Definition
takes carbon away from it
Term
relationship of today's ag to soil
Definition
bears little heed to soil
Term
one of the 1992 Earth Summit's major outcomes
Definition
Agenda 21
Term
Sustainability touches ______ in ______ of ______.
Definition
everyone

all parts

our existence
Term
What law defines sustainable ag?
Definition
the 1990 "Farm Bill"
Term
Sustainable ag is basically...
Definition
mimicing the environment
Term
Measures of sustainability are...
Definition
criteria
Term
______ and ______ accordingly to remain sustainable.
Definition
monitor

change
Term
the 3 tiers of sustainability
Definition
-social
-environmental
-economic
Term
the most important part of sustainability
Definition
profitability
Term
Sustainability really depends on...
Definition
the sun
Term
In simplest form, sustainability is binary, e.g.,...
Definition
it either survives or doesn't survive
Term
According to the naysayers, sustainability is...
Definition
an illusion, unattainable, and counterproductive
Term
One of the best ways to be resilient is to...
Definition
diversify
Term
The National Research Council identified ______ factors necessary to make progress towards sustainability.
Definition
10
Term
For the most part, the terrestrial surface of the tropics looks like...
Definition
patchwork of forest fragments in a matrix of ag

few exceptions, mainly Amazon and Congo basins
Term
the 2 cultures of ag science
Definition
that of the agronomist (and other classical disciplines such as hort, entomology, etc.) and that of the ecologist (or agro-ecologist)
Term
Could organic agriculture feed the world?
Definition
yes

can also be more efficient
Term
the source of all nutrients
Definition
decomposition
Term
how something is grown has an impact on...
Definition
all society and some biology
Term
where to put organic fertilizers
Definition
right where they're needed
Term
transition movement tries to...
Definition
catalyze people to change
Term
In the old days, where did most of the ag input come from?
Definition
it was local

now, it's the other way around
Term
how to bring people to locally produced ag
Definition
bring to light the benefits of it
Term
Whi is Sub-Saharan Africa of such importance?
Definition
has the highest overall % of the population living in poverty
Term
The sustainability of a system is a measure of...
Definition
its lifespan
Term
Sustainable farm systems must be this in terms of relationship with environment in order to strive towards the 4 goals.
Definition
-resilient
-must also be flexible enough to adapt to natural and economic stresses
Term
The vast majority of conservation work concentrates on ______ and ignores ______.
Definition
the fragments of natural vegetation that remain

the matrix of ag in which they exist
Term
subpopulations
Definition
smaller clusters of individuals
Term
metapopulation
Definition
collection of subpopulations
Term
"natural systems" ag
Definition
traditional way of designing an agro-ecosystem by reference to ecological structures that exist in surrounding vegetation

mimicing nature
Term
Something that can help or hurt your farm's resilience
Definition
the fringe of your farm
Term
research involves...
Definition
taking risks and doing things no one's done before
Term
Move towards this type of economy.
Definition
localized food economy
Term
What are we losing that we need for a localized food economy?
Definition
the skills we need for it
Term
Accordingto National Research Council, what does U.S. ag have to do to meet long term needs?
Definition
sustainably accelerate progress towards the 4 sustainability goals
Term
types of science essential for understanding ag sustainability
Definition
biophysical and social

generates knowledge and expands the range of alternatives
Term
National Research Council recommended these 2 approaches to ensure continuous improvement in sustainability performance of US ag
Definition
incremental and transformative
Term
When did the ecological, economic, and social principles of sustainable development receive universal agreement?
Definition
the 1992 Earth Summit
Term
Social sustainability...for whom?
Definition
-farmers
-farm workers
-consumers
Term
What do all the rural political movements have in common?
Definition
the goal of food sovereingty
Term
the 4 major divisions of Earth's biodiversity history
Definition
Pre-Cambrian, Paleozoic (old life; age of trilobites), Mesozoic (middle life; age of dinosaurs), and Cenezoic (new life; age of mammals, birds, flowering plants, and insects)
Term
When did life first appear on Earth?
Definition
about 3.5 billion years ago
Term
immigration (in terms of island)
Definition
species arriving to an island
Term
extinction (in terms of island)
Definition
species leaving an island
Term
equilibrium number of species
Definition
when extinction and immigration are the same
Term
Many people think of this as the defining feature of habitat loss.
Definition
ag
Term
classical theory of biodiversity
Definition
there can be no more species than available niches

"principle of competitive exclusion"
Term
island biodiversity theorem
Definition
p=1-(e/m)
p=biodiversity on that island
e= extinction rate
m=migration rate
Term
the goal of conservation at its most elementary level
Definition
to make sure the rate of migration stays above the rate of extinction
Term
Public Law ______, Title ______, Subtitle ______, Section ______
Definition
101-624
XVI
A
1603
Term
2 things the National Research Council added to their definition of sustainable ag in 2010
Definition
1. That no one should go hungry
and
To be Sustainable we must also be
2. Adaptable, Flexible, Resilient
Term
some things ag production provides
Definition
income, employment and food at affordable prices as well as raw material for the processing industry and foreign exchange from exports
Term
the debate being addressed by Nature's Matrix
Definition
minimizing area used for ag vs. agro-ecosystems being important components of the natural world, intricate to biodiversity conservation
Term
the position taken by Nature's Matrix
Definition
Agro-ecosystems are important components of the natural world, intricate to biodiversity conservation.
Term
conservation tillage
Definition
any method of soil cultivation that leaves the previous year's crop residue (such as corn stalks and wheat stubble) on fields before and after planting the next crop, to reduce soil erosion and runoff
Term
competing demands in sustainable ag
Definition
profit, environment, social, and feeding people
Term
sustainability
Definition
meeting local/global needs in the present while protecting resource availability and well-being into the future
Term
key issues of our time
Definition
Population growth
Global climate change
Development demands
How to maximize agricultural productivity while also ensuring environmental, economic, and social sustainability?
Term
social sustainability
Definition
Focus on human & social needs, rights, well-being
Term
Why care about social sustainability?
Definition
“it is only when people’s basic needs are met that they can begin to actively address bio-physical environmental concerns”

people can't address other concerns until their basic needs are met
Term
What's the population forecasted to be in 2050?
Definition
9 billion
Term
Why do low oxygen zones occur around river discharges at ocean?
Definition
midwest corn production nitrogen runoff
Term
how intense rainstorms can lead to poor water quality
Definition
eroding soil
Term
factors of sustainable ag
Definition
mix of profits, quality of life for farmer and community, and environmental health
Term
We lose ______ when we convert land to ______.
Definition
carbon

row crops
Term
website on how to grow organically in Georgia
Definition
www.sustainAgGA.org
Term
certificate program relevant to sustainability
Definition
Journeyman Farmer Certificate Program
Term
Why is frozen Johnson grass dangerous?
Definition
toxic
Term
USDA says farm is...
Definition
$1,000
Term
FAO is...
Definition
ag part of UN
Term
governance
Definition
policy
Term
It's estimated that ______ more food will have to be produced to feed the projected 9 billion of 2050.
Definition
70-100%
Term
Ag and food systems account for ______ of global greenhouse gas emissions, more than twice that of the transport sector.
Definition
1 3rd
Term
What did cotton farming do to the soil in the Piedmont?
Definition
topsoil got lost and deposited in creeks
Term
What can hold soil particles together such that they form aggregates?
Definition
microbial and fungal byproducts glue particles together
Term
At what speed does a raindrop hit soil?
Definition
about 15 mph
Term
What do dislodged soil particles do?
Definition
form crusts
Term
gelisols
Definition

-soil w/ permafrost within 2m of surface

-usually limited profile development

-can have gelic material

-not very weathered

Term
gelic materials
Definition
mineral or organic soil materials that have evidence of cryoturbation
Term
Where do gelisols occur?
Definition
where it's cold, primarily along the Arctic and Tibetan Plateau large areas of Canada, Russia, and Alaska
Term
In gelisol regions, where do most of the soil forming processes occur?
Definition
near surface, sometimes resulting in significant accumulation of organic matter
Term
What happens to gelisol areas during summer?
Definition
become boggy wetlangs supporting lots of migratory birds and grazing animals
Term
What happens if the permafrost in gelisols melts?
Definition
leads to a waterlogged soil condition that poses problems for engineering uses
Term
Why is the productivity of gelisols limited?
Definition
short growing season
Term
entisols
Definition
very diverse
have 1 thing in common: little horizon development
Term
where are entisols found?
Definition
at the site of recently deposited materials (e.g., alluvium), or in parent materials resistant to weathering (e.g., sand)
Term
Where are productive entisols found?
Definition
alluvial soils on flood plains
Term
Where are less fertile entisols found?
Definition
steep slopes and sandy areas
Term
mollisols
Definition

-mineral soils that developed on grasslands

-have dark, base rich, surface horizon

-lots of organic matter

Term
makeup of mollisols
Definition
-dark, base rich surface
-nearly all have mollic epipedon
-many also have argillic or natric horizon or calcic horizon
-a few have albic horizon
-some also have duripan or petrocalcic
Term
mollic epipedon
Definition
-thick, rich in organic matter (2.5%+) surface horizon
-base saturation 50%+
Term
What do minerals in mollisols give plants?
Definition
nutritional value
Term
Why is topsoil of mollisols dark and naturally fertile?
Definition
lots of organic matter
Term
basic cations that can be found in soil
Definition
Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+
Term
alfisols
Definition

soils that have an argillic, a kandic, or a natric and base saturation 35%+. Typically have ochric epipedon, but may have umbric epipedon. May also have petrocalcic horizon, a fragipan, or a duripan.

B horizon has cations plants can use.

Term
Where are alfisols found?
Definition

-cool to hot humid areas and in the semiarid tropics

-form in regions w/ sufficient moisture for at least part of the year

-found in Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys in USA, thru central and northern Europe into Russia, and in the south central region of S. America

Term
What are alfisols formed under?
Definition
-mostly forest vegetation, but also under grass savannah
-develop at mixed hardwood forests
Term
description of alfisol profile
Definition
-extensive profile development w/ distinct argillic (clay) accumulations in the subsoil
-extensive leaching often produces light colored E horizon below topsoil
Term
inceptisols
Definition

-soils of humid and subhumid regions that have altered horizons that have lost bases or iron and aluminum but retain some weatherable minerals

-They don't have an illuvial horizon enriched with either silicate clay or with an amorphous mix of aluminum and organic carbon

Term
Inceptisols may have many kinds of diagnostic horizons, but which ones are excluded?
Definition

-argillic

-natric

-kandic

-spodic

-oxic

Term
Inceptisols are the beginning of...
Definition
soil profile development
Term
Where are inceptisols found?
Definition
-scattered all over the world
-prominant in mountainous regions
Term
The productivity of inceptisols varies depending on...
Definition
clay and organic matter content, and other edaphic (plant-related) factors
Term
ultisols
Definition

-have horizon that has appreciable abount of translocated silicate clay (argillic or kandic) and few bases (35%BS or less)

-BS in most ultisols decreases with depth

-intensely weathered

-accumulated clay minerals in B horizon

Term
productivity of ultisols
Definition

-usually not very fertile

-acidic (H+ and Al3+)

Term
Where do ultisols occur?
Definition

warm and humid climates on older geologic locations in parent material that's already extensively weathered

SE US, China, Indonesia, S. America, and equitorial regions of Africa

Term
acidic cations in soil
Definition
H+ and Al3+
Term
what happens to organic matter here in Southeast?
Definition
microbes rapidly consume it
Term
soil needs this to keep soil in place
Definition
vegetative cover
Term
How can ultisols be agriculturally productive?
Definition
w/ inputs of lime and fertilizers
Term
vertisols
Definition

-have lots of clay minerals that shrink and swell as they change water content

-swell when wet and shrink while drying, causing large, deep cracks

-usually very dark, w/ 1-6% organic matter

Term
how materials get mixed in with vertisols
Definition
surface materials fall into the cracks and become incorporated into the lower horizons when it becomes wet again
Term
Where do vertisols form?
Definition

-typically in Ca and Mg rich materials such as limestone, basalt, or in areas of topographic depressions that collect these elements leached from uplands

-most often formed in warm, subhumid, or semiarid climates, where the natural vegetation is predominantly grass, savannah, open forest, or desert shrub

Term
Where are vertisols found?
Definition
NE Africa, India, & Australia with smaller areas scattered worldwide
Term
oxisols
Definition

-the most weathered soil

-extensively leached and clay dominated by oxides of Fe and Al, low fertility, and very acidic

