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Statistics
Statistics 7- Spatial Statistics
13
Archaeology
04/13/2010

Term
 What are distribution maps? and what are the 2 levels of patterning?
Definition
 they are important within archaeological and heritage research.1. distribution of sites and objects in landscape.(INTER-SITE)2. distribution of artefacts or objects within a site.(INFRA-SITE)
Term
 What are the 4 Site Distribution Problems?
Definition
 Difficulty of defining a site, Difficulty of establishing contemporaneity, Difficulty of differential survival, Differential detection/ Fieldwork intensity.
Term
 What are the problems with Artefact distributions and how to resolve then?
Definition
 Against problem of interpretation of blank areas, problems associated with the definition of artefacts types. The use of colour differences, size and amounts within symbols can prevent confusion
Term
 What are the 2 types of Spatial Analysis?
Definition
 Point Pattern Analysis (distribution maps) and Regression and Trend surface analysis (artefact movement)
Term
Definition
 Area is divided up into uniform grids of squares, count number of points in each square, test the observed number against the theoretical random distribtuion (x(squared)).Advantages= archaeological and heritage information use this manner, may not have the exact location of the find location.Disadvantage= results seriously affected by the size of the quadrat, results affected by shape of quadrat, archaeological distributions are often a small number of points and not enough to give significant results.
Term
 What are Thiessen Polygons?
Definition
 A distance method- Drawing of lines at right angles through the mid point of lines. Used as an idea of territory or service area
Term
 What are the 3 main criticisms of Thiessen Polygons?
Definition
 Assumption of uniformity of landscape, mechanical approach to human behaviour- functionalist, failure to incorporate the importance of each centre.
Term
 What is Nearest Neighbour Analysis (NNA)?
Definition
 A distance method- calculating the mean nearest neighbour value of all near neighbours.
Term
 What is the Clarke Evans NNA?
Definition
 P=density of points, n=Number of points, A= areaP= (n-1)/AMean nearest neighbour distance- Observed Nearest Neighbour= r(o)Expected Nearest Neighbour=r(e)= 1/2(squareroot)pR=r(o)/r(e)R=1 - Random DistributionR<1 ClusteredR>1 Regular
Term
 What are the 3 Limitations of NNA?
Definition
 Difficult to delimit size of area, Prescence of boundary itself influences results, certain regular patterns may appear random
Term
 What are the 3 Limitations of NNA?
Definition
 Difficult to delimit size of area, Prescence of boundary itself influences results, certain regular patterns may appear random
Term
 The Two types of measuring density of distribution of an artefact are?
Definition
 to measure the proportion of that type of artefact as a % of all similiar artefacts, Measure the density of sites at which the artefact is found in zones around centre.
Term
 What is Trend surface analysis and Grid Generalization?
Definition
 Trend surface analysis is used to produce a contour map of the density of a type of artefact. Grid generalisation- a map divided into quadrats.
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