Term
What are distribution maps? and what are the 2 levels of patterning? 

Definition
they are important within archaeological and heritage research. 1. distribution of sites and objects in landscape.(INTERSITE) 2. distribution of artefacts or objects within a site.(INFRASITE) 


Term
What are the 4 Site Distribution Problems? 

Definition
Difficulty of defining a site, Difficulty of establishing contemporaneity, Difficulty of differential survival, Differential detection/ Fieldwork intensity. 


Term
What are the problems with Artefact distributions and how to resolve then? 

Definition
Against problem of interpretation of blank areas, problems associated with the definition of artefacts types. The use of colour differences, size and amounts within symbols can prevent confusion 


Term
What are the 2 types of Spatial Analysis? 

Definition
Point Pattern Analysis (distribution maps) and Regression and Trend surface analysis (artefact movement) 


Term
What are Quadrat Methods? and what are the advantages and disadvantages? 

Definition
Area is divided up into uniform grids of squares, count number of points in each square, test the observed number against the theoretical random distribtuion (x(squared)). Advantages= archaeological and heritage information use this manner, may not have the exact location of the find location. Disadvantage= results seriously affected by the size of the quadrat, results affected by shape of quadrat, archaeological distributions are often a small number of points and not enough to give significant results. 


Term
What are Thiessen Polygons? 

Definition
A distance method Drawing of lines at right angles through the mid point of lines. Used as an idea of territory or service area 


Term
What are the 3 main criticisms of Thiessen Polygons? 

Definition
Assumption of uniformity of landscape, mechanical approach to human behaviour functionalist, failure to incorporate the importance of each centre. 


Term
What is Nearest Neighbour Analysis (NNA)? 

Definition
A distance method calculating the mean nearest neighbour value of all near neighbours. 


Term
What is the Clarke Evans NNA? 

Definition
P=density of points, n=Number of points, A= area P= (n1)/A Mean nearest neighbour distance Observed Nearest Neighbour= r(o) Expected Nearest Neighbour= r(e)= 1/2(squareroot)p R=r(o)/r(e)
R=1  Random Distribution R<1 Clustered R>1 Regular 


Term
What are the 3 Limitations of NNA? 

Definition
Difficult to delimit size of area, Prescence of boundary itself influences results, certain regular patterns may appear random 


Term
What are the 3 Limitations of NNA? 

Definition
Difficult to delimit size of area, Prescence of boundary itself influences results, certain regular patterns may appear random 


Term
The Two types of measuring density of distribution of an artefact are? 

Definition
to measure the proportion of that type of artefact as a % of all similiar artefacts, Measure the density of sites at which the artefact is found in zones around centre. 


Term
What is Trend surface analysis and Grid Generalization? 

Definition
Trend surface analysis is used to produce a contour map of the density of a type of artefact. Grid generalisation a map divided into quadrats. 