-typically physically stable and resistant to erosion

-gentle slopes on surfaces of great age

-mix of quartz, kaolin, iron oxides, and organic matter

-boundaries very gradual

-fewer cations than ultisols

Term
Where do oxisols occur?
Definition
tropics
Term
What do oxisols require to be agriculturally productive?
Definition
extensive inputs of lime and fertilizers
Term
spodosols
Definition

-soils in which amorphous mixtures of organic matter and aluminum, with or without iron, have accumulated

-in undisturbed soils, there is normally an overlying eluvial usually gray to light gray in color, that has the color of more or less uncoated quartz

-acidic

-spodic horizon

-high leaching potential due to coarse texture

-typically low in fertility and bases

Term
spodic horizon
Definition
subsoil accumulation of organic matter, along with aluminum and iron oxides
Term
Where do spodosols form?
Definition
-commonly in sandy parent materials under coniferous forest vegetation
-commonly in cool, wet climate, but can occur in warmer climate
-usually in wet areas
Term
Where do spodosols occur?
Definition
large areas in north Europe, Russia, northeastern N. America, and some in Florida
Term
What do spodosols require to be agriculturally productive?
Definition
extensive inputs of lime and fertilizer
Term
aridisols
Definition

-too dry for mesophytic plants to grow

-have either:

1: aridic moisture regime and ochric or anthropic epipedon and 1 or more of the following w/ upper boundary within 100 cm of surface: calcic, cambic, gypsic, natric, petrocalcic, petrogypsic, or salic horizon w/ duripan or argillic horizon, or:

2: salic horizon and saturation w/ water within 100 cm of surface for 1 month or more in normal years

-they are dry with calcium carbonate (lime) accumulations

-commonly light in color and low in organic matter content

-lime and salt accumulations common in subsurface

-some have argillic B horizon

-not much erosion

Term
dominant characteristic of aridisols
Definition
water deficiency; adequate moisture for plant growth present for no more than 90 days at a time
Term
crops can't be grown in aridisols w/o...
Definition
irrigation
Term
What can overgrazing by livestock do to aridisols?
Definition
land degradation
Term
How can aridisols be made productive?
Definition
-if irrigation is available
-use of fertilizers and proper management
Term
Where do aridisols occur?
Definition
desert as well as SW N. America, Australia, and many MidEastern locations
Term
andisols
Definition
-soils dominated by short-range-order minerals
-include weakly weathered soils with much volcanic glass as well as more strongly weathered soils
-contains volcanic glass
-usually lacking in development
-not very weathered
-usually high fertility
-low bulk density
-easily tilled
-usually high productivity potential
Term
Where do andisols form?
Definition
near volcanoes
form in deposits from geologically recent events
Term
factors that influence soil development
Definition

-topography

-climate

-time

-organisms

-parent material

Term
mineral nutrients procured from...
Definition
eroding mountains
Term
Sphagnum moss does this.
Definition
produces acid that preserves organic matter
Term
Washed up coral provides...
Definition
carbon and calcium
Term
Hawaii has these soils.
Definition
everything from fresh volcanic matter to 5 million year old oxisols
Term
loess
Definition
a type of wind deposited parent material
Term
alluvium
Definition
deposited by rivers
Term
most productive soil
Definition
prairie soil (mollisols)
Term
2nd most productive soil
Definition
alfisols
Term
About ________ of soil is empty space.
Definition
50%
Term
where soil organisms thrive
Definition
empty space in soil
Term
What do soil organisms do?
Definition
help cycle nutrients
Term
Photosynthesis transforms CO2 into...
Definition
carbohydrates
Term
What do plants produce that feeds bacteria and fungi?
Definition
carbohydrates
Term
Plants put out...
Definition

carbohydrates

simple sugar

proteins

Term
When protozoan eats bacterium, this is released.
Definition
nutrients plants can use
Term
Fungi actively mine __________ out of rocks so plants can use it
Definition
Phosphorus
Term
More than _______ of land plants have mycchorizae of some sort.
Definition
90%
Term
Bacteria do this to nitrogen
Definition
convert it to a form plants can use
Term
In a sense, _______ is a dance w/ nature.
Definition
agriculture
Term
When growing crops, it's good to make the soil...
Definition
mimic that of the crop's natural habitat
Term
synthetic fertilizer is a result of...
Definition
WW2
Term
__________ helps break down carbon chemicals
Definition
nitrogen
Term
What made soil more vulnerable to erosion?
Definition
plowing
Term
What seems to be a good alternative to plowing?
Definition
no till
Term
tillage stimulates...
Definition
decomposition
Term
law of return
Definition
what we take from soil must be returned
Term
Salination ______ soil.
Definition
ruins
Term
Improving soil can help reduce the risk of...
Definition
floods
Term
Healthier soil leads to...
Definition
greater crop production
Term
_______ the soil as you ________ humanity.
Definition
feed
feed
Term
overgrazing leads to...
Definition
increased erosion
Term
_______ did a lot to move the idea of agroecology forward.
Definition
Odum
Term
When we ______, we remove something from the soil.
Definition
harvest
Term
conservation tillage
Definition
umbrella term for no till and such
Term
In conservation tillage, you don't ______, but you do this.
Definition
till
direct seed into soil
Term
tilling was used to...
Definition
kill fungus
Term
Sustainability must integrate this.
Definition
natural biological systems
Term
Conservation tillage is better for water...
Definition
flow, quality, and infiltration
Term
How many major characteristics of agroecosystems?
Definition
4
Term
______ says agroecosystems can have variety.
Definition
Altieri
Term
Ag is about ______, not just ______.
Definition
survival
making a dollar
Term
A farmer came up with conservation tillage for this reason.
Definition
he couldn't stand erosion
Term
glyphosate resistant crops in...
Definition
1990's
Term
one of the biggest constraints of being sustainable
Definition
the market
Term
Bigger farms account for ______ of ag sales.
Definition
the majority
Term
If we want to remain sustainable, can we forget the big guys?
Definition
NO!
Term
Can corporate farms be family farms?
Definition
yes
Term
the real problem is lack of ______ in agriculture
Definition
interest
Term
As corn production ______, corn prices ______.
Definition
increased
increased
Term
If somewhere's the only place that has work, it has...
Definition
the advantage
Term
Are there more small dairies or big dairies?
Definition
small dairies
Term
In Georgia, one of the biggest barriers to sustainability is...
Definition
tightness of markets
Term
Diversification is important to...
Definition
sustainability
Term
Chickens produce better on ______ than on corn.
Definition
promillet
does great in Georgia
Term
mean farm size in Georgia
Definition
238 acres
Term
many farms in Georgia are resource...
Definition
poor
Term
The more ______ the landscape, the harder it is to control erosion.
Definition
dissected
Term
These farmers get scarcely any credit.
Definition
small and organic farmers
Term
In terms of prices, ______ gets good deal and ______ doesn't.
Definition
research station
"little guy"
Term
Can systems be incremental?
Definition
yes
Term
Incremental pieces for ______ in transformational system.
Definition
security
Term
Does universalism change?
Definition
never
Term
stocks of carbon often expressed in...
Definition
gigatons
Term
1 metric ton
Definition
1,000 kg
Term
C stocks in biomass mostly in...
Definition
forest
Term
Which hemisphere does more photosynthesis?
Definition
Northern Hemisphere
Term
Major C stocks in order of amount
Definition

1: marine sediment and sedimentary rocks

2: ocean bicarbonate

3: ocean carbonate

4: fossil fuels

5: organic C in soils

6: atmospheric carbon dioxide

7: living biomass

8: ocean dissolved carbon dioxide

Term
the key is to add extra...
Definition
carbon
Term
most plants are ______ C
Definition
40%
Term
99% of C in plants comes from...
Definition
air and photosynthesis
Term
cover crops increase...
Definition
carbon
Term
most of the carbon in soil is protected by...
Definition
clay
Term
Increase this to increase the amount of C you can sequester.
Definition
the clay
Term
physical pump
Definition
moves carbon dioxide: physical mixing of the oceans
Term
chemical/solubility pump
Definition
carbon dioxide dissolving in water lowers pH
Term
biological pump
Definition
organic matter settles to bottom
Term
importance of biological pump
Definition
w/o it, atmospheric carbon dioxide would be double what it is today
Term
Calcium Carbonate does this in the ocean.
Definition
settles to bottom
Term
Due to ______, C increases by this much.
Definition
fossil fuels
about 3Gt/yr
Term
Most of the increase in atmospheric carbon is from ______, but part of it is ______ since 1800.
Definition
fossil fuels
change in land use
Term
When does calcium carbonate become soluble?
Definition
when water becomes acidic
Term
Most C is in...
Definition
sediment and sedimentary rock
Term
organic C stock vs. atmospheric C stock
Definition
organic C stock about 3x the atmospheric C stock
Term
about how many people in the world?
Definition
7,404,070,872 and growing
Term
human needs to meet
Definition
food, fiber, shelter, water, and energy
Term
net cash income
Definition
gross cash income minus all cash expenses such as for feed, seed, fertilizer, property taxes, interest on debt, wages to hired labor, contract labor, and rent to nonoperator landlords
Term
net farm income
Definition
-gross farm income minus cash and noncash expenses, such as capital consumption, pre-requisites to hired labor, and farm household expenses.
-It's a longer term measure of the ability of the farm to survive as a viable income-earning business.
Term
small farm
Definition
<$350K in gross cash farm income
Term
Are many farms in Georgia residence farms?
Definition
yes
Term
forecast for net cash and net farm income
Definition
both decline
Term
Is off-farm income associated with ag?
Definition
often is
Term
ag business important to ______ of farms
Definition
sustainability
Term
expected drop in 2016 cash receipts led by...
Definition
declines in nearly all major animal/product categories (including dairy, meat, and poultry/eggs), as well as veggies and melons
Term
forecast for feed crop cash receipts
Definition
expected to fall
Term
Receipts for these commodities are expected to rise by at least 1% in 2016.
Definition
several, including turkeys, cotton, rice, sorghum, oil crops, dry beans, potatoes, and sugarcane/sugar beets
Term
forecast for direct government farm program payments
Definition
forecasted to increase in 2016 by $3.3 billion or 31.4%
Term
forecast for overall production expenses in 2016
Definition
decrease, cushioning decline in cash receipts
Term
forecast for expenses typically produced by farm sector in 2016
Definition
decrease
Term
some inputs produced by farm sector
Definition
feed and livestock and poultry purchases
Term
forecast for expenses for fuels and oils in 2016
Definition
go down by 14.5%
Term
forecast for hired labor cost and interest expenses in next year
Definition
increase by $1.5 billion (5%) and $1.3 billion (6.8%), respectively
Term
forecast for median farm household income in 2016
Definition
slight increase
Term
most farm households earn all of their income from...
Definition
off-farm sources
Term
forecast for median off-farm income in 2016
Definition
increase 4.1%
Term
The forecasted decline in expenses for 2016 is driven primarily by...
Definition
lower spending on feed, fuel, and fertilizer, which outweigh expected increases in spending on hired labor, interest, and property taxes/fees
Term
What has risen faster: farm expenses or inflation?
Definition
farm expenses
Term
Despite the expectation of more cattle in 2016, feed expenses are forecasted to...
Definition
decrease $2.7 billion (4.7%) due to lower feed prices
Term
forecast for livestock and poultry purchases in 2016
Definition
decline by 6.5% ($2 billion) due to lower feeder cattle and barrow / gilt prices
Term
forecast for fuel and oil expenses in 2016
Definition
decrease by over 14% to $10.7 billion in 2016
Term
principal inputs into crop production
Definition
seed, pesticide, and fertilizer expenses
Term
forecast for expenses for principal inputs into crop production in 2016
Definition
decrease by about $1 billion, driven primarily by lower fertilizer expenses
Term
Have farm expenses risen or fallen?
Definition
risen
Term
forecast for labor cost in 2016
Definition
increase by over 3%, with most of the increase driven by higher expected wage rates impacting hired labor
Term
ag. business vs. farm

