Term

Definition
the interval to be constructed that specifies the range of values that we are relatively confidents the population mean falls within; stated in terms of a probability or percentage; the one used most commonly by researchers in behavioral sciences is the 95% confidence interval 


Term

Definition
define the boundaries of the confidence interval 


Term
Confidence Interval when the standard deviation of a sampling distribution is known 

Definition
uses zscores; uses the standard normal distribution as a model; 


Term
Confidence Intervals when the standard deviation of a sample distribution is unknown 

Definition
uses the tdistribution; used also because the standard normal distribution is not always the best model 


Term
When is the standard normal distribution a good fit? 

Definition
a. when N is sufficiently large
b. when the scores are randomly selected from a population that is normally distributed 


Term
When does a tdistribution provide a better model than does the standard normal distribution? 

Definition
when o` is unknown; which is virtually always 


Term

Definition
the number of independent pieces of information needed to determine a statistic; (N1) 


Term
Two Goals of Inferential Statistics 

Definition
1. make unbiased estimates
2. assess error made when making estimates 


Term

Definition
the standard deviation of a sampling distribution 


Term
Standard Error of the Mean 

Definition
the standard deviation of a sampling distribution for an estimate of the mean 


Term
How can we calculate unbiased estimators of o`2 and o`? 

Definition
by dividing SS by its degrees of freedom 


Term

Definition
underestimate; thus it is an unbiased estimator 


Term
So how do we get an unbiased estimator of o`? 

Definition
By dividing SS by its degrees of freedom (n1) 


Term
What does the standard error of the mean estimate? 

Definition
It estimates the typical amount of error made when using X` to estimate u 


Term
The greater the absolute value of the hypothesis testing statistic... 

Definition
the greater the size of the apparent effect relative to sampling error 

