# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Stats chapter 1 and 2
Fain and Tammy
27
Education
09/05/2011

## Additional Education Flashcards

Term
 Terms
Definition
 Definitions/ Info
Term
 Random Sample
Definition
 Draw a sample from a larger population to represent the whole population. Put names in a hat. Make sure every member/element has equal chance of being selected.
Term
 Randomly Assign
Definition
 1/2 of random sample goes to treatment group and the other 1/2 goes to the control group.
Term
 Population
Definition
 entire collection of events (scores, incomes, speeds, etc.) that you're studying
Term
 Sample
Definition
 small number from larger population. Allows us to infer something about characteristics of population.
Term
 External Validity
Definition
 1st aspect of randomness. Does the sample reflect the population? Ex. Small town from NE wouldn't rep US hispanic culture well.
Term
 Random Assignment
Definition
 2nd aspect of randomness. After the subjects have been selected, subjects then have to be randomly assigned to treatment or control.
Term
 Internal Validity
Definition
 Are the results the result of the differences in the way we treated our groups (hope so) and not a result of WHO we placed in each group.
Term
 Variable
Definition
 property of an object/event that can take on different values (hair color, self-confidence, gender, personal control, treatment groups)
Term
 Independent Variable
Definition
 Researchers decide what these will be (group memberships like gender groups or teaching style, etc.)
Term
 Dependent Variable
Definition
 Researchers have NO control over these. (resulting self-esteem scores, personal control, etc.)
Term
 Discrete Variables
Definition
 limited number of values (gender, high school grades)
Term
 Continuous Variables
Definition
 any value between lowest and highest points on a scale (age, self-esteem)
Term
 Quantitative Data
Definition
 aka. Measurement Data.Numerical data (weights, test scores) other "how much" tests
Term
 Measurement Data
Definition
 aka. Quantitative Data. Numerical data (weights, test scores) other "how much" tests
Term
 Categorical Data
Definition
 aka. Qualitative/Frequency Data. (no numbers)
Term
 Frequency Data
Definition
 aka. Qualitative/Categorical Data. (no numbers)
Term
 Qualitative Data
Definition
 aka. Categorical/Frequency Data. (no numbers)
Term
 Descriptive Statistics
Definition
 Describing a set of data (means, graphs, extreme scores, oddly shaped distributions)
Term
 Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)
Definition
 Joh Tukey showed necessity of paying close attention to examining data in close detail before invoking more tech involved procedures
Term
 Inferential Statistics
Definition
 do after descriptive statistics, after we have a basic understanding of the numbers.
Term
 Parameter
Definition
 a measure that refers to an entire population (average self-esteem score)
Term
 Statistic
Definition
 same measure as a parameter, calculated from sample of data we have collected.
Term
 Nominal Scale
Definition
 labels categorical data. (gender, political parties)
Term
 Ordinal Scale
Definition
 simplest true scale. Orders people, objects or events along a continuum (ranks in military)
Term
 Interval Scale
Definition
 allows us to speak of differences between scale points (same different between 10-15 degree C as there is between 15-20 degree C)
Term
 Ratio Scale
Definition
 has a true 0 point (true absence). Allows us to speak of ratios/fractions. (length, volume, time)
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