Who's making money?
Definition
ag business making money, but farm not as much
Term
From 1960 to 2012, gross revenue, production expenses, and net cash income have all...
Definition
increased
Term
the bigger a farm is,...
Definition
the more it goes into commercial
Term
Since 1970, ag imports and exports have both...
Definition
increased
Term
What has the outlook for lower feed grain and oil seed stocks done to feed grain and oil seed prices?
Definition
pushed them well above their 2008 highs
Term
largest gains for U.S. value of production for selected livestock
Definition
cattle/calves and milk
Term
broilers
Definition
-meat chicken
-poultry is an umbrella term
Term
A lot of people like to sell their cattle at this time of year.
Definition
beginning of spring
Term
From 2006 to 2012, crop cash receipts have...
Definition
increased
Term
Since 1985, pasture, cropland, and farm real estate prices have...
Definition
increased
Term
Out of cropland, pasture, and farm real estate, what's cheapest?
Definition
pasture cheaper than real estate cheaper than cropland
Term
the farm debt-to-asset ratio is... (increasing or decreasing)
Definition
decreasing
Term
Why does our soil require fertilizer?
Definition
because the nutrients have been depleted
Term
falling crop prices mean this for receipts
Definition
expected to sharply decline
Term
Since 1960, the average farm household income and average U.S. household income...
Definition
both increased
Term
Which agriculture yielded the highest median household income in 2014?
Definition
dairy and hog, $109,005 and $104,009 respectively
Term
In the 1960's, this happened pertaining to conservation tillage.
Definition
equipment technology to meet the challenge of successful crop establishment in conservation tillage systems
Term
In 1985, this happened pertaining to conservation tillage.
Definition
Food Security Act of 1985 passed by Congress provided another step-up in conservation tillage adoption
Term
In the 1990's, this happened pertaining to conservation tillage.
Definition
development and release of glyphosate resistant crops significantly increased the adoption of conservation tillage in USA, especially cotton and soybean in Southeast
Term
Congress established the CSP under...
Definition
the Farm Security & Rural Investment Act of 2002 (FSRIA)
Term
FSRIA ammended...
Definition
the Food Security Act of 1985
Term
Conservation Security Program (CSP)
Definition
-established under FSRIA
-administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), an agency of the USDA
Term
CSP can be used on...
Definition

-tribal and private working lands

-all 50 states and U.S. territories have incorporated it

Term
CSP provides...
Definition
equitable access to benefit all producers, regardless of size of operation, crops produced, or geographic location
Term
The CSP helps producers maintain ______ and implement ______ that provide ______, while creating ______ for other producers to ______.
Definition
conservation stewardship
additional conservation practices
added environmental enhancement
powerful incentives
meet those same standards of conservation performance
Term
The CSP uses ______ to pay the land owners.
Definition
a 3-tiered approach
Term
Tier I under CSP
Definition
-1st level that land owners can participate in
-farmer signs 5 year plan that addresses soil and water quality to the described minimum level of treatment for eligible land uses on part of the ag operation prior to acceptance (3, 6, 7)
Term
Tier II under CSP
Definition

-middle tier

-farmer signs 5-10 year contract that addresses soil and water quality to the described minimum level of treatment on all eligible land uses on the entire ag operation prior to to acceptance and agree to address 1 additional resource by the end of the contract period (3, 6, 7)

Term
Tier III under CSP
Definition
-last and final tier
-farmer signs 5-10 year plan where the producer must have addressed all applicable resource concerns to a resource management system level that meets the NRCS Field Office Technical Guide standards on all eligible land uses on the entire ag operation before acceptance and have riparian zones adequately treated (3, 7)
Term
riparian zone
Definition
the interface between land and a river or stream
Term
factors that affect total farm expenditures by leading cash receipts in Georgia and Florida
Definition
climate and cost of fertilizer
Term
regions of America in order of most farms to least farms
Definition
1: South
2: North Central
3: West
4: Northeast
Term
regions of America by most farmland
Definition
1: North Central
2: South
3: West
4: Northeast
Term
regions of America in order of farm expenditures
Definition
1: Midwest
2: Plains
3: West
4: Atlantic
5: South
Term
Animals deficate how mich of what they eat?
Definition
90%
Term
one thing we have to figure out how to deal with
Definition
drought
Term
estimated drought related losses in Georgia
Definition
$1-1.4 billion
Term
some ways to mitigate drought
Definition
-capture as much rainfall as possible
-attenuate runoff and evaporation
-slow the water down so you can conserve nutrients too
Term
Broiler litter is a good source of...
Definition
Phosphorous
Term
Why does chicken litter contain so much phosphorous?
Definition
because chickens are inefficient at absorbing phosphorous
Term
top 3 broiler producing states
Definition
1: Georgia
2: Alabama
3: Arkansas
Term
organic matter in soil vs. erosion
Definition
the less organic matter in the soil, the more erosion
Term
risk of soil loss indicates...
Definition
high potential for surface runoff
Term
Nutrients placed on ______ and unprotected from ______ are more vulnerable to ______ via ______.
Definition
the surface
raindrop impact
transport
surface runoff
Term
Can we afford to lose nutrients?
Definition
no
Term
Where must nutrients be in order to be productive?
Definition
in the soil
Term
The ______ water moves into soil, the ______ nutrients it carries with it.
Definition
more
more
Term
What does conservation tillage do to infiltration and runoff?
Definition
increases infiltration and reduces runoff
Term
Most of Georgia's community water comes from...
Definition
surface water
Term
infiltration improves...
Definition
water quality
Term
Do we need to reduce compaction?
Definition
yes
Term
carbon in soil vs. compaction
Definition
putting more carbon into the soil can help reduce compaction
Term
carbon content vs. soil's holding capacity for water and nutrients
Definition
increasing carbon content increases soil's holding capacity for water and nutrients
Term
VRI
Definition
variable rate irrigation
Term
feed price decreased due to...
Definition
amount of corn, cost of corn, and cost of fuel
Term
What has more volatility: plant or animal ag?
Definition
animal ag
Term
Does corn cause erosion?
Definition
kinda does
Term
UNFAO soils map identifies ______ soil units for the U.S. based on ______.
Definition

315

their physical and chemical composition, their topographic situation, and the local climate

Term
Fertility Capability Classification system (FCC)
Definition
soil fertility index to rank soil
Term
FCC system provides...
Definition
basis for comparing and rating soils worldwide for their sustainability for ag use
Term
The ranking system assesses ______ of the soil that have a direct relationship to ______ for ______.
Definition
the textural, structural, chemical, and climactic characteristics
fertilizer, plowing, and irrigation requirements
successful farming
Term
The FCC system assigns ______ to each soil type, if any are present.
Definition
condition modifiers, or limiting factors
Term
condition modifiers include...
Definition
-dry or seasonally dry conditions
-low CEC
-Al toxicicity
-Fe and P fixation
-gleying
-basic reaction
-K deficiency
-salinity
-etc.
Term
# of limiting factors present vs. cost of ag production
Definition
as # of limiting factors increases, so does cost of ag production
Term
limiting factors need to be overcome thru...
Definition
-liming
-irrigation
-fertilization
-other processes
Term
Ranked soils in U.S. range from ______ to ______ limiting factors.
Definition
0
8
Term
Why are soils w/ 7 or 8 limiting factors nearly impossible to cultivate?
Definition
presence of cumulative # of impediments (dry, saline conditions, shallow soils, high slope, etc.)
Term
examples of impediments to soil
Definition
-dry
-saline conditions
-shallow soils
-high slope
-etc.
Term
About ______ of U.S. soil has 2 or fewer limiting factors.
Definition
53%
Term
Over ______ of U.S. soil has 4 or fewer limiting factors.
Definition
90%
Term
Which soils are bearing the brunt of urbanization?
Definition
those with fewer limiting factors
Term
agroecology (generally)
Definition
incorporates ideas about a more environmentally friendly and socially sensitive (holistic) approach to ag
Term
Agroecology generally focuses on...
Definition
not only on production, but on the sustainability of the production systems
Term
Agroecology narrowly focuses on...
Definition
ecological relations in the field with a purpose to illuminate the form, dynamics, and function of these relations
Term
By understanding processes and relations in agroecology, agroecosystems can be manipulated to ______, with fewer ______, more ______, and with fewer ______.
Definition
produce better
negative environmental or social impacts
sustainability
external inputs
Term
Odum ______ describes ______ major characteristics of agroecosystems.
Definition
(1984)
4
Term
the 4 major characteristics of agroecosystems
Definition
1: include auxillary sources of energy like human, animal, and human energy to enhance productivity of particular organisms 2: diversity is greatly reduced compared with many natural ecosystems 3: dominant animals and plants are under artificial rather than natural selection 4: system controls are external rather than internal via subsystem feedback
Term
Altieri (______) says this about Odum's model of agroecosystems.
Definition
1995
interesting point of departure for understanding ag from an ecological systems perspective, but can't capture the diversity and complexity of many agroecosystems that evolved
Term
Altieri (1995) says Odum's lack of attention to ______ results in a model with ______.
Definition
the social determinants of ag
limited explanitory power
Term
Can agroecosystems have high biodiversity?
Definition
Altieri (1995) says yes
Term
According to Altieri (1995), ag systems are ______, and the ______ of ag doesn't stop at ______.
Definition
human artifacts
determinants
the field boundaries
Term
Ag strategies respond...
Definition
not only to environmental, biotic, and cultivar constraints, but also reflect human subsistence strategies and economic conditions
Term
trend in farm size in the last 3 decades
Definition
-# of large and small farms growing, but # of mid-sized farms declining
-thus, average farm size has changed little in the last 3 decades
Term
From 1982 to 2007, this happened to the midpoint acerage in cropland.
Definition
nearly doubled, from 589 acres to 1,105 acres
Term
From 1982-2007, midpoint acerages increased in ______ of ______ states and more than doubled in ______.
Definition
45 of 50
16
Term
From 1982-2007, the largest increases in midpoint acreages occurred in ______.
Definition
a contiguous group of 12 Corn Belt and Northern Plains states
Term
the 5 major field crops
Definition
-corn
-cotton
-rice
-soybeans
-wheat
-from 1982 to 2007, midpoint acerage more than doubled in each of these
Term
average increase in midpoint acerage increased ______% in ______ of ______ fruit and veggie crops
Definition
107%
35 of 39
Term
primary source of the large farms' financial advantage
Definition
they utilize labor and capital more intensively
Term
The long term shifts in farm size have been accompanied by greater ______, beginning with separation of ______ in the latter half of the 20th century.
Definition
specialization
crop and livestock farming
Term
Larger operations are more likely to use contracts, which can reduce...
Definition
the price and marketing risks faced by farmers
Term
These 4 crops accounted for over 83% of harvested crop acres in 2007
Definition
-corn
-hay
-soybean
-wheat
Term
Do harvested acres correspond closely to cash receipts for crops?
Definition
no
Term
How does technology play an important role in increasing farm size?
Definition
by allowing a single farmer to operate and manage more acres
Term
These labor-saving innovations have substantially reduced the total amount of labor used in ag and facilitated the shift to larger crop farms.
Definition
-bigger and faster capital equipment
-information technology
-chemical herbicides
-seed genetics
-changing tillage techniques
Term
channels thru which federal policies may affect farm structure
Definition
-taxes
-lending programs
-environmental or food safety regulations
-research and development funding
-comodity programs
Term
In 2011, ______ of U.S. crop farms were family farms.
Definition
96%
Term
In 2011, family farms accounted for ______ of the value of crop production.
Definition
87%
Term
amount of C in ocean dissolved CO2
Definition
400 Gt
Term
amount of C in living biomass
Definition
600 Gt
Term
amount of C in atmospheric CO2
Definition
825 Gt
Term
amount of C in organic C in soils
Definition
2,500 Gt
Term
amount of C in fossil fuels
Definition
3,300 Gt
Term
amount of C in ocean bicarbonate ion
Definition
4,000 Gt
Term
amount of C in ocean bicarbonate ion
Definition
40,000 Gt
Term
amount of C in marine sediments and sedimentary rocks
Definition
100 million Gt
Term
Conservation tillage and cover crops may result in...
Definition
net C sequestration
Term
Intensive tillage results in...
Definition
C loss
Term
defining factors for potential C sequestration
Definition
-reactive surfaces
-depth
-bulk density
Term
limiting factors for attainable C sequestration
Definition
-rainfall
-temp
-light
Term
reducing factors for actual C sequestration
Definition
-soil management
-plant species/crop selection
-residue management
-soil and nutrient losses
-inefficient water and nutrient use
-disrupted biology/disease
Term
how to increase attainable soil C sequestration
Definition
optimize input and reduce losses
Term
how to increase potential soil C sequestration
Definition
add external sources of C
Term
solubility pump equations
Definition

CO2(g) <--> CO2(aq)

CO2(aq) + H2O <--> H2CO3

H2CO3 <--> H+ + HCO3-

HCO3- <--> H+ + CO32-

Term
forms of dissolved C in ocean
Definition

HCO 3- (90%)

CO32- (9%)

CO2 (aq) (1%)

