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Definition
refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information. (p. 3) 


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Definition
the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study (p. 3) 


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a characteristics or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals. Examples: Height, weight, gender, personality, time of day, temperature, size of room, etc... (p. 5) 


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a set of individual selected form a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study (p. 4) 


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A value, usually a numerical value, that describes a population. Usually derived from measurements of the individuals in the population. (p. 5) 


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Definition
(Plural) are measurements or observations 


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Definition
a collection of measurements or observations (p. 5) 


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Definition
(singular) a single measurement or observation and is commonly called a score or raw score. (p. 5) 


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Definition
Used to summarize, organize, and simplify data (p. 6). Class Examples: How many men, women, children, are in the population? What is the average (mean) age? 


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techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they were selected. (p. 6) 


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Definition
discrepancy, or the amount of error, that exists between a sample statistics and the corresponding population parameter. (P 6) Class example: the average age of people in stats class is generalized to be the average age of the typical student at LLU. The sampling error is the discrepancy of age mean btwn the class and the average age of the typical LLU student. 


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Definition
two different variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them. (p. 11) 


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Definition
one variable is manipulated while another variable is observed and measured. TO establish and cause and effect relationship between the two variables, an experiment attempts to control all other variables to prevent them from influencing the results. (p. 14) 


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Definition
the variable that is manipulated by the researcher. IN behavioral research, the independent variable usually consists of the two (or more) treatment conditions which subjects are exposed. (p. 14) 


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Definition
one that is observed to access the effect of the treatment. (p. 15) 


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Definition
do not receive the experiment treatment. Instead, they either receive no treatment or they receive a neutral, placebo treatment. The purpose of a control condition is to provide a baseline for comparison with the experimental condition. (p. 15) 


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Definition
do receive the special treatment or manipulation (p. 15) 


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Definition
internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behavior. (p. 18) 


Term

Definition
identifies a measurement procedure ( a set of operations) for measuring an external behavior and uses the resulting measurements as a definition and a measuremnt of a hypothetical construct. It has two components: First, it describes a set of operations for measuring a construct. Second, it defines the construct in terms of the resulting measurements. (p. 18) 


Term

Definition
consists of separate, indivisible categories. No values can exist between two neighboring categories ( p. 18) Class example: we can either be male or female, not .75 female or .25 male. 


Term

Definition
an infinite number of possibilities values that fall between any two observed values. A continuous variable is divisible into an infinite number of fractional parts. (p 19) Class example: weight, height. Note there are Important points 1 and 2 on pages 1920 when measuring continuous variables. 


Term

Definition
the boundaries of intervals for scores that are represented on a continuous number line. The real limit separating to adjacent scores is located exactly halfway between the score, Each score has two real limits. The upper real limit is at the top of the interval, and the lower real limit is at the bottom (p. 20) 


Term

Definition
consists of a set of categories that have different names. Measures on a nominal scale label and categorize observations, but do not make an quantitive distinctions between observations. (p 21) Example: Room numbers, gender (0female, 1male) 


Term

Definition
consists of a set of categories that are organized in an ordered sequence. measurements on an ordinal scale rank observations in terms of size or magnitude. (p. 21). 


Term

Definition
consists of ordered categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size. Equal differences between numbers on scale reflect equal differences in magnitude. However, the zero pt on this scale is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the variable being measured (example Fahrenheit, Celsius) (p. 23) 


Term

Definition
An interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero point. With a ratio scale, ratios of numbers do not reflect ratios of magnitude (p. 23). We can measure from that zero point. We can measure the direction and the size of a difference in terms of ratio. 


Term
Quasiindependent variable 

Definition
in a nonexperimental study, the independent variable that is sued to create different groups is called the...(p 17) 

