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observations and measurements you make on a material 


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objective, subjective, precision and accuracy 

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objective  existing independently of perception subjective  existing only as perceived precision  measurement can be precise and be inaccurate accuracy  measurement can be correct but not objective 


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rectangular box of numbers 


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process of assignment value or score to a material 


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who proposed the 4 levels of measurement and what year? 

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Stanley Smith Stevens, 1946 


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set interval between each category 


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average, what occurs the most? 


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add all up (sum) and divide by number 


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S = √ Σ(x_{i } x bar)^{2} / n 

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Exploritory Data Analysis (EDA) 

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more emphasis on visual displays of data 


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no space between the bars 


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what we use for archaeology dig sites 


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Null hypothesis what we DONT want... randomness/ no significance 


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this is the hypothesis we want!!! 


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accepting the Ho when it is false 


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KS = k * √(n1 + n2) / (n1 * n2) 

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KolmogorovSmirnov test
Used to compare two cumulative distributions to see whether a sample of data has been drawn from a population which has a particular distribution. 


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Chi Square test
It works by testing a distribution observed in the field against some other distribution determined by H0. 


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the Correlation Coefficient (r) 

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the measure of extent to which data points are scattered around regression line. 


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coefficient of determination r^{2} 

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r = nΣxy  (Σx)(Σy) / √[nΣx^{2}  (Σx)^{2}][nΣy^{2}  (Σy)^{2} 

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Product Moment Correlation Coefficient PMCC
calculating correlation coefficient
if both variables are measured on interval or ratio scale 


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r_{s} = 1  6Σd^{2 }/ n(n^{2}1) 

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Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient SRCC
calculating correlation coefficient
if one or both variables are measured on ordinal scale 


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inter = between/landscape infra = within/site 


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dimensional analysis of variance 

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Look at distributions over a range of quadrat sizes from the basic recording unit up to whole sites. 


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triangle with lines through each center 


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Nearest Neighbour Analysis NNA/ Clark & Evans 


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clustered
regular
random
extreme clustering 


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 Share the presence and absence of defined traits.  share only some 


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involves tables/ tree diagram dendrogram 