Term
______ is responsible for about 75% of the concentration difference between surface and deep C.
Definition
the biological pump
Term
the carbons of concern for climate change
Definition
CO2, CO, and methane (CH4)
Term
How much of the food goes to waste?
Definition
40%
Term
If our waste food was used for compost,...
Definition
this would cut down on the methane
Term
enteric fermentation
Definition
basically the burping cows
Term
The natural world also produces methane, such as in...
Definition
wetlands
Term
sequester C by...
Definition
removing it from the atmosphere
Term
What does CO2 in atmosphere do to water?
Definition
makes it more acidic
Term
complex C
Definition
C in biological molecules
Term
exceeding C flux leads to...
Definition
more C in atmosphere
Term
More CO2 into ocean: good or bad?
Definition
bad
Term
Why is it important for soil to have moisture, but still have pore space?
Definition

-ideal for microbes and plants

-important for N and C mineralization

Term
Zero till ______ soil C.
Definition
increases
Term
We need to manage our grasslands to...
Definition
sequester C
Term
CO2: organic or inorganic?
Definition
inorganic
Term
Is it important to know where C is being stored?
Definition
yes
Term
There seems to be more C ______ ocean than ______. What does this do to the ocean?
Definition

going into it

leaving it

acidification

Term
most microbes need ______ conditions and ______ moisture
Definition

aerobic

some

Term
microbial activity vs. air space in soil
Definition
greater microbial activity w/ air space in soil
Term
zero till does this to soil organic C
Definition
builds it up
Term
the most resistant organic C
Definition
humin
Term
effect of an organic C based molecule's structure
Definition
can affect how long it takes to decompose
Term
What path do roots take?
Definition
the path of least resistance
Term
Soil organic matter does this to buffering capacity.
Definition
helps improve buffering capacity
Term
humic substances have a ______ dependent charge; helps in ______
Definition

pH

buffering soil

Term
more soil organic matter means _____ cation exchange capacity
Definition
higher
Term
some consequences of C imbalance
Definition
-ocean acidification
-global temp increase
-climate change
Term
10 indicators of a warming world
Definition
increasing:
-air temp near surface (troposphere)
-water vapor
-temp over oceans
-sea surface temp
-sea level
-temp over land
-ocean heat content
decreasing:
-glaciers
-snow cover
-sea ice
Term
There is more C going from ______ to ______ than vice versa.
Definition
terrestrial systems
the atmosphere
Term
How will climate change affect water demands?
Definition
will likely lead to higher water demands
Term
the 2 C stocks in the terrestrial level
Definition
living biomass and organic C in soils
Term
Chickens produce lots of this chemical due to such frequent egg laying.
Definition
17β estradiol
Term
soil organic matter helps do this to plant nutrients
Definition
make them more available
Term
international trade is (growing or shrinking), including ag
Definition
growing
Term
Why does demand for food seem to be declining in developed countries?
Definition
partly due to aging populations (older people eat less)
Term
world population predicted to be ______ by 2050
Definition
9 billion
Term
population may level out at ______
Definition
12 billion
Term
population seems to be growing fastest in...
Definition
low income countries
Term
______ of ______ people who live on less than $1 a day are malnourished
Definition
854 million of 1.1 billion
Term
This amount of money per day tends to maximize demand for raw ag commodities.
Definition
$2-$10 per day
Term
world food demand forecasted to ______ by 2050
Definition
double
Term
We have enough food to feed the world, but the main problem is...
Definition
distribution
Term
______% of land suitable for ag is in developed countries, but has only ______% of world's population
Definition
26%
14%
Term
how to double production on current ag land
Definition
continue work on technologies
Term
farmers use ______% of fresh water consumed in the world
Definition
70%
Term
Is water overused?
Definition
seems to be
Term
Why do food costs seem to be going up?
Definition
high cost inputs
Term
OEDC
Definition
Organization of Economic Development Countries
Term
the role of price
Definition
to put resources to their best possible use
Term
histosols in ______ areas
Definition
swampy
Term
quality of vertisol and histosol
Definition
pretty good
Term
bigger molecules are ______ resistant and smaller molecules are ______ resistant
Definition
more
less
Term
soils with ______ C have higher CO2 production
Definition
more
Term
To sequester more C, we need to do this in terms of getting it into the soil.
Definition
get it as deep as possible as well as the mid and upper layers
Term
Soil fertility is a matter of...
Definition
soil organic C
Term
Microbes often do this to N in soil.
Definition
tie it up
Term
decomposition does this in terms of N in the soil
Definition
makes it more available to plants
Term
C to N ratio (C:N)
Definition
(amount C)/(amount N)
Term
the perfect C:N ratios
Definition
15:1, 24:1, or 30:1

any of these 3 is accepted
Term
C:N content of nematodes
Definition
12:1 or 14:1
Term
C:N content of bacteria
Definition
8:1
Term
fungi and bacteria do this to N
Definition
incorporate it into themselves
Term
Fraction that flows in value-added form is (increasing or decreasing) faster than ______ commodities.
Definition
increasing
bulk
Term
U.S. produce ______% of world's cotton
Definition
20%
Term
U.S. produces ______% of world's corn
Definition
40%
Term
U.S. produces ______% of world's soybeans
Definition
38%
Term
U.S. produces ______% of world's wheat
Definition
9%
Term
U.S. produces ______% of world's rice
Definition
2%
Term
Do high income consumers eat more when their incomes rise further?
Definition
no
Term
According to U.N., what part of the world is forecasted to have the greatest population growth thru 2050?
Definition
Africa
Term
According to the U.N., what part of the world is forecasted to have a population decline thru 2050?
Definition
Europe
Term
range of U.N.'s population predictions for 2050
Definition
7.8-11.9 billion
Term
After about $______ per day, people buy more processing, services, packaging, variety, and luxury forms, but not more raw ag commodities.
Definition
$10
Term
How many people live on less than $2/day?
Definition
about 2.7 billion
Term
sources for projected world food demand
Definition
-50% increase from world population growth – all in developing countries
-50% increase from broad-based economic growth in low income countries
Term
the most important determinant of the future global demand for food
Definition
How many presently low income consumers are lifted out of poverty
Term
With these factors, many low-income countries’ food consumption will outstrip their production capacity, and they will become larger net importers.
Definition
-population growth
-urbanization
-economic development
Term
There is at most ______% more arable land available that isn’t presently forested or subject to erosion or desertification.
Definition
12%
Term
The area of land in farm production could be doubled, but these things would happen.
Definition
-massive destruction of forest
-loss of wildlife habitat
-biodiversity
-C sequestration capacity
Term
the only environmentally sustainable alternative to expanding agricultural land
Definition
to at least double productivity on the fertile, non-erodible soils already in crop production
Term
Distribution of Arable Land
Definition
[image]
Term
inherent land quality assessment
Definition
[image]
Term
With rapid urbanization, in many areas, cities are likely to ______ agriculture for available water.
Definition
outbid
Term
what biofuels will do to the water use challenge
Definition
add further to the challenge
Term
achieve as much productivity as possible by
Definition
-Improving nutrient absorption
-Optimizing water use
-Reducing competition from weeds for water, nutrients and sunlight
-Reducing losses from disease and insects
Term
increase genetic potential of...
Definition
-crops
-farming systems
-farm animals
Term
New technologies need to maintain ______ for farmers to want to adopt them.
Definition
a favorable cost/return policy
Term
Since ______, prophets of doom have argued that population growth will increase ______ faster than ______ can grow.
Definition
Malthus
food demand
ag production
Term
public and private sector investments in ______ have actually ______ productivity faster than ______
Definition
ag research
increased
demand growth
Term
other countries will continue to innovate to ______ in the production of agricultural commodities
Definition
improve their economic competitiveness
Term
to take advantage of the anticipated growth in demand, we must...
Definition
continue to aggressively innovate as well
Term
We will always have good and bad times, but this will enable a continued increase in farmers welfare.
Definition
economically sound productivity growth, particularly when coupled with a strong expansion in demand
Term
petagrams
Definition
1015 grams
Term
gigagrams
Definition
109 grams
Term
gigatons vs. petagrams
Definition
gigatons= petagrams
Term
The lithosphere has ______ petagrams of C.
Definition
65 million
Term
the atmosphere has ______ petagrams of C.
Definition
733
Term
the atmosphere has ______ petagrams of CO2
Definition
729
Term
the atmosphere has ______ petagrams of methane (CH4)
Definition
3.4
Term
the atmosphere has ______ petagrams of CO
Definition
0.2
Term
How much of global warming is estimated to be caused by methane emissions?
Definition
about 25%
Term
some major sources of methane
Definition
-natural gas and petroleum systems (29%)
-enteric fermentation (26%)
-landfills (18%)
-coal mining (10%)
-manure management (10%)
-other (8%)
Term
the primary component of natural gas, a common fuel source
Definition
methane
Term
Why are we concerned about methane?
Definition
If methane is allowed to leak into the air before being used—from a leaky pipe, for instance—it absorbs the sun’s heat, warming the atmosphere.
Term
Methane is ______ times more potent than carbon dioxide.
Definition
84
Term
There's ______ petagrams of oceanic C.
Definition
38,433
Term
In ocean, there's ______ petagrams of dissolved, inorganic C.
Definition
37,400
Term
In ocean, there's ______ petagrams of dissolved organic C.
Definition
1,000
Term
In ocean, there's ______ petagrams of particulate organic C.
Definition
30
Term
In ocean, there's ______ petagrams of C in biota.
Definition
3
Term
Terrestrial level contains ______ petagrams of C.
Definition
2,280
Term
terrestrial biota contains ______ petagrams of C
Definition
560
Term
terrestrial litter contains ______ petagrams of C
Definition
60
Term
terrestrial soils contain ______ petagrams of C
Definition
1,500
Term
terrestrial peat contains ______ petagrams of C
Definition
160
Term
breakdown of terrestrial C
Definition
-biota (25%)
-litter (3%)
-soils (66%)
-peat (7%)
Term
areas of focus on terrestrial C
Definition
biota and soils
Term
Most active reserves of carbon
Definition

-Atmospheric CO2

-Dissolved forms of CO2

-organic matter

Term
Dissolved forms of CO2
Definition

-Carbonic acid [H2CO3]

-Bicarbonate [HCO3-]

-Carbonate [CO3-2]

Term
the 2 parts of the carbon makeover
Definition
transformation and transport
Term
2 biological processes by which C is transformed
Definition
-photosynthesis
-mineralization and decomposition
Term
photosynthesis
Definition

-Autotrophic organisms

-plants and algae that convert CO2 into carbohydrates using energy from sunlight (carbon fixation)

Term
mineralization and decomposition
Definition

-Heterotrophic organisms – animals that cannot fix their own energy, they convert energy contained in organic compounds to CO2

-Upon the death of plants or animals they are consumed by microorganisms and transformed into microbial cells, carbonaceous compounds such as humus or soil organic matter, and released back to the atmosphere or soil as CO2 and CH4

Term
autotrophic organisms
Definition
plants and algae that convert CO2 into carbohydrates using energy from sunlight (carbon fixation)
Term
heterotrophic organisms
Definition
animals that cannot fix their own energy, they convert energy contained in organic compounds to CO2
Term
pedosphere
Definition
basically the soil
Term
the carbon cycle in vegetation and soil
Definition
[image]
Term
carbon cycle
Definition
[image]
Term
photosynthesis and respiration
Definition
[image]
Term
how carbon is transported
Definition
carbon fluxes
Term
types of carbon fluxes
Definition
-Photosynthesis
-Plant and Animal respiration
-Microbial decomposition and mineralization
-Fossil fuel combustion
-Water transport
-Haying
-You eating a big juicy hamburger
Term
major C fluxes
Definition
-atmosphere to land
-land to atmosphere
-land to ocean
-atmosphere to ocean
-ocean to atmosphere
-biotic turnover within ocean
-ocean to lithosphere
Term
types of land to atmosphere carbon fluxes
Definition
-soil respiration
-fossil fuel combustion
-deforestation
Term
types of land to ocean carbon fluxes
Definition
-inorganic river transport
-organic river transport
Term
types of biotic turnover carbon fluxes within ocean
Definition
-detritus fallout of surface water
-circulation of surface into deeper water
-circulation of deeper into surface water
Term
types of ocean to lithosphere carbon fluxes
Definition
-inorganic sedimentation
-organic sedimentation
Term
main carbon flows
Definition
[image]
Term
plants and soil carbon flow
Definition
[image]
Term
fossil fuels carbon flow
Definition
[image]
Term
oceans carbon flow
Definition
[image]
Term
factors that can help regulate carbon fluxes
Definition
-Temperature (range varies with organism)
-Moisture (goldilocks)
-Organisms
Term
typical effect of temp on microbial activity
Definition
maximum microbial activity at about 37°C
Term
where forests store carbon
Definition
mostly in above ground standing stock
Term
where grasslands store carbon
Definition
have greater yearly inputs below ground into soil
Term
breakdown of soil organic matter (SOM)
Definition

