Term

Definition
Is a collection of all individuals about which information is desired. ?The individuals? are usually people but could also be schools, cities, pet dogs, agricultural fields, and so on. 


Term

Definition
Is a subset of the population selected that every individual has a specified probability of being part of the sample. 


Term

Definition
The investigators gather opinions or other information from each individual included in the sample. 


Term

Definition
Fir a properly conducted survey is a number that is added to and subtracted form the sample information to produce an interval that is 95% certain to contain the truth about the population. In the most common types of sample surveys, the margin of error is approximately equal to 1 divided by the square root of the number of individuals in the sample. 


Term

Definition
Can occur when many people who are selected for the sample either do not respond at all or do not respond to some of the key survey questions. 


Term

Definition
In most case, this kind of sample tells you nothing about the larger populations at all; it tells you only about those who responded. (Used by Magazines, television stations, and Internet websites) 


Term

Definition
In most case, this kind of sample tells you nothing about the larger populations at all; it tells you only about those who responded. (Used by Magazines, television stations, and Internet websites) 


Term

Definition
Is one in which participants are merely observed and measured. 


Term

Definition
Is a characteristic that differs from one individual to the next. It may be numerical, such as blood pressure, or it may be categorical, such as whether or not someone attends church regularly. 


Term

Definition
Is a variable that is not the main concern of the study buy may be partially responsible for the observed results. 


Term

Definition
is a term used for numbers and category labels that have been collected but have not yet been processed in anyway. 


Term

Definition
is a characteristic that can differ from one individual to the next. 


Term
Observational unit pg. 14 ? 

Definition
is a single individual who participates in a study. 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
for a study is the total number of Observational unit. 


Term

Definition
is the complete set of raw data, for all Observational units and variables, in a survey or experiment. 


Term

Definition
measurements are taken from a subset of a population. 


Term

Definition
all individuals in a population are measured. 


Term

Definition
a summary measure computed from sample data. 


Term

Definition
a summary measure for an entire population. 


Term
Descriptive statistics pg. 15 ? 

Definition
a summary numbers for either a population or a sample. 


Term
Categorical Variable pg. 15, 17 ? 

Definition
consists of group or category names that don?t necessarily have any logical ordering. 


Term
Ordinal Variable pg. 16, 17 ? 

Definition
may be used to describe the data when a categorical variable has ordered category. 


Term
Quantitative Variable pg. 16, 17 ? 

Definition
is recorded as numerical value and the data are entire measurements or courts taken on each individual. 


Term
Measurement Variable & Numerical Variable pg. 16 ? 

Definition
are synonyms for quantitative variable 


Term
Continuous Variable pg. 16 ? 

Definition
can also be used for quantitative data when every value within some interval is a result. 


Term
Questions for Variable types pg. 17 & 18 ? 

Definition
are asking the right questions like, is it an One Categorical Variable, Two Categorical Variable, One Quantitative Variable, One Categorical Variable and One Quantitative Variable, and lastly Two Quantitative Variable. 


Term
Explanatory Variable pg. 18  21 

Definition
Any variable that explains the response variable. Often called an independent variable or predictor variable.
for an individual is thought to partially explain the value of the Response Variable pg. 18, 21 for that individual. 


Term

Definition
a synonym for the count of how many observations fall into a category 


Term

Definition
the count in a category relative to the total count over all categories 


Term

Definition
for a categorical variable is a listing of all categories along with their frequencies 


Term
Relative frequency distribution 

Definition
is a listing of all categories along with their relative frequencies (given as proportions or percentages) 


Term

Definition
also called response variable used in summarizing two categorical variables 


Term

Definition
useful for summarizing a single categorical variable if there are not too many categories 


Term

Definition
useful for summarizing one or two categorical variables and are particularly useful for making comparisons when there are two categorical variables 


Term

Definition
chart consisting of group of data points plotted on a simple scale. Dot plots are used for continuous, quantitative, unvaried data 


Term

Definition
consists of the median, the quartiles, and the extremes 


Term

Definition
the over all pattern of how often the possible values occur in a quantitative variable. 


Term

Definition
the center of the distribution values 


Term

Definition
the variability among individual measurements 


Term

Definition
how the values are distributed 


Term

Definition
data not consistent with the bulk of the data 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
the average of all of the values 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
similar to bar graphs, not as informative for small samples, used for quantitative data. Shows how many values are in various intervals of the data 


Term

Definition
created much like a histogram, except every individual data value is shown. Quick way to summarize or order data from lowest to highest 


Term

Definition
simple way to show five number summaries, uses the extremes, quartiles and the median 


Term

Definition
similar on both sides of the center 


Term

Definition
values are more spread on one side of the center than the other 


Term

Definition
the higher values are more spread than the lower values 


Term

Definition
the lower values are more spread than the higher values 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
a single prominent peak in a histogram 


Term

Definition
if there are two prominent peaks in a histogram 


Term

Definition


Term
Interquartile range (IQR) 

Definition
upper quartile ? lower quartile. The notation IQR is often used to represent the interquartile range. 


Term

Definition
The standard deviation gives an idea of how close the entire set of data is to the average value. Data sets with a small standard deviation have tightly grouped, precise data. Data sets with large standard deviations have data spread out over a wide range of values. 


Term

Definition
is the median of the data values that are located below the median 


Term

Definition
is the median of the data values that are located above the median 


Term

Definition
the lower and upper values are called quartiles because along with the median and the extremes, they divide the ordered data into quarters 


Term

Definition
a numerical summary of the data that is resistant to the influence of outliers 


Term

Definition
in general the kth percentile is a number that has k% of the data values at or below it and (100 ? k)% of the data values at or above it 


Term

Definition
the outlier is a legitimate data value and represents natural variability for the group and variables measured. Values may not be discarded in this case. A mistake was made while taking a measurement or entering it into the computer. If this case be verified/ the values should be discarded or corrected. The individual in question belongs to a different group than the bulk of individuals measured. Values may be discarded if a summary is desired and reported for the majority group only. 


Term

Definition
numerical values that follow this distribution of measurement is so common it is also called a normal distribution or normal curve 


Term

Definition
the squared value of the standard deviation and is represented by s2 


Term

Definition
represented by the greek letter U or ?mu? 


Term
Population standard deviation 

Definition
is represented by the greek letter o or ?sigma? 


Term

Definition
for any bell shaped curve approximately 68% of the values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean in either direction, 95% of the values fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean in either direction, and 99.7% of the values fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean in either direction 


Term

Definition
a useful measure of the relative value of any observation in a data set 


Term
zscore see standardized score 

Definition
a measure that quantifies the distance a data point is from the mean of a data set. 


Term

Definition
The outcome of a study. A variable you would be interested in predicting or forecasting. Often called a dependent variable or predicted variable. 

