# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Statistics Quiz 1
Quiz 1 Flashcards
23
Mathematics
09/07/2011

Term
 Sample
Definition
 a set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the populations in a research study
Term
 Statistic
Definition
 a value that describes a sample
Term
 Population
Definition
 the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study
Term
 Population
Definition
 the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study
Term
 Parameter
Definition
 a value that describes a population; derives from measurements of the individuals in the population
Term
 Descriptive Statistics
Definition
 mathematical procedures that simplify data
Term
 Inferential Statistics
Definition
 techniques that allow that studying of samples and a way to make generalizations about the population from which they were selected
Term
 Nominal (Categorical)
Definition
 set of categories; doesn't make any quantitative distinctions between observations
Term
 Ordinal
Definition
 set of categories that are organized in an ordered sequence; ranks observations in terms of size or magnitude (1st, 2nd, 3rd place)
Term
 Interval
Definition
 ordered categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size
Term
 Ratio
Definition
 interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero
Term
 Sampling Error
Definition
 the discrepancy, amount of error, that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter
Term
 Independent Variable
Definition
 what is being manipulated by the researcher
Term
 Dependent Variable
Definition
 the variable that is observed to assess the effect of treatment (independent variable)
Term
 Discrete Variable
Definition
 consists of separate, indivisible categories; gender, occupation, academic major, number of children
Term
 Continuous Variable
Definition
 an infinite number of possible values fall between any two observed values; time, height, weight
Term
 Frequency Distribution
Definition
 organized tabulation of the # of individuals located in each category on the scale of measurement
Term
 Normal Distribution
Definition
 symmetrical; unimodal; mean=median=mode
Term
 Skewed Distribution
Definition
 scores tend to pile up toward one end of the scale and taper off gradually; positive and negative skew
Term
 Central Tendency
Definition
 statistical measure to determine a single score that defines the center of a distribution; mean, median, and mode
Term
 Random Sampling
Definition
 everybody has an equal chance of being selected (random assignment); each person has an equal chance of being reselected (random with replacement)
Term
 Correlational Method
Definition
 two different variables are observed to determine whether a relationship exists between the variables
Term
 Experimental Method
Definition
 one variable is manipulated while another variable is observed and measured; tries to establish a cause-and-effect relationship
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