# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Statistics
Statistics 8- Classification
14
Archaeology
04/13/2010

Term
 What is Classification?
Definition
 Concerned with the identification of groups of similiar objects under study
Term
 Typology/Classification within archaelogy and heritage?
Definition
 Practical and theorethical they can be Monothetic or Polythetic
Term
 What are the 4 points of good classification?
Definition
 objects belonging to the same tupe should be alike in some way, objects belonging to different types should be less alike than objects belonginf to the same type, types should be properly defined, able to decide which type a new object is.
Term
 What does Monothetic and Polythetic mean?
Definition
 Monothetic= share the prescence and absence of defined traits.Polythetic= Share the prescence and absence of only some defined traits.
Term
 What does the Mathematical approach (numerical taxonomy) consist of?
Definition
 Artefact types should be defined in terms of patterns of association between attributes.The measure of similiarity between the items and variables they are to be grouped.They are objective in a sense.
Term
 How is the mathematical approach useful in a predominantly subjective area?
Definition
 Helps to make the bases of our classification decisions more explicit.Seeks order in large numbers of items, making the grouping process consistent rather than objective
Term
 What are the 5 advantages of Classification?
Definition
 Some artefact shapes are complex, Relationship between types is as important as the definition of types themselves and it is difficult to define this intuitively, Helps to smooth over disagreements and agreements, Mathematical, Discovery of 'real types' through statistical techniques.
Term
 What is the similiarity coefficent and clarke matrix?
Definition
 A way of measuring the similarity between polythetic object types.
Term
 What are the 3 types of coefficent?
Definition
 Presence/Absence, Ratio, 1 to 5 scale of prescence.
Term
 What are the differences between the Clarke methods and Jaccard coefficent?
Definition
 Clarke- shows both positive and negative matches, whilst jaccard only shows positive.
Term
 What are the 5 methods developed that calculate the matrix in coefficent?
Definition
 Clustering, Principal Components Analysis(PCA), Principal Coordinates Analysis(PCO), Nonmetric MultiDimensional Scaling(MDS), Correspondence Analysis (CA)
Term
 What the 2 main categories of Clustering and explain?
Definition
 Partitioning= grouped in terms of similarity.Heirarchical= a) Agglomerative- all items individuals, then grouped in terms of similiarity. B)Divisive- items in a single group, then divide according to some criteria.
Term
 What is a Dendrogram?
Definition
 A family tree of objects
Term
 What are the 4 rules of single link clustering, producing a dendrogram from a simliarity matrix?
Definition
 Similiarity matrix is searched for the largest coefficent, The matrix is searched for the next largest coefficent, Next largest, Continues until complete.
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