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Statistics Vocabulary ch1
concept study
16
Sociology
03/06/2006

Term
 measurement error
Definition
 refers to inaccuracies in the values of the data recorded. In surveys,the error may be due to ambiguous or leading questions and the interviewer's effect on the respondent
Term
 nonresponse bias
Definition
 results when the researchers conducting a survey or study are unable to obtain data on all experimental units selected for the sample
Term
 selection bias
Definition
 results when a subset of the experimental units in the population is excluded so that these units have no chance of being selected in the sample
Term
 statistical thinking
Definition
 involves applying rational thought and the science of statistics to critically assess data and inferences
Term
 representative sample
Definition
 exhibits characteristics typical of those possessed by the target population
Term
 qualitative data
Definition
 measurements that cannot be measured on a natural numerical scale; they can only be classified into one of a group of categories
Term
 quantitative data
Definition
 measurements that are recorded on a naturally occurrintg numerical scale
Term
 measure of reliability
Definition
 a statement (usually quantified) about the degree of uncertainty associated with a statistical inference
Term
 statistical inference
Definition
 an estimate, prediction, or some other generalization about a population based on information contained in a sample
Term
 sample
Definition
 a subset of units of a population
Term
 variable
Definition
 a characteristic or property of an individual population unit
Term
 experimental unit
Definition
 an object (e.g., person, thing, transaction, or event) upon which we collect data
Term
 inferential statistics
Definition
 utilizes sample data to make estimates, decisions, predictions, or other generalizations about a larger set of data
Term
 descriptive statistics
Definition
 utilizes numerical and graphical methods to looks for patterns in a data set, to summarize the information revealed in a data set, and to present that information in a convenient form
Term
 statistics
Definition
 the science of data. This involves collecting, classifying, summarizing, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting numerical information.
Term
 random sample
Definition
 a sample of 'n' experimental units selected from the population in such a way that every different sample of size 'n' has an equal chance of selection
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