-65 to 75% is humic substances, which are resistant to decomposition > 10years

-10 to 30% polysaccharide- and protein-like, decompose more rapidly < 10 years

-1 to 15% living organisms, primarily bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, nematodes, and protozoan

Term
how soil organic matter improves soil physical properties
Definition
-Soil particles into aggregates
-Improving aeration
-Decreasing bulk density
-Increasing water-holding capacity
Term
improved soil physical properties lead to...
Definition
-Increased infiltration of water and -associated amendments
-Greater rooting capacity
-Overall greater water and nutrient use efficiency
Term
how soil organic matter improves soil chemical properties
Definition
-Buffers against pH changes
-Increases in cation and
anion exchanges which are essential to the retention of nutrients within the rooting zone
-Serves as a reservoir of slow-release nutrients,
-Can transform potential harmful materials into not toxic materials
-acts as a macro-nutrient reservoir
-acts as a micro-nutrient reservoir
Term
how humic substances in soil buffer against pH changes
Definition
[image]
Term
Soil organic matter can be a reservoir for these macro-nutrients.
Definition
-Nitrogen
-phosphorus
-potassium
-calcium
-magnesium
-sulfur
Term
Soil organic matter can be a reservoir for these micro-nutrients.
Definition
-Iron
-manganese
-zinc
-copper
-boron
-molybdenum
-cobalt
-chloride
Term
biological functioning of soil organic matter
Definition
the mainsource of food and energy
for soil organisms
Term
microbial biomass in temperate grasslands
Definition
1-2 t/ha
Term
types of organisms found in soil
Definition
-tiniest one-celled bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoa,
-more complex nematodes and micro-arthropods,
-visible earthworms, insects, small vertebrates, and plants
Term
chart showing the importance of soil organic carbon
Definition
[image]
Term
resistant fractions of soil organic carbon
Definition
control physical and chemical properties
Term
active fractions of soil organic carbon
Definition
control biological and chemical properties
Term
soil carbon varies with...
Definition
soil taxonomy
Term
Soil organic carbon varies with...
Definition
depth and management
Term
functions of organic carbon in soil
Definition
[image]
Term
Amount of carbon fixed by plants depends largely on...
Definition
-Availability of nutrients
-Adequate sunlight
-Temperature
-Moisture
Term
Decomposition of plant and animal residues is strongly controlled by...
Definition
-Moistures (atmospheric and soil)
-Amount of nitrogen and phosphorus
-Proportion of N and P (see graph 4.7 in cycles)
Term
C:N ratio of microorganisms
Definition
generally 5:1 to 15:1
Term
C:N ratio of plant residues is usually (higher or lower?).
Definition
higher
Term
C:N ratio is critical for ______ of N.
Definition
plant utilization
Term
activity of micro-organisms vs. plant available nitrate supply
Definition
inversely related
Term
C:N ratios and soil cover management choices must strike a balance between ______ and ______.
Definition
crop residues covering the soil
nutrient cycling
Term
N won't become available to plants until...
Definition
the needs of the microorganisms have been met
Term
C:N ratio of rye straw
Definition
82:1
Term
C:N ratio of wheat straw
Definition
80:1
Term
C:N ratio of oat straw
Definition
70:1
Term
C:N ratio of corn stover
Definition
57:1
Term
C:N ratio of rye cover crop (anthesis)
Definition
37:1
Term
C:N ratio of pea straw
Definition
29:1
Term
C:N ratio of rye cover crop (vegetative)
Definition
26:1
Term
C:N ratio of mature alfalfa hay
Definition
25:1
Term
C:N ratio of ideal microbial diet
Definition
24:1
Term
C:N ratio of rotted barnyard manure
Definition
20:1
Term
C:N ratio of legume hay
Definition
17:1
Term
C:N ratio of beef manure
Definition
17:1
Term
C:N ratio of young alfalfa hay
Definition
13:1
Term
C:N ratio of hairy vetch cover crop
Definition
11:1
Term
C:N ratio of soil microbes (average)
Definition
8:1
Term
speed of decay vs. C:N ratio
Definition
the higher the C:N ratio, the slower the decay
Term
some compost pile materials
Definition
-autumn leaves
-grass clippings
-manure
-paper
-pine needles
-sawdust
-straw
-vegetable scraps
Term
C:N ratio of autumn leaves
Definition
40-80:1
Term
C:N ratio of grass clippings
Definition
20-25:1
Term
C:N ratio of manure
Definition
14:1
Term
C:N ratio of paper
Definition
170:1
Term
C:N ratio of pine needles
Definition
60-110:1
Term
C:N ratio of sawdust
Definition
400-500:1
Term
C:N ratio of straw
Definition
50-100:1
Term
C:N ratio of vegetable scraps
Definition
25:1
Term
primary production
Definition
the synthesis and storage of organic molecules during the growth and reproduction of photosynthetic organisms. The core idea is that new chemical compounds and new plant tissue are produced. Over time, primary production results in the addition of new plant biomass to the system. Consumers derive their energy from primary producers, either directly (herbivores, some detritivores), or indirectly (predators, other detritivores).
Term
decomposition
Definition
When a plant, animal, or insect dies, that plant, animal, or insect is broken into tiny pieces and those pieces become part of the soil.
Term
consumption
Definition
Plant and animal uptake or adsorption in this case carbon.
Term
As commonly used in regard to the Footprint, consumption refers to ______.
Definition
the use of goods or services
Term
biocapacity
Definition
The capacity of ecosystems to regenerate what people demand from those surfaces. Life, including human life, competes for space. The biocapacity of a particular surface represents its ability to renew what people demand. Biocapacity is therefore the ecosystems' capacity to produce biological materials used by people and to absorb waste material generated by humans, under current management schemes and extraction technologies.
Term
about how many global hectares of biologically productive land per person?
Definition
1.72 global hectares
Term
global hectare (gha)
Definition
Global hectares are the accounting unit for the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity accounts. These biologically weighted productivity(s) (weighted biologically productive hectares) allow researchers to report both the biocapacity of the earth or a region and the demand on biocapacity (the Ecological Footprint). A global hectare is a biologically productive hectare with world average biological productivity for a given year.
Term
Why are global hectares needed?
Definition
because different types of land have different productivities
Term
area of global hectare vs. biological productivity
Definition
inversely related
Term
ecological footprint
Definition
A measure of how much area of biologically productive land and water an individual, population or activity requires to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it generates, using prevailing technology and resource management practices.
Term
ecological footprint usually measured in...
Definition
global hectares
Term
ecological deficit/reserve
Definition
The difference between the biocapacity and Ecological Footprint of a region or country. An ecological deficit occurs when the Footprint of a population exceeds the biocapacity of the area available to that population. Conversely, an ecological reserve exists when the biocapacity of a region exceeds its population's Footprint. If there is a regional or national ecological deficit, it means that the region is importing biocapacity through trade or liquidating regional ecological assets, or emitting wastes into a global commons such as the atmosphere.
Term
the biocapacity of a particular surface represents...
Definition
its ability to renew what people demand
Term
When does an ecological deficit occur?
Definition
when the Footprint of a population exceeds the biocapacity of the area available to that population.
Term
When does an ecological reserve exist?
Definition
when the biocapacity of a region exceeds its population's Footprint.
Term
Biocapacity per person varies each year with these factors.
Definition
-ecosystem management
-agricultural practices (such as fertilizer use and irrigation)
-ecosystem degradation
-weather
-population size
Term
footprint per person varies with...
Definition
-consumption amounts
-production efficiency
Term
The quality of the assessment is scored on...
Definition
a 1-6 scale
Term
Which countries have ecological deficits?
Definition
-USA
-Italy
-Costa Rica (used to have reserve)
-Romania
Term
Which countries have ecological reserves?
Definition
-Brazil
-Colombia
-Uruguay
Term
ecological wealth of nations and the global footprints considers...
Definition
-ecological capacity
-management capacity
-capacity building
Term
capacity building
Definition
-Human resource development, the process of equipping individuals with the understanding, skills and access to information, knowledge and training that enables them to perform effectively.
-Organizational development, the elaboration of management structures, processes and procedures, not only within organizations but also the management of relationships between the different organizations and sectors (public, private and community).
-Institutional and legal framework development, making legal and regulatory changes to enable organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels and in all sectors to enhance their capacities.
-Training individuals, setting up networks and policy
Term
common ecosystems in order of productivity per unit area
Definition
1: estuaries
2: swamps and marshes
3: tropical rain forest
4: temperate forest
5: northern coniferous forest (taiga)
6: savanna
7: ag land
8: woodland and shrubland
9: temperate grassland
10: lakes and streams
11: continental shelf
12: tundra (arctic and alpine)
13: open ocean
14: desert scrub
15: extreme desert
Term
net primary production of various ecosystems
Definition
1: open ocean
2: tropical rain forest
3: temperate forest
4: savanna
5: northern coniferous forest (taiga)
6: continental shelf
7: ag land
8: temperate grassland
9: woodland and shrubland
10: estuaries
11: swamps and marshes
12: desert scrub
13: lakes and streams
14: tundra (arctic and alpine)
15: extreme desert
Term
some internal carbon sources
Definition

-insect consumers

-crops

-mineral N pool

-weeds

-residue

-soil organic matter

Term
some external carbon sources
Definition
-fertilizer
-precipitation
-harvest
-canopy solution
-denitrification/fixation
-seeds
-leaching
Term
In quality of assessment, ______ is the best.
Definition
6
Term
Are we exceeding our biocapacity?
Definition
yes
Term
What does water tend to do to temperature changes?
Definition
buffer them
Term
In the 100 questions, what were the driving factors and why did sustainability become important?
Definition
-expected population of 9 billion by 2050
-more than 1 billion people who suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition
-barriers to food access and distribution, particularly in the poorest regions
-climate change
Term
Earthworms provide this to soil
Definition
aeration and room for roots to grow
Term
The ______ C you add to soil, the ______ life forms like to use it.
Definition
more
more
Term
compost can help reactivate...
Definition
soil biology
Term
improving the soil leads to... [this regarding water]
Definition
less runoff and more infiltration
Term
improving the soil can help do this regarding GMO's
Definition
negate the need for some of them
Term
overgrazing leads to... [regarding soil]
Definition
increased erosion
Term
______ given to cattle kills dung beetle.
Definition
pariticides
Term
how manure benefits soil
Definition
returns nutrients to soil
Term
this animal product returns nutrients to soil
Definition
manure
Term
synthetic nitrogen is costly in terms of...
Definition
energy
Term
Introducing this can help reduce nitrate leaching by 70%.
Definition
cover crops
Term
How many lbs of pesticide per person do we have?
Definition
more than 4
Term
something bad nitrates can do to your body
Definition
reduce your body's defenses
Term
Soil is made of this.
Definition
weathered parent material and organic matter
Term
How much of the soil's total volume is made of soil organisms/biota?
Definition
less than 1%
Term
types of soil organisms:
Definition
-bacteria
-fungi
-protozoa
-algae
-nematodes
-tardigrades
-arthropods
-springtails
-earthworms
Term
soils are home to [this amount] of the living species on Earth
Definition
1/4th
Term
1 teaspoon of soil has how many species?
Definition
thousands
Term
In soil, this is the relationship between size and abundance.
Definition
the smaller, the more of it there is
Term
How many fungi are there in the soil? (amount, not species)
Definition
seems to be hard to quantify the number of fungi in soil
Term
essential services provided by soil organisms
Definition
-nutrient cycling
-soil formation
-primary production
Term
soil factors that affect biodiversity
Definition
-aggregates (more pore space)
-soil organic matter
-pH
-diversity of flora
-soil texture
Term
Do healthy soil ecosystems help maintain soil?
Definition
yes
Term
This breaks things down into smaller building blocks.
Definition
decomposition
Term
Can microbes help plants grow?
Definition
yes
Term
mineralization
Definition
turning things into mineral form
Term
bacteria and fungi break down organic matter and leave behind ______
Definition
humus
Term
______ break down organic matter and leave behind humus
Definition
bacteria and fungi
Term
Is phosphorous available in the atmosphere?
Definition
no
Term
Is tilling good or bad for soil microbes?
Definition
bad
Term
compaction gets rid of too many...
Definition
macropores
Term
pesticides that kill insects also kill...
Definition
microbes carried by them
Term
Solarization is (organic or inorganic), but also does this.
Definition
organic
kills bacteria
Term
Can cover crops and crop rotations affect the mix of microbes in soil?
Definition
yes
Term
Where do you have a chance to manage carbon?
Definition
where the carbon fluxes occur
Term
ag waste
Definition
waste produced as a result of various agricultural operations
Term
Can you grow old lettuce?
Definition
yes
Term
examples of ag waste
Definition
•Manure and other wastes from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses;
•In field waste (failed and unharnessed product);
•Harvest and after harvest waste;
•Market waste and after market waste;
•Fertilizer run- off from fields;
•Pesticides and other contaminants that enter into water, air or soils from agricultural fields; and
•Salt and silt drained from fields.
•Mill or sawdust waste
•Farm production waste
•Restaurant waste
Term
food system simplified
Definition
[image]
Term
over 50% of the food produced today is lost... [at these phases]
Definition
during agricultural production and post-harvest
Term
breakdown of where the food wastage happens
Definition
[image]
Term
breakdown of North American food production losses
Definition
[image]
Term
breakdown of North American postharvest, handling, and storage losses
Definition
[image]
Term
breakdown of North American processing and packaging losses
Definition
[image]
Term
breakdown of North American distribution and retail losses
Definition
[image]
Term
breakdown of North American consumer losses
Definition
[image]
Term
per capita food waste in different parts of the world
Definition
[image]
Term
some waste harvest drivers
Definition
-Waeather/disease
-Market conditions
-Buyer quality standards
-Labor shortages
Term
how weather/disease is a waste harvest driver
Definition
Natural phenomena harm crops and lead to excess planting to hedge against this risk.
Term
how market conditions are a waste harvest driver
Definition
A crop’s price at time of harvest may not warrant the labor and transport costs required to bring the product to market.
Term
how buyer quality standards are a waste harvest driver
Definition
Selective harvest for minimum quality standards and shelf life leads to crops’ being left in the field.
Term
how labor shortages are a waste harvest driver
Definition
Where harvest timing is critical, a labor shortage leads to lower harvest rate. Food safety scares. Public fear related to food safety for specific products can lead to huge losses.
Term
some waste harvest solutions
Definition

