Shared Flashcard Set


Social Ethics
Social Work
Undergraduate 3

Additional Social Work Flashcards




What is Active Euthanasia?
Doing something such as administering a lethal drug or using other means that cause the person’s death
What is Passive Euthanasia?
Stopping (or not starting) some treatment, which allows the person to die. The person’s condition causes his or her death
What is Physician Assisted suicide?
the physician does not actually inject the patient with a death-causing drug as in active euthanasia, but rather provides patients with drugs they will take themselves
What is the principle of Double effect?

1. act must be morally permissible (good or neutral, not evil in itself)

2. must intend good effect (not bad effect)

3. (proportional) good results must outweigh bad ones

What are Ordinary means?
Measure or treatments with reasonable hope or benefit, or the burdens outweigh the benefits of the patient.
What are Extraordinary means?
“measures or treatments with no reasonable hope of benefit, or the burdens outweigh the benefits to the patient”
What is Voluntary?
The person makes the decision.
What is non-voluntary?
People other than the person whose life is at issue, make the decision.
What is involuntary?
Made against with Wish/Will of the person.
Gay-Williams "The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia." Points.

-Argument from nature. (NL&NR)

-Argument from self-interest. (egoism)

-Practical Effects.

-Misplaced benevolence.

James Rachel "Active and Passive Euthanasia." Points.

-No moral differences.

-Down Syndrome Children.

-Smith v. Jones.

-Is motive the key.

Carl Beckers "Buddhist views on Suicide and Euthanasia."

- Japanese culture vs. Buddhist teaching

- Subjects with rights or objects of the attention of others?

- Manner of dying is important/suicide is not an escape

- Suicide not inherently right or wrong; equanimity or preparedness of mind is the issue

- Example of the rope

Judith Thomson "A Defense of Abortion."

-Personhood of fetus.

-granting that the fetus is person from moment of conception is not sufficient to prove all abortions are impermissible.

-Example of violinist.

-right to life v. duty of others.

-Splendid/Good/Decent Samaritan.

Don Marquis "Why Abortion is Wrong." Points.

-Symmetries lead to interminable details.

-Prima Facie.

-Does not entail that contraception is wrong.

-What makes killing wrong?

What are the 4 strengths in "Why Abortion is Wrong."

- 1& 2: not “speciesism” (not necessarily wrong to kill only beings that are human, whether aliens or non-human animals)

- does not entail that active euthanasia is wrong

- does entail that it is wrong to kill children and infants

D.P. Verene, “Sexual Love and Moral Experience” Points.

- Ethics vs. etiquette

- (Why) does sexuality define us morally?

- Slave vs. master morality?

- Techniques vs. morals?

- Moral meaning of sex: experience of eros, creativity

Richard D. Mohr, “Prejudice and Homosexuality” Points.

- Meanings of “natural” and “unnatural”

* Emotional (disgust for the unconventional, untraditional)

* Artificial

* Function (do body parts have merely one function?) - Role of religion

* Jesus does not mention it

* OT story of Sodom about hospitality, not homosexuality * OT prohibitions are interpreted/applied selectively - Orientation: choice vs. discovery - Capacities, actualization, and flourishing

* Should not rob people of “richness of life;” right to pursue “human flourishing”

Robert K. Fullinwider, “Affirmative Action and Fairness” Points.

- Does disagreement over equality of opportunity vs. equality of results account for disagreement over quotas?

- Quotas do not aim to achieve equal results; quotas prevent discrimination and secure equality of opportunity

- Past discrimination tends to keep reproducing itself such that past discrimination is not past; it is ongoing in the present (it perpetuates itself)

- Hard to stop discrimination because it is hard to see (we may not notice it or recognize ourselves doing it); is it shallow or deep, transparent or opaque?

- Examples of the land of the giants and the land of curbs; world appears normal to those who have made it and those for whom it has been made; do not see the way it privileges them and disadvantages others

- Institutions of the world are suffused with inhospitality to blacks, women, etc.

Lisa Newton, “Reverse Discrimination as Unjustified" Points.

- Ideal of citizenship: equal before the law (rule of law as equality in the midst of inequalities of wealth, talents, etc.) - Moral ideal: demand that citizenship be extended to all and include the entire human race (equality of sexes and persons of “different colors”)

- Moral ideal is dependent or “parasitic” upon the political virtue

- Therefore, justice is equal treatment under the law of all citizens; discrimination or favoritism is unjust

- Ergo, all discrimination is prima facie wrong because it violates justice

- If we agreed that discrimination needed to be corrected by reverse discrimination, there would be two problematic results:  

*Pursuing affirmative action will fragment us into competing special interest groups

*It will be impossible to agree at what point restitution will have been made and injustice corrected

Anthony Amsterdam, “Capital Punishment” Points.

- Reality of the death penalty: deliberate judicial killing is so serious that the burden of proof is on those who want to justify the death penalty, not those who want to abolish/oppose it

*Legal errors—procedural as well as convicting/executing the innocent  

*Way death penalty is imposed is arbitrary and disproportionately on defendants who are black or poor

- Arguments offered as justification for the death penalty (which Amsterdam rejects)

*Retribution (eye for an eye)

*Moral reinforcement  

*Isolation/specific deterrence (this perpetrator will never kill again)  

*Deterrence (Supreme Court ruled inconclusive)

- The death penalty is a “dying institution”  

*Other industrialized nations are abolishing or have abolished it

Ernest Van Den Haag, “The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense” Points.

- Distribution

*Unequal distribution is a problem  

*But not unjust to those who deserve and receive the punishment (even if others who deserve the punishment don’t receive it)

- Miscarriages of justice  

*Society does not and cannot renounce all practices that may lead to the death of an innocent person (utilitarian/consequentialist cost-benefit analysis)

- Deterrence  

*Not conclusive death penalty is effective deterrent

*Opponents would still oppose death penalty even if it were a deterrent  

*Van Den Haag would still support death penalty even if it were not a deterrent (retributitvist position)

- Incidental issues: cost, relative suffering, brutalization

*Cost are trumped by the importance of doing justice - Justice, excess, degradation

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