# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Stats Terms Chapter 1
Terms for Chapter 1 Stats
27
Social Studies
09/26/2012

Term
 Statistics
Definition
 refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information. (p. 3)
Term
 Population
Definition
 the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study (p. 3)
Term
 variable
Definition
 a characteristics or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals. Examples: Height, weight, gender, personality, time of day, temperature, size of room, etc... (p. 5)
Term
 Sample
Definition
 a set of individual selected form a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study (p. 4)
Term
 Parameter
Definition
 A value, usually a numerical value, that describes a population. Usually derived from measurements of the individuals in the population. (p. 5)
Term
 Data
Definition
 (Plural) are measurements or observations
Term
 Data Set
Definition
 a collection of measurements or observations (p. 5)
Term
 Datum
Definition
 (singular) a single measurement or observation and is commonly called a score or raw score. (p. 5)
Term
 Descriptive Stats
Definition
 Used to summarize, organize, and simplify data (p. 6). Class Examples: How many men, women, children, are in the population? What is the average (mean) age?
Term
 Inferential Statistics
Definition
 techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they were selected. (p. 6)
Term
 Sampling Error
Definition
 discrepancy, or the amount of error, that exists between a sample statistics and the corresponding population parameter. (P 6) Class example: the average age of people in stats class is generalized to be the average age of the typical student at LLU. The sampling error is the discrepancy of age mean btwn the class and the average age of the typical LLU student.
Term
 correlational method
Definition
 two different variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them. (p. 11)
Term
 Experimental Method
Definition
 one variable is manipulated while another variable is observed and measured. TO establish and cause and effect relationship between the two variables, an experiment attempts to control all other variables to prevent them from influencing the results. (p. 14)
Term
 Independent Variable
Definition
 the variable that is manipulated by the researcher. IN behavioral research, the independent variable usually consists of the two (or more) treatment conditions which subjects are exposed. (p. 14)
Term
 dependent variable
Definition
 one that is observed to access the effect of the treatment. (p. 15)
Term
 control condition
Definition
 do not receive the experiment treatment. Instead, they either receive no treatment or they receive a neutral, placebo treatment. The purpose of a control condition is to provide a baseline for comparison with the experimental condition. (p. 15)
Term
 Experimental condition
Definition
 do receive the special treatment or manipulation (p. 15)
Term
 Constructs
Definition
 internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behavior. (p. 18)
Term
 operational definition
Definition
 identifies a measurement procedure ( a set of operations) for measuring an external behavior and uses the resulting measurements as a definition and a measuremnt of a hypothetical construct. It has two components: First, it describes a set of operations for measuring a construct. Second, it defines the construct in terms of the resulting measurements. (p. 18)
Term
 discrete variable
Definition
 consists of separate, indivisible categories. No values can exist between two neighboring categories ( p. 18) Class example: we can either be male or female, not .75 female or .25 male.
Term
 Continuous variable
Definition
 an infinite number of possibilities values that fall between any two observed values. A continuous variable is divisible into an infinite number of fractional parts. (p 19) Class example: weight, height. Note there are Important points 1 and 2 on pages 19-20 when measuring continuous variables.
Term
 Real Limits
Definition
 the boundaries of intervals for scores that are represented on a continuous number line. The real limit separating to adjacent scores is located exactly halfway between the score, Each score has two real limits. The upper real limit is at the top of the interval, and the lower real limit is at the bottom (p. 20)
Term
 Nominal scale
Definition
 consists of a set of categories that have different names. Measures on a nominal scale label and categorize observations, but do not make an quantitive distinctions between observations. (p 21) Example: Room numbers, gender (0-female, 1-male)
Term
 Ordinal Scale
Definition
 consists of a set of categories that are organized in an ordered sequence. measurements on an ordinal scale rank observations in terms of size or magnitude. (p. 21).
Term
 Interval scale
Definition
 consists of ordered categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size. Equal differences between numbers on scale reflect equal differences in magnitude. However, the zero pt on this scale is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the variable being measured (example Fahrenheit, Celsius) (p. 23)
Term
 Ratio Scale
Definition
 An interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero point. With a ratio scale, ratios of numbers do not reflect ratios of magnitude (p. 23). We can measure from that zero point. We can measure the direction and the size of a difference in terms of ratio.
Term
 Quasi-independent variable
Definition
 in a non-experimental study, the independent variable that is sued to create different groups is called the...(p 17)
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