-Revision of quality standards to encompass wider array of appearances

-Expansion of secondary markets for items with cosmetic damage

-Farm-level food recovery via paid “concurrent picking”

-Regulatory measures that incentivize complete harvest

-Regional food networks, leading to less transport and likely less culling for short-lived and damaged products

Term
how trimming is a waste processing driver
Definition
This includes removal of both edible portions (peels, skin, fat) and inedible portions (bones, pits, etc.).
Term
how processing efficiency is a waste processing driver
Definition
While most operations are quite efficient, some steps may lose more food and goods than necessary.
Term
some waste processing drivers
Definition
-Trimming
-Processing efficiency
Term
some waste processing solutions
Definition
-Reengineering production processes and product designs -Secondary uses for trimmings, byproducts and peels where not already being employed
Term
some waste distribution drivers
Definition
-improper handling
-inconsistent refrigeration
-rejected shipments
Term
how improper handling is a waste distribution driver
Definition
Various kinds of mishandling, such as deliveries needing refrigeration that sit too long on the loading dock, can damage products.
Term
how inconsistent refrigeration is a waste distribution driver
Definition
Truck breakdowns and other mishaps can lead to spoilage due to lack of refrigeration.
Term
how rejected shipments are a waste distribution driver
Definition
By the time a shipment is rejected, its contents have a shorter shelf life and may be difficult to sell before spoiling.
Term
some waste distribution solutions
Definition
-Proper training for handling and storage
-Online solutions to facilitate sale or donation of rejected shipments
Term
some waste retail (in-store) drivers
Definition
-food displays
-ready-made food
-label dates
-pack size too large
-discarded product
-low staffing
Term
how food displays are a waste retail (in-store) driver
Definition
Excessive products may be displayed in order to create the effect of abundance, which is believed to increase sales. There can also be overstocking, over-trimming, and improper stock rotation.
Term
how ready-made food is a waste retail (in-store) driver
Definition
Increases in this perishable category lead to greater discards at end of day.
Term
how label dates are a waste retail (in-store) driver
Definition
Products that pass their “sell by” dates are removed from shelves.
Term
how pack size being too large is a waste retail (in-store) driver
Definition
Inflexible pack sizes lead to stores’ ordering more than they expect to sell.
Term
how discarded products are a waste retail (in-store) driver
Definition
The passing of holidays, promotion expiration, a high failure rate for new food products, and damaged packaging all lead to discarded product.
Term
how low staffing is a waste retail (in-store) driver
Definition
With tight staffing, there is less labor to prepare food on-site and therefore less flexibility in repurposing minimally damaged products.
Term
some waste retail (in-store) solutions
Definition

-Item-level analyses to identify opportunities to reduce SKUs or change ordering patterns

-Discount offerings for out-of-date promotional items or slightly damaged goods.

-Product display redesign using platforms and other props to make produce bins appear more full Increased donations

-Allowing prepared foods to run out near closing; more repurposing of foods.

Term
the categories of waste beyond stores drivers
Definition
-upstream
-downstream
Term
some upstream waste beyond stores drivers
Definition
-Cosmetic standards
-Rejected shipments
-Contract terms
Term
how cosmetic standards are an upstream waste beyond storage driver
Definition
Aesthetic requirements imposed by the market lead to nonharvest and culling of edible produce upstream.
Term
how rejected shipments are an upstream waste beyond storage driver
Definition
By the time a shipment is rejected, its contents have a shorter shelf life and may be difficult to sell before spoiling.
Term
how contract terms are an upstream waste beyond storage driver
Definition
Rigid contract terms can cause growers to overplant to make sure contracts are fulfilled.
Term
some downstream waste beyond stores drivers
Definition
Impulse/bulk promotions
Term
how impulse/bulk promotions are a waste beyond store driver
Definition
Marketing and bulk promotions can lead consumers to purchase unnecessary goods that ultimately are not eaten once in the home
Term
categories of waste beyond store solutions
Definition
-upstream
-downstream
Term
some upstream waste beyond store solutions
Definition
-Increased flexibility in contract terms and grading standards
-Experimental offerings of lower-cosmetic-grade produce to determine viability
-Realigned promotions that discount blemished or soon-to expire goods, or offer half off instead of 2-for-1 deals, etc.
Term
some downstream waste beyond store solutions
Definition

-Consumer education on food quality and expiration (“sell by” dates, blemishes, and so on)

-Closed dating codes on product so customers are not confused by “sell by” dates.

Term
food consumed vs. food loss
Definition
[image]
Term
Building biodiversity can help improve this for an ecosystem.
Definition
ecosystem resistance
Term
Building biodiversity is part of this approach.
Definition
holist
Term
Which ecosystem is richer: one where there's equal amounts of each species or one where one species takes up the majority?
Definition
one where there's equal amounts of each species
Term
patterns of biodiversity
Definition
-evolutionary
-geographical
-insular
-climate
-ag intensification
Term
evolutionary pattern of biodiversity
Definition
occasional mass extinctions and frequent local extinctions
Term
How many species are there?
Definition
estimated 3-30 million
Term
What percent of species live in the tropics?
Definition
50-90%
Term
incidence of biodiversity threat
Definition
risk of losing biodiversity
Term
Higher or lower biodiversity at high altitude?
Definition
lower
Term
Soil biodiversity does this with respect to latitude.
Definition
decreases with decreasing latitude and increases with increasing latitude
Term
Why does soil biodiversity tend to decrease with decreasing latitude?
Definition
might be because of oxisols and ultisols, which are poor
Term
Most biodiversity in tropics is in...
Definition
top 1 inch of soil and above
Term
temperature where there's the most biodiversity
Definition
between 10°C and 20°C
Term
biodiversity vs. moisture and temp
Definition
biodiversity tends to increase with moisture and temp
Term
evapotranspiration does this with respect to biodiversity
Definition
high evapotranspiration promotes biodiversity
Term
Do monocultures have less biodiversity?
Definition
they tend to
Term
what biodiversity does to disease carriers
Definition
high biodiversity tends to keep disease carriers in check
Term
biodiversity vs. resilience
Definition
the more biodiversity, the more resilient
Term
four factors of production
Definition
-land
-labor
-capital
-management
Term
land pertaining to agriculture
Definition
Number and quality of acres available
Term
factors that affect number and quality of acres available to agriculture
Definition
-Crop land
-Pasture/range
-Timber
-Waste
Term
factors of labor pertaining to agriculture
Definition
-Days/weeks/or hours available
-Seasonal availability
-Quality – is some labor better suited to crop or livestock?
Term
changes and adjustments pertaining to ag production
Definition
1.Local Harvest
2.Food Hubs
3.Portable/cooperative slaughter facilities.
4.Cooperative or collaborative efforts among producers.
5.Government retreat from farm policy.
-More focus on reducing risk, crop insurance.
6.Training on marketing.
Term
Building biodiversity can help improve this for an ecosystem.
Definition
ecosystem resistance
Term
Building biodiversity is part of this approach.
Definition
holist
Term
Which ecosystem is richer: one where there's equal amounts of each species or one where one species takes up the majority?
Definition
one where there's equal amounts of each species
Term
patterns of biodiversity
Definition
-evolutionary
-geographical
-insular
-climate
-ag intensification
Term
evolutionary pattern of biodiversity
Definition
occasional mass extinctions and frequent local extinctions
Term
How many species are there?
Definition
estimated 3-30 million
Term
What percent of species live in the tropics?
Definition
50-90%
Term
incidence of biodiversity threat
Definition
risk of losing biodiversity
Term
Higher or lower biodiversity at high altitude?
Definition
lower
Term
Soil biodiversity does this with respect to latitude.
Definition
decreases with decreasing latitude and increases with increasing latitude
Term
Why does soil biodiversity tend to decrease with decreasing latitude?
Definition
might be because of oxisols and ultisols, which are poor
Term
Most biodiversity in tropics is in...
Definition
top 1 inch of soil and above
Term
temperature where there's the most biodiversity
Definition
between 10°C and 20°C
Term
biodiversity vs. moisture and temp
Definition
biodiversity tends to increase with moisture and temp
Term
evapotranspiration does this with respect to biodiversity
Definition
high evapotranspiration promotes biodiversity
Term
Do monocultures have less biodiversity?
Definition
they tend to
Term
what biodiversity does to disease carriers
Definition
high biodiversity tends to keep disease carriers in check
Term
biodiversity vs. resilience
Definition
the more biodiversity, the more resilient
Term
four factors of production
Definition
-land
-labor
-capital
-management
Term
land pertaining to agriculture
Definition
Number and quality of acres available
Term
factors that affect number and quality of acres available to agriculture
Definition
-Crop land
-Pasture/range
-Timber
-Waste
Term
factors of labor pertaining to agriculture
Definition
-Days/weeks/or hours available
-Seasonal availability
-Quality – is some labor better suited to crop or livestock?
Term
changes and adjustments pertaining to ag production
Definition
1.Local Harvest
2.Food Hubs
3.Portable/cooperative slaughter facilities.
4.Cooperative or collaborative efforts among producers.
5.Government retreat from farm policy.
-More focus on reducing risk, crop insurance.
6.Training on marketing.
Term
values regarding management
Definition

