# Shared Flashcard Set

Stats Vocab Ch.1
Stetzler
57
Mathematics
03/26/2015

## Additional Mathematics Flashcards

Term
 Simple Random
Definition
 completely random sample
Term
 Stratified
Definition
 Separate population into groups (strata) and sample each group
Term
 Systematic
Definition
 selecting every __th individual from the poplation
Term
 Cluster
Definition
 selecting all individuals within a randomly selected collection or group of individuals(same as stratified except take sample from entire group instead of just randomly selected few)
Term
 Convenience
Definition
 sample in which the individuals are easily obtained and not based on randomness
Term
 Multistage
Definition
 sample using combination of methods
Term
 Frame (non-sampling error)
Definition
 segments of population underrepresented
Term
 Nonresponse
Definition
 not answering the survey
Term
 Interviewer Error
Definition
 interviewer not skilled (or trained) enough for survey
Term
Definition
 answers given not completely truthfully
Term
 Data Checks
Definition
 data input error
Term
 Question Design
Definition
 could be open (essay) or closed (multiple choice)
Term
 Wording of Questions
Definition
 poor wording
Term
 Discrete Data
Definition
 having a finite number of values
Term
 Completely Random
Definition
 experimental unit is randomly assigned to a treatment
Term
 Designed Experiment
Definition
 controlled study conducted to determine the effect that varying 1 or more explanatory variables has on a response variable applies a treatment to individuals and attempts to isolate effect
Term
 Matched Pair
Definition
 experimental design in which experimental units are paired up (only 2 levels of treatment)
Term
 Sample
Definition
 subset of population
Term
 Qualitative Varibale
Definition
 classify by an attribute
Term
 Statistics
Definition
 science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information
Term
 Population
Definition
 group to be studied
Term
 Double-blind
Definition
 neither doctor nor patient knows what group the patient is in
Term
 Replication
Definition
 treatment applied to more than one experimental unit
Term
 Placebo
Definition
 innocuous drug
Term
 Frame
Definition
 list of all individuals in the population to be studied in experiment
Term
 Census
Definition
 list of all individuals in a population
Term
 Data
Definition
 facts or propositions used to draw conclusions
Term
 Lurking Varibales
Definition
 influencing variable that affects other variables
Term
 Individual
Definition
 member of population
Term
 Descriptive Statistics
Definition
 overview of information collected (answer)
Term
 Inferential Statistics
Definition
 take results of sample and extend to population within some precise amount of certainty
Term
 Experimental Group
Definition
 group being "treated"
Term
 Control Group
Definition
 group to which experimental group is compared
Term
 Variable
Definition
 characteristic of individual in population
Term
 Quantitative Variable
Definition
 numerical value of population
Term
 Continuous Varible
Definition
 infinite values possible
Term
 Parameter
Definition
 numerical summary of population (average)
Term
 Statistic
Definition
 numerical summary of a sample
Term
 Observational Study
Definition
 measures the value of response varibale without attempting to influence the value of either the response or explanatory variables
Term
 Explanatory Variable
Definition
 variable under study (what causes result)
Term
 Response Variable
Definition
 variable that responds to explanatory variable (result)
Term
 Confounding
Definition
 occurs when two or more explanatory variables are not separated
Term
 Retrospective
Definition
 looking back in time or at existing records to match individuals with needs in the study
Term
 Cross-Sectional Studies
Definition
 observational studies collect information about individuals at a specific point in time or over a very short period of time
Term
 Case-Control Studies
Definition
 these are retrospective, individuals who have a certain characteristic may be matched with those who don't
Term
 Cohort Studies
Definition
 identifies a group of individuals to participate in the study (the cohort) The cohort is the observed over a long period of time. During this period, characteristics about the individuals are recorded and some individuals will be exposed to certain factors and others will not. At the end of the study the value of the response variable is recorded for the individuals.
Term
 Bias
Definition
 information from the sample does not represent population
Term
 Sampling Error
Definition
 error that results because sample does not give complete information about population
Term
 Non-sampling Error
Definition
 error that results from survey process
Term
 Undercoverage
Definition
 occurs when the proportion of one segment of the population is lower in a sample than it is in the population
Term
 Explanatory
Definition
 variables of change (factors)
Term
 Response
Definition
 variable of interest
Term
 Treatment
Definition
 combination of the values of each factor (what is done)
Term
 Experimental Unit
Definition
 person or item to which treatment is applied (subject)
Term
 Control (factor)
Definition
 fix at 1 level Usually variable of no interest
Term
 Manipulate (factor)
Definition
 set at predetermined levelsof interest
Term
 Randomize (factor)
Definition
 averages out effects of uncontrolled variables
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