Term
Name the Scientific Method steps 

Definition
1. Identify a problem
2. Form a hypothesis
3. Operationally define key terms
4. Plan & conduct a study
5. Analyze data
6. Write a report 


Term
What are the aspects of informed consent? 

Definition
a. participants volunteer to serve in a project
b. only after being informed about all aspects
c. know they can withdrawl at any time 


Term

Definition
Should the research that places participants at risk be conducted? 


Term

Definition
Participants aren't placed in any more risk than what they deal with on a daytoday basis 


Term

Definition
Institutional Review Board
: reviews research and makes sure it is ethical 


Term

Definition
: anything systematically varied to assess its effect on something else 


Term
Manipulated Independent Variable 

Definition


Term
Selected Independent Variable 

Definition
: based on charactaristics 


Term

Definition
: changes due to the experiment 


Term

Definition
: varies systematically with IV & clouds results 


Term

Definition
: difference in amount (quantity) 


Term

Definition
: difference in category (kind) 


Term
Correlational relationships: spurious 

Definition
:correlation due to separate independent relations with third party variable 


Term
Correlational relationship: causal 

Definition
: correlation due to changes in X produces changes in Y 


Term
Correlational relationship: moderator 

Definition
: correlation due to X suppressing/stregthening Z's ability to cause Y 


Term
Criteria for determining variable X causes variable Y 

Definition
1. X & Y must be correlated
2. Proper "time priority" (changes in X must preceed changes in Y) 


Term
Data collection techniques: naturalistic 

Definition
: happens out in real world without influence
1. disguised
2. undisguised 


Term
Data collection techniques: participant observation 

Definition
: become apart of a group without influencing it
1. disguised
2. undisguised 


Term
Data collection techniques: archival research 

Definition
: inspecting records, fragments, & products of past behavior to glean informationa
1. use results from use of an item
2. accretion physicaly evidence of wear
3. products artifacts of earlier behavior 


Term

Definition
: assignment of numerical/symbolic values to individuals, objects, or events in accordance with a predetermined set of rules 


Term
Charactaristics of good measuring instruments: reliable 

Definition
: consistent measurements 


Term
Charactaristics of good measuring insturments: valid 

Definition
: meausres what it says it measures 


Term
Charactaristics of good measuring instruments: sensitive 

Definition


Term

Definition
: procedures used to organize & present data in a convenient, usable, & communicable form 


Term

Definition
: procedures used to arrive at broader generalizations or influences from representative sample data to populations 


Term

Definition
: shows the number of times each score occurs 


Term

Definition
: average of a distribution of scores
(Central tendency)
 interval or ratio scale 


Term

Definition
: the middle score of the distribution
(Central tendency)
 ordinal, interval, or ratio scale 


Term

Definition
: most frequently occuring score in a distribution
(Central tendency)
 only measure appropriate for nominal data 


Term

Definition
: the average squared deviation of thes cores in a distribution between the scores and their mean
(Variablitiy)
 interval or ratio scales 


Term

Definition
: average difference between scores and their mean
(Variance)
 interval or ratio scales 


Term

Definition
: symmetrical, unimodal, bellshaped frequency distribution 


Term

Definition
: standard scores that indicate the location of raw scores in relation to teh mean in SD units
OR
: the number of standard deviation units that raw score in a given distribution falls above (positive) or below (negative) teh mean of that distribution 


Term

Definition
: the distribution of a statistic (i.e. mean, median, etc.) based upon all possible random samples of a given size drawn from a population 


Term

Definition
: the researcher's belief or hunch about the relationship between teh variables under study.
usually states that the variables are related in some way 


Term

Definition
: always states that there is NO relationship between the variables under study
 any pattern in the study suggesting a relationship is due to sampling error 


Term
Alternative Hypothesis
(H_{1}) 

Definition
: in direct opposition to the null hypothesis; suggests that there is a relationship between variables
 usually in harmony with the research hypothesis 


Term
What is the difference between a 1tailed and 2tailed test? 