SIFU

-intrinsic

-utilitarian

-serependic

-functional

Term
Why is a more biodiverse habitat more resilient?
Definition
because it's more likely to make an adjustment
Term
Vegetative cover can help do this regarding soil water absorption.
Definition
can help improve soil water absorption
Term
the feedback you want for actors
Definition
positive feedback for good actors and negative feedback for bad actors
Term
Is diversity of diet important?
Definition
yes
Term
one way to improve the diversity of diet
Definition
vary sources of protein
Term
Having a diverse food web means this for pests.
Definition
good predation on pests
Term
Having a balanced and diverse microbial system means this for disease.
Definition
less disease
Term
Different crops means this for results.
Definition
more opportunity for success and less opportunity for failure
Term
Domains of social sustainability
Definition
-Safety
-Health
-Food security
-Equity
-Connectedness
Term
It’s only when ______ that we can actively pursue other areas of sustainability.
Definition
the basic needs are met
Term
the common denominator for all the official definitions of sustainability
Definition
access to food and nutrition such that people can live active and healthy lives
Term
This country could be the perfect storm for food insecurity.
Definition
Haiti
Term
Reduction of tariffs in the 1990’s led to this for Haiti.
Definition
Haiti importing most of its rice and most of its food
Term
Most of the funding for Food Aid is in...
Definition
the Farm Bill
Term
short term solution for Haiti's food crisis
Definition
supplying them with food
Term
long term solution for Haiti's food crisis
Definition
Haiti producing its own food
Term
The ultimate objective of food aid should be...
Definition
to eliminate the need for food aid
Term
the kind of control Haitian farmers want
Definition
Farmers in Haiti want to control what happens to native crops in Haiti
Term
Can plant species biodiversity have an impact on sustainability?
Definition
yes
Term
Do different plants have different root structures?
Definition
yes
Term
some things to consider for plant biodiversity
Definition
-Root systems
-How they get along
-Canopy
-Chickory can help build porosity in soil
-Rye grass can help get nitrates in the system
-Managing water, sunlight, and nutrition
Term
When you add plant diversity, you also add this.
Definition
a diversity of carbon
Term
Basil might do this for tomatoes.
Definition
fend off tomato horn worm
Term
name a plant with allelopathic properties
Definition
rye
Term
When doing intercropping, you gotta know...
Definition
what the properties of the different crops are
Term
biotrophic fungi
Definition
in this context, it refers to fungi that consume nitrogen fixing bacteria and other things that might provide the same functions
Term
how connectedness can be bad
Definition
if it facilitates the spread of pathogens
Term
2 plants that attract natural enemies to pests
Definition
marigold and basil
Term
As tomatoes get bigger, they do this for lettuce.
Definition
shade lettuce
Term
Does cereal rye have allelopathic properties?
Definition
yes
Term
What does cereal rye do regarding environment?
Definition
It affects its environment and what it wants to coexist with
Term
push-pull regarding agriculture
Definition

combo of attractant and deterrent

Pushes it away from the crop and holds on to it

Term
one of the best ways to feed the pollinators all year long
Definition
Native seed sources
Term
Should riparian buffers be harvestable and cycling?
Definition
might wanna be
Term
how chinaberry can function as an insecticide
Definition
in boiled form and the fumes are incredibly toxic to pests, but still disrupts soil biota
Term
what big fibrous root system does regarding water and erosion
Definition

-slows down water

-reduces erosion

Term
Pruning legumes induces...
Definition
release of nitrogen into the soil
Term
Do rivers leave terraces?
Definition
they tend to
Term
one good effect of roots breaking thru the hard pan
Definition
can help increase water holding capacity
Term
For predators to work, you have to...
Definition
make sure they have a similar life cycle to their prey
Term
Regarding diversity, reductionists ask...
Definition
What are the problems the farmer faces and how can I help solve them?
Term
Regarding diversity, holists ask...
Definition
How can we manage the agroecosystem to prevent problems from arising in the first place?
or
Where are we and where do we go next?
Term
biodiversity
Definition
Quantity of plant and animal species found in a given environment.
Term
these are also considered types of biodiversity
Definition
-habitat diversity
-genetic diversity
Term
habitat diversity
Definition
the variety of places where organisms live
Term
genetic diversity
Definition
the variety of traits expressed within a species
Term
Biodiversity is often measured as...
Definition
species abundance and richness
Term
patterns by which biodiversity manifests itself
Definition
•Evolutionary pattern
•Geographical pattern
•Insular
•Climate
•Agricultural Intensification
Term
Why might species diversity manifest in Patterns?
Definition
1. These patterns are a result of community structures or
2. membership in ecological communities were limited by:
Competition,
Predation, and
Mutualism
Term
evolutionary pattern of biodiversity
Definition

Tends to increase and then undergo massive and rapid extinctions at periodic intervals

•Extinction is a major fact of biology

•While the massive extinctions associated with the end of each geological period are truly spectacular, a more important fact is that local extinctions occur all the time.

•These local extinctions are an important part of the ecological side of our story

Term
Multicellular organisms arrived... [when?]
Definition
about 1 billion years ago
Term
advantage of being multicellular
Definition
Multicellular organisms that developed cell-to-cell communication flourished …. Were able to adapt and sustain!
Term
severity of today’s rate of extinction
Definition
on the order of past mass extinctions
Term
How many species are there on Earth?
Definition
Estimated 3-30 million species
on Earth
Term
How many species live in tropical regions?
Definition
50-90% of the world’s species
Term
geographical pattern of biodiversity
Definition
Biodiversity tends to increase with decreasing latitude and altitude
Term
geographic pattern of soil biodiversity
Definition
It decreases with decreasing latitude
Term
climate pattern of biodiversity
Definition
-Biodiversity increases with increased Temperature and Moisture
-biodiversity peaks at mean air temp of 14°C (57°F)
Term
biodiversity vs. evapotranspiration
Definition
the more evapotranspiration, the more tree species richness
Term
evapotranspiration vs. biodiversity
Definition
high evapotranspiration promotes biodiversity
Term
insular pattern of biodiversity
Definition
Tends to decrease on islands when the islands is smaller or more distant from the mainland
Term
intensification pattern of biodiversity
Definition
Tends to decrease as the intensity of ecosystems management increases
Term
Odum said this about biodiversity in agroecosystems
Definition
Diversity is greatly reduced compared with many natural ecosystems
Term
management intensity vs. biodiversity
Definition
inversely proportional
Term
values pertaining to biodiversity
Definition

SIFU

Intrinsic, Utilitarian, Serependic, and Functional

Term
intrinsic values
Definition
comprises cultural, social, aesthetic, and ethical benefits (non-use)
Term
utilitarian values
Definition
subsistence and commercial benefits of species or their genes derived by one or more sectors or societies (direct or primary use)
Term
serependic values
Definition
future yet unknown value to future generations (bequest opportunity)
Term
functional values
Definition

contributes to ecosystem life support functions and the preservation of ecological structure and integrity (support)

Contributes to well-being of the ecosystem

Term
why biodiversity is important
Definition

contributes to ecosystem life support functions and the preservation of ecological structure and integrity (support)

Contributes to well-being of the ecosystem

Term
the 7 principles of building resilience in social and ecological systems
Definition
1) maintain diversity and redundancy,
2) manage connectivity,
3) manage slow variables and feedbacks,
4) foster complex adaptive systems thinking,
5) encourage learning,
6) broaden participation, and
7) promote polycentric governance systems.
Term
how to maintain diversity and redundancy
Definition
•Ecologically to maintain Ecosystem Services
•But as well to maintain economic resilience
Term
Why manage connectivity?
Definition
to build biodiversity and resilience
Term
positive spatial auto correlation
Definition
those things closer together are most similar
Term
negative spatial auto correlation
Definition
those things close together are least similar
Term
The major opportunity for both maintaining ecosystem services and biodiversity outside conservation areas lies in...
Definition
promoting diversity of land-use at the landscape and farm scale rather than at the field scale.
Term
diversity in agroecosystems vs. biodiversity
Definition
As diversity in Agroecosystems goes up Biodiversity Goes up!
Term
How can we manage slow variables and feedbacks?
Definition
The key challenge in managing slow variables and feedback is identifying the key slow variables and feedbacks that maintain the social-ecological regimes which produce desired ecosystem services, and identifying where the critical thresholds lie that can lead to a reconfiguration of the system.
Term
Once the slow variables and feedbacks are known, even tentatively, the following guidelines can be applied:
Definition
•Strengthen feedbacks that maintain desirable regimes.
•Monitor important slow variables.
•Establish governance structures that can respond to monitoring information.
Term
why biodiversity enhances ecosystem function
Definition
different species or genotypes perform slightly different functions (have different niches)
Term
how biodiversity is neutral or negative
Definition
there are many more species than there are functions and thus redundancy is built into the system
Term
how redundancy is built into a system
Definition
Biodiversity is neutral or negative in that there are many more species than there are functions
Term
another reason biodiversity enhances ecosystem function
Definition
those components that appear redundant at one point in time become important when some environmental change occurs
Term
genetic diversity
Definition
the variation within and between species populations
Term
species diversity
Definition
species richness, that is the number of species in a site, habitat, ecological zone or at global scale
Term
ecosystem diversity
Definition
the diversity of assemblages (and their environment) over a defined landscape, ecological zone or at global scale
Term
some positives for biodiversity
Definition
1.Not all your eggs are in one basket or more opportunity to reap a successful harvest
2.Having a diverse food web for predation of pests
3.Having a diverse and balanced microbial community results in less disease
4.Different crops equals more opportunity for success and less risk of loosing everything
5.Human nutrition is improved with a more diverse diet
6.Multispecies results in more opportunity for survivability
7.More biodiversity more products to sell
8.Biodiversity helps build soil fertility rotating cover crops
9.Without biodiversity we would create a bottleneck by reducing our ability to recover from a vector that takes out that monocrop
10.If only one source of seed then that source becomes the only choice and can dictate price for that seed.
Term
a positive of having a diverse food web
Definition
predation of pests
Term
a positive of having a diverse and balanced microbial community
Definition
less disease
Term
Multispecies results in...
Definition
more opportunity for survivability
Term
how biodiversity helps build soil fertility
Definition
Biodiversity helps build soil fertility rotating cover crops
Term
What would happen without biodiversity?
Definition
Without biodiversity we would create a bottleneck by reducing our ability to recover from a vector that takes out that monocrop
Term
species richness
Definition
Variety of species or the number of different species (or genera, families, etc.).
Term
numerical species richness
Definition
number of species per specified number of individual
Term
species density
Definition
number of species per unit area
Term
disadvantage of using species richness
Definition
because it does not account for relative abundance, it is often not sensitive to environmental disturbance
Term
species abundance
Definition
Relative abundance of species
Term
some ways to Build Plant Species Diversity
Definition
• Plant crop mixtures and multiple crop varieties
• Include beneficial flowers, perennials, hedgerows or areas of uncultivated land.
• Provide nesting areas for pollinators.
• Incorporate cover crops.
• Reduce tillage.
• Increase organic matter.
Term
3 groups of Principles for Managing Agroecosystems
Definition

1. Soil/Plant to Field levels

2.Field and Immediate surroundings

3. Field and landscape levels

Term
example of disruption of temporal cycle
Definition
Crop rotation with non-host crop
Term
why it's good to rotate crops with non-host crop
Definition
reduces the soil-borne pathogen inoculums or the pest carry-over population
Term
limitation of crop rotation with non-host crop
Definition
not suitable for pathogens and pests with a broad host range, high dispersal ability or long-lived forms in the soil
Term
take-all decline (TAD)
Definition
The take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis (ascomycota), is a major root-rot pathogen of cereals and grasses.
Term
Allelopathy
Definition
the chemical inhibition of one species by another
Term
example of allelopathy
Definition
Antibiotic components produced/released in the soil by some plants directly affect feeding/infection/attachment ability of pests or pathogens on crop host plants
Term
limitation of allelopathy
Definition
Depending on the cultivar used, the opposite effect may be observed
Term
example of soil suppressiveness via enhanced diversity/activity of soil biota
Definition

Organic material derived from PSD plants increases the general level of microbial activity, and the more microbes there are in the soil the greater the chances that some of them will be antagonistic to pathogens

More microbial activity leading to less disease

Term
limitation of soil suppressiveness via enhanced diversity/activity of soil biota
Definition
The TAD phenomenon on wheat provides a counterexample of this principle
Term
example of Physiological resistance via improved crop nutrition
Definition
Varied crop rotations or intercrops contribute to better crop nutrition thanks to minerals derived from the decomposition of organic matter, which has a positive effect on crop resistance to pests and diseases
Term
limitation of physiological resistance via improved crop nutrition
Definition
Good host nitrogen nutrition favors the development of biotrophic fungi
Term
Regulatory mechanisms of the pests and diseases at Soil/Plant to Field levels
Definition
-Disruption of temporal cycle
-Allelopathy
-Soil suppressiveness via enhanced diversity/activity of soil biota
-Physiological resistance via improved crop nutrition
Term
use of Plant Species Diversity at the Soil/Plant to Field levels done via...
Definition
crop rotation, intercropping, Direct seeding and agroforestry
Term
use of Plant Species Diversity at the Field and Immediate surroundings done via...
Definition
Intercropping, Direct seeding, and perimeter cropping
Term
Regulatory mechanisms of the pests and diseases at the Field and Immediate surroundings
Definition
-Disruption of the spatial cycle
-Resource dilution
-Deterrent diversion
-Stimulant diversion
Term
example of disruption of the spatial cycle
Definition
Separation of hosts and non-hosts limits the spread of pathogens and pests
Term
limitation of disruption of the spatial cycle
Definition
This is not suitable for pests/pathogens with a broad host range and/or high dispersal ability
Term
List of Negatives for Biodiversity
Definition
Who is going to do all the monitoring
Term
example of resource dilution
Definition

In polycultures, crop plants are less visible/exposed than in monocultures and therefore generally support lower specialist or oligophagous herbivore loads

Polyculture helps to hide target crops

Term
limitation of resource dilution
Definition
This is limited by competition by non-productive plants for resources with the main crop
Term
example of deterrent diversion
Definition
Repellent semiochemicals produced by a plant that is intercropped or undersown result in bottom-up effects against pests of the main crop
Term
limitation of deterrent diversion
Definition
This process may also attract non-target pests to the crop
Term
example of stimulant diversion
Definition

