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Social Studies
8th Grade

Additional Social Studies Flashcards




Missouri Compromise, 1820

         Sponsored by Henry Clay

         Allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state

         Allowed Maine to enter as a free state


Nullification Crisis, 1828

          Tariff of Abominations: resulted in higher tariffs

          In 1832, a lower tariff was passed

        Still angered South Carolinians, led by John C. Calhoun

        South Carolina declared the federal tariff null and void within its borders

        Delegates to a special convention urged the state legislature to take military action and secede from the union if the federal government demanded customs duties

        To prevent a civil war, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833

        The Government lowers the tariff and backs down

Compromise of 1850

         Sponsored by Henry Clay

         Allowed California to enter the Union as a free state (pleased the North)

         The rest of the Southwest was left open to slavery, depending on a vote of the people (popular sovereignty) who settled there (pleased the South)

         Ended the slave trade in Washington, DC

         Allowed those owning slaves to keep them (pleased both sides)

         INCLUDED The Fugitive Slave Law

       Required the return of escaped slaves to their owners (pleased the South, angered the North because they felt it was immoral)


Kansas – Nebraska Act, 1854


        Allowed for Kansas and Nebraska to be organized on the basis of popular sovereignty

     That is, the people would vote themselves to decide if they would be Free or Slave

John C. Calhoun

        South Carolina Senator

        Favored states’ rights

        Led opposition in South Carolina to the protective Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations)

Henry Clay

      Senator from Kentucky

       known as “The Great Compromiser” for his ability to smooth sectional conflict through balanced legislation

      Sponsored the Missouri Compromise in 1820

      Admitted Missouri as a slave state

      Admitted Maine as a free state

Daniel Webster

        Senator from Massachusetts

        Known as “The Great Orator”

        Worked to create compromises with the southern states that would delay the start of the Civil War


Roles Played by Significant Individuals During the Civil War

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederate States of America

Ulysses S. Grant

         Commander of the Union Army

         September 1861; he was promoted as a general

         After a series of victories, including the capture of Vicksburg, Lincoln gave him command of the Union Army

         He created an overall plan concentrated on Sherman’s march through Georgia and his own assault on the Confederate Army in Virginia

         Grant accepted Lee’s surrender in 1865, ending the war.


Robert E. Lee

         When the South seceded, Lincoln offered Lee the command of Union forces but Lee refused

         Resigned from the U.S. Army and returned to Virginia to serve with the Confederate forces

         In 1862, Lee was appointed to command the Army of Northern Virginia

         His battle strategies are admired to this day, but he was criticized for having a narrow strategy centered on his native Virginia

He surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House in 1865

Abraham Lincoln

16th President of the United States

William Carney

         Served with the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (Union) during the Civil War

         He was the first black soldier to receive the award

      Reason for citation: when the 54th’s sergeant was shot down, this soldier grasped the flag, led the way to the parapet, and planted the colors there. When the troops fell back he brought the flag, under a fierce fire in which he was twice severely wounded

Philip Bazar

         Was a navy seaman in the Union Navy

         Won the Medal of Honor for his distinguished service in the Civil War

      Reason for citation: on board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher on January 15, 1865

      As one of a boat crew detailed to one of the generals on shore

      Bazar bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle

      He was one of six men who entered the fort in the assault from the fleet


Loyalty to local interests instead of national concerns

In the United States, the differences between northern southern, and western areas increased throughout the early 1800s.

Different cultures and business practices existed in the three sections of the country and these concerns often conflicted.

Farming was the main livelihood of all three sections

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