Definition
1= directional
2= nondirectional 


Term

Definition
: values in a sampling distribution that define the critical regions of rejection, and separate the significant from nonsignificant values
determined by the significance level chosen by the researcher 


Term
Charactaristics of a True Experiment 

Definition
1. an IV is manipulated
2. a high degree of control is maintained over the research situation (balanced, constant)
3. proper comparison on the DV is made with a control group 


Term

Definition
: different participants serve in each of the conditions of the experiemnt and are randomly assigned
 enhances internal validity by balancing charactaristics
 enhances external validity through representative samples of the population 


Term

Definition
: different participants serve in each of the conditions of the experiment and are randomly assigned after being matched on some relevant variable
 generally for smaller groups



Term
Complete WithinSubjects Design 

Definition
: all conditions are given to each subject several times with a different order of adminstration
 balances 


Term
Incomplete WithinSubjects Design 

Definition
: all conditions are given to each subject one time; administration is different for different subjects
 neutralized 


Term

Definition
: resemble a True Experiment but lack degree of control; random assignment is not possible
 difficult to draw causual conclusions 


Term
Quasi: Natural Groups Design 

Definition
: IV systematically varied is an indiviual difference
measures DV (some behavior) to determine if it differs in some way accross the different levels of the IV 


Term
Quasi: Simple Interrupted TimeSeries Design 

Definition
O1 O2 O3 O4 O5
X
O6 O7 O8 O9 O10 


Term

Definition
: focuses on data collection through the intensive study of a single individual rather than a group of individuals 


Term

Definition
: intensive descriptive & analysis of a single individual
NOT an experimental resarch procedure (PTL!) 


Term
Advantages of the Case Study Method 

Definition
1. may generate testable hypothesises
2. provides an opportunity for clinical innovation
3. proved a method for studying rare phenomena
4. may provide a challenge to theoretical assumptions
5. may provide support for a psychological theory
6. can complement research carried out with groups 


Term
Disadvantages of the Case Study Method 

Definition
1. difficulty in drawing causeeffect conclusions about relationships due to lack of control
2. observeer bias in interpretation
3. bias in collection of data
4. difficulty in generalizing results to whole population 


Term

Definition
: focuses on an examination of behavior change in one individual
 IV is manipulated; DV measured under carefully controlled conditions THEREFORE causeeffect relationships can be established 


Term
Types of SingleCase Experimental Designs: ABAB Reversal Design 

Definition
: baseline phase (A) is followed by a treatment phase (B), and then the treatment is withdrawn, returning to the baseline condition (A), and then the treatment is reintroduced
(graph) looks like zigzags 


Term
Types of SingleCase Experimental Design: Multiple Baseline Design 

Definition
: evaluates the effectiveness of a treatment for two or more target behaviors or in two or more settings
 (graph) subjects= lines decreasing & crossed
 (graph) situation= lines decreasing
 (graph) behaviors= lines increasing 


Term
Analysis of SingleCase Experiments 

Definition
a. visual inspection of a graph (magnitude, changes in trend)
b. clinical significance (social comparison, subjective evaluation) 


Term
Measurement techniques for SingleCase Experiment Design 

Definition
a. frequency (event/interval recording)
b. duration: legth of time from beginning of behavioral response until it ends
c. intensity: how much time passes before the behavior occurs
d. latency: length of time that elapses between instructions & the occurance of behavior 


Term
Problems with SingleCase Experimental Designs 

Definition
a. carryover effects
b. unstable baselines
c. limited external validity (generalizability)
d. inability to assess interactions between variables 


Term

Definition
: the extent to which 2 variables are related to each other, such that changes in the value of variable X are accompanied by systemic changes in the value of variable Y
 measured using correlation coefficient 


Term

Definition
: strength of a correlation between 2 variables
 determined by how consistently the values of variable Y change with changes in the values of variable X 


Term

Definition
absolute values between .01 & .29 


Term

Definition
absolute values between .30 & .69 


Term
High (strong) correlation 

Definition
absolute values of .70 or above 


Term
Direction of correlation: pos/neg 

Definition
pos: X & Y change consistently in the same direction
neg: X & Y change consistently in the opposite direction 


Term
Choosing level of measurement for correlational coefficients: PearsonProduct Moment 

Definition
: if both X & Y are measured on an interval or ratio scale 


Term
Choosing level of measurement for correlational coefficients: Spearman RankOrder 

Definition
: if both X & Y are measured on an ordinal scale, or one of these variables is measured on an ordinal and the other on an interval 


Term
Levels of measurement for correlational coefficients: Phi Coefficient 

Definition
: if both X & Y are measured on an nominal scale 


Term
Levels of measurement for correlational coefficients: Chi Square statistic 

Definition
: the relationship between variables that are both measured on a nominal scale 


Term
Relationshp between ZDistribution & correlational coefficient: with X & Y 

Definition
1. if zscores on variables X & Y are identical and the same sign= positive 1.0
2. if scores on variables X & Y are identical but the opposite sign= negative 1.0 


Term
Coefficient of Determination 

Definition
: proportion of variation in variable Y that can be explained by variation in variable X 