Pests are attracted to associated plants and are less likely to wander into the main crop; natural enemies are attracted on the crop and control pests

Pests attracted to associated crop

Natural enemies attracted to crop

Term
limitation of stimulant diversion
Definition
Trap plants may turn from “sinks” into “sources” of pests
Term
how to confuse aphids
Definition
Change things up often, never planting the same crop in the same location
Term
natural enemies to aphids
Definition
ladybugs, hoverfly larvae, parasitic wasps, aphid midge larvae and lacewings
Term
relationship between tomatoes and lettuce
Definition
-Tomatoes follow lettuce
-Head start on the tomatoes
-Lettuce acts as cover and reduces competition for weeds and dilute
Term
effectiveness of intercropping
Definition
-Cotton/ Peanuts
-Early leaf spot was lower in peanut/cotton intercrop than in the unsprayed peanut monocrop, but higher than in the sprayed peanut monocrop.
Term
intercropping
Definition
a multiple cropping practice involving growing two or more crops in proximity
Term
use of Plant Species Diversity at Field and landscape levels done via...
Definition
Intercropping, direct seeding, Perimeter cropping, non-crop field margins and strips, agroforestry and landscape fragmentation
Term
Non-crop field margins and strips
Definition
Strips around or across fields on which insects can over-winter and breed early in the season. This allows them to effect a useful form of biological control by attacking aphid populations in adjacent crops. The strips also provide food and cover for birds.
Term
Environmental and economic impacts of agroforestry
Definition
-A reduction in poverty levels due to increased production of agroforestry products
-An increase in soil fertility
-Accessible fuel wood for farmers, protecting other areas from depleted woodlands or deforestation
-More diversity in farm tree crops
-Provides some protection against the climate changes
-Accessible medicinal trees and medicinal products
Term
Regulatory mechanisms of pests and diseases at Field and landscape levels
Definition
-Provision of alternative food to aerial natural enemies
-Provision of refugia/shelter for aerial natural enemies
-Microclimate alteration
-Physical obstruction
Term
example of Provision of alternative food to aerial natural enemies
Definition
PSD vegetation provides pollen and nectar as critical food supplements for adult parasitoids and shelters alternative hosts/preys that sustain/increase parasitoid/predator populations before the arrival of the target crop pest
Term
limitations of Provision of alternative food to aerial natural enemies
Definition
-PSD vegetation may also increase the fitness of herbivore pests as via provision of floral resources
-Some predator or parasitoid species may choose either pest honeydew or plant resources (pollen or nectar) over-prey
-“Positive” prey–prey interaction, with diversion of target pest predation by a natural enemy due to the availability of alternate prey
Term
example of Provision of refugia/shelter for aerial natural enemies
Definition
PSD architectural traits protect natural enemies from top predators or provide nesting/oviposition substrates in ways that hamper crop pests or diseases or favor their natural enemies
Term
limitation of Provision of refugia/shelter for aerial natural enemies
Definition
This may result in conflicting effects, e.g., of ants on pests, diseases and natural enemies
Term
example of Microclimate alteration
Definition
PSD may alter microclimate in ways that inhibit pest development/pathogen growth and/or encourage development/growth of natural enemies
Term
limitation of Microclimate alteration
Definition
PSD may alter microclimate in ways that encourage the development of pests and pathogens and/or inhibit the development/growth of natural enemies
Term
example of Physical obstruction
Definition
At the field level, mulches or intercrops reduce disease propagation notably via reduced splashing; at the landscape level, fragmentation/non-connectivity blocks the movement of pests and spread of diseases
Term
limitation of Physical obstruction
Definition
Fragmentation at both field and landscape scales may hinder the movement of natural enemies
Term
Odum's four major characteristics of agroecosystems
Definition
1)Include auxiliary sources of energy like human, animal and fuel energy to enhance productivity of particular organisms
2)Diversity is greatly reduced compared with many natural ecosystems
3)Dominant animals and plants are under artificial rather than natural selection
4)System controls are external rather than internal via subsystem feedback
Term
Odum's view of diversity in agroecosystems compared to that of Altieri et al. and Perfecto et al.
Definition
-Odum said: Diversity is greatly reduced compared with many natural ecosystems
-Altieri et al. and Perfecto et al. said: this does not have to be the case
Term
According to Pretty et al., ‘The goal for the agricultural sector is no longer simply to maximize productivity, but to...
Definition
optimize across a far more complex landscape of production, rural development, environmental, social justice and food consumption outcomes’.
Term
According to Pretty et al., the approach to diversity in agroecosystems involves...
Definition
-building crop production intensification on farming systems that offer a range of productivity, socio-economic and environmental benefits to producers and to society at large;
-using a genetically diverse portfolio of improved crop varieties that are suited to a range of agroecosystems and farming practices, and resilient to climate change; 50 Vernon H. Heywood
-rediscovering the importance of healthy soil, drawing on natural sources of plant nutrition, and using mineral fertilizer wisely;
-smarter, precision technologies for irrigation and farming practices that use ecosystem approaches to conserve water;
-achieving plant protection by integrated pest management and avoiding overuse of pesticides;
-bringing about fundamental changes in agricultural development policies and institutions so as to encourage smallholders to adopt sustainable crop production intensification.
Term
“Ecosystem Distress Syndrome” affects...
Definition
-Community diversity
-Successional retrogression
-Primary productivity
-Organism size distribution
-Increased disease incidence
-Applitude of population fluctuation
-Nutrient Cycling
Term
how “Ecosystem Distress Syndrome” affects Community diversity
Definition
a reduction in species diversity is one of the most widespread correlates of strong ecosystem distress
Term
how “Ecosystem Distress Syndrome” affects Successional retrogression
Definition
stressed ecosystems show increased invisibility with a shift in species composition toward more r-selected (pioneer)opportunistic species, characteristic of early succession
Term
how “Ecosystem Distress Syndrome” affects Primary productivity
Definition
stressed systems may show either an increase or a decrease in net primary productivity. Higher productivity is associated with early successional stages, while stress due to extreme resource limitations may cause a decline in productivity.
Term
how “Ecosystem Distress Syndrome” affects Organism size distribution
Definition
severe stress generally results in a reduction in the average size of dominant species.
Term
how “Ecosystem Distress Syndrome” affects Increased disease incidence
Definition
stress on organisms reduces their defensive capabilities and/or the absence of biological control of pathogens, thereby releasing the pathogen to thrive
Term
how “Ecosystem Distress Syndrome” affects Applitude of population fluctuation
Definition
with a reduction in species diversity and an increase in invasion by new species, there is a breakdown in stable linkages among species, a reduction in the complexity of food webs, and a loss of stability, allowing outbreaks of certain species, which rapidly crash
Term
how “Ecosystem Distress Syndrome” affects Nutrient Cycling
Definition
generally, unhealthy ecosystems show an increase in leakiness of nutrient cycles
Term
Odum says this about the dominant species in agroecosystems.
Definition
Dominant animals and plants are under artificial rather than natural selection
Term
Odum says this about system controls in agroecosystems.
Definition
System controls are external rather than internal via subsystem feedback
Term
Altieri says this about Odum's model of agroecosystems.
Definition
Odum’s model of agroecosystems is an interesting point of departure for understanding agriculture from an ecological systems perspective, but can not capture the diversity and complexity of many agroecosystems that evolved. Moreover, Odum’s lack of attention to the social determinants of agriculture results in a model with limited explanatory power.
Term
Altieri says this about agricultural systems.
Definition
Agricultural systems are human artifacts, and the determinants of agriculture do not stop at the field boundaries.
Term
Altieri says this about agricultural strategies.
Definition
Agricultural strategies respond not only to environmental, biotic, and cultivar constraints, but also reflect human subsistence strategies and economic conditions. Not just about making a dollar It is about survival
Term
In the 1960's, this happened regarding conservation tillage.
Definition
Equipment technology to meet the challenge of successful crop establishment in conservation tillage systems
Term
In 1985, this happened regarding conservation tillage.
Definition
the Food Security Act of 1985 passed by Congress provided another step-up in conservation tillage adoption
Term
In the 1990's, this happened regarding conservation tillage.
Definition
the development and release of glyphosate resistant crops significantly increased the adoption of conservation tillage in the USA , especially cotton and soybean in southeastern USA
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: topography
Definition
RS: flat or terraces
RRF: flat or terraces
RPF: undulated or sloped
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: soils
Definition
RS: deep, few constraints
RRF: deep, few constraints
RPF: shallow, infertile, serious constraints
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: nutrient deficiency
Definition
RS: rare, remedial
RRF: occasional
RPF: quite common
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: hazards (fire, landslides, etc.)
Definition
RS: few
RRF: few controlable
RPF: common
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: irrigation
Definition
RS: often, full control
RRF: usually available, reliable control rare, unreliable
RPF: rare, unreliable
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: size of unit
Definition
RS: large, contiguous
RRF: large or medium, contiguous
RPF: small, irregular, often non-contiguous
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: disease, pests, and weeds
Definition
RS: controlled w/ chemicals, labor
RRF: controlled w/ chemicals, labor
RPF: crops vulnerable to infestation
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: access to fertilizers, improved seed, etc.
Definition
RS: unlimited, reliable
RRF: high, reliable
RPF: low, unreliable
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: seeds
Definition
RS: high quality
RRF: high quality
RPF: own seed
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: credit
Definition
RS: unlimited
RRF: good access
RPF: poor access w/ seasonal shortages
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: labor
Definition
RS: no constraint
RRF: controlled by farmer, hired
RPF: family, constraining at seasonal peaks
Term
research station vs. resource rich farmers vs. resource poor farmers: priority for food production
Definition
RS: --
RRF: low
RPF: high
Term
atomism
Definition
thought process where systems consists of unchanging parts and are simply the sum of their parts
Term
holism
Definition
thought process where parts can't be understood apart from their wholes and wholes are different from the sum of their parts
Term
mechanism
Definition
thought process where relationships between parts are fixed, systems move smoothly from one equilibrium to another, and changes are reversible
Term
Systems might be ______, but they might also be _____ yet not ______ or smooth because they are ______ or simply very ______ or ______.
Definition
mechanical
deterministic
predictable
chaotic
discontinuous
evolutionary
Term
universalism
Definition
thought process where diverse, complex phenomena are the result of underlying universal principles which are few in # and changing over time and space
Term
contextualism
Definition
-thought process where phenomena are contingent upon a large # of factors particular to the time and place
-similar phenomena might well occur in different times and places due to widely different factors
Term
objectivism
Definition
thought process where we can stand apart from what we are trying to understand
Term
subjectivism
Definition
thought process where most social and "natural" systems can't be understood apart from our activities, our values, and how we have understood and hence acted upon these systems in the past
Term
monism
Definition
thought process where our separate individual ways of understanding complex systems are merging into a coherent whole
Term
pluralism
Definition

-though process where complex systems can only be known thru multiple, different patterns of thinking, each of which is necessarily a simplification of reality

-different patterns are inherently incongruent

Term
the factors of the co-evolution of knowledge
Definition

-knowledge

-values

-biological systems

-technology

-social organization

BKTVS

Term
major ecological stress factors for ag in humid tropics
Definition

-frequent acid, low fertility soils

-high incidences of plant diseases and insects

Term
major ecological stress factors for ag in sub-humid tropics and sub-tropics w/ acid soils
Definition

-low soil fertility

-low retention of nutrients in soil

Term
major ecological stress factors for ag in semi-arid tropics and sub-tropics
Definition

-water shortage

-variable drought periods

Term
major ecological stress factors for ag in wetlands
Definition
poor drainage effects
Term
major ecological stress factors for ag in steep lands
Definition
-erosion
-rainfall
-temp
-soil fertility problems
Term
transformative factors for improving sustainability
Definition

-developing interactive efforts between disciplinary experts and civil society to construct a collective and integrated vision for a future of US ag that balances the 4 goals

-encouraging and accelerating the development of new markets and legal frameworks that embody and pursue the collective vision of the sustainable future

-pursuing research and extension that integrate multiple disciplines relevant to all 4 goals of ag sustainability

-identifying and researching the potential new forms of production systems that represent a dramatic departure from the dominant systems of present day US ag

-identifying and researching system characteristics that increase resilience and adaptability in the face of changing conditions

Term
Odum's four major characteristics of agroecosystems
Definition
1)Include auxiliary sources of energy like human, animal and fuel energy to enhance productivity of particular organisms
2)Diversity is greatly reduced compared with many natural ecosystems
3)Dominant animals and plants are under art