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soc.studies
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97
Social Studies
8th Grade
04/12/2012

Additional Social Studies Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

1803 – 1850

 

Definition

      Manifest Destiny – belief that it was the destiny of the United States to expand its borders from “sea to sea” across the North American continent

Term
Major Elements of Manifest Destiny
Definition

      Westward Expansion

      War with Mexico

      Annexation of Texas

      Gold Rush

Term
Northwest Ordinance 1787
Definition

      Created an organized system for settlement of government lands in the Northwest Territory

      Had to be at least 5,000 men who owned at least 50 acres

      60,000 people

      An existing form of self-government

Term
Economic, Political, and Social Roots of Manifest Destiny
Definition

          Economic:

–           New land for farmers

–           New trade routes and markets (Santa Fe Trail)

–           New opportunities to start a business

•    Political

–   Expansion of our nation’s borders/territories

–   Expansion of slavery

•    Social

–   Removal of Native Americans

Refuge for persecuted groups (Mormons

Term
Relationship Between the Concept of Manifest Destiny and the Westward Growth of the Nation
Definition

The United States government and its citizens believed that the nation’s destiny or fate was to expand westward from sea to sea

Term
Causes of the
United States-Mexican War
Definition

      Annexation of Texas

      Viewed as a “War of Aggression” by many Americans

      Causes:

     President Polk’s desire to expand the United States (Manifest Destiny)

Border disputes concerning the southern boundary of Texas (Rio Grande was claimed by Texas and disputed by Mexico.)

Term
Effects and Impacts of the
United States-Mexican War
Definition

      Effects and Impact

     Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ends the war

      Grants the United States the Mexican territory of New Mexico, Arizona and California

     United States paid Mexico $10 million for the Gadsden Purchase to help repay Mexico for the annexation of Texas in 1845

Term
Areas Acquired to Create the United States
Definition

      Louisiana Purchase

      Mexican Cession

     New Mexico, Arizona, California

      Gadsden Purchase

      Oregon Territory

      Alaska Purchase

     Seward’s Folly

Term
Sectionalism
Definition

      loyalty to the interests of one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole

      Regions: North, South, West, Slave States, Free States

      States: Texas, California, Kansas, Nebraska

Cities: Washington, D.C.

Term
Physical Characteristics of the Environment and their Influence on Population Distribution, Settlement Patterns, and Economic Activities in the US
Definition

      Gold in California

     Rush of settlers to California; pushed many American Indians off their lands; population of California quickly rises to the amount required for statehood

      California’s proximity to the Pacific Ocean

     Led to an increase of immigration from Asian nations

      Rocky Mountains

Location between eastern and western parts of the United States resulted in a need for the Gadsden Purchase to put in a railroad train for transport of goods from East to West

Term

Sectionalism

Definition

·       Protective Tariffs

·       Increasing divide between north and south

·       Manufacturing Society v. Plantation Society

·       Kansas – Nebraska Act

Missouri Comprise

Term
Civil War
Definition

·       Secession

·       Slavery and states’ right

·       Abraham Lincoln

·       Confederate States of America

Union

Term
150 years ago.. Dates of the Civil War: 1861-1865
Definition

·     1862: Antietam

·     1863: Gettysburg1861: Fort Sumter, South Carolina

·      

1865: Surrender at Appomattox Court Hous

Term

Impact of Tariff Policies on  Sections of the United States before the Civil War

Definition

·       North- high tariffs help the industrial North by making their prices more competitive against cheap imports; had most of the nation’s manufacturing

·       Northern response – Northerners liked tariffs because it caused Americans to buy American-made products by increasing the cost of European imported manufactured goods

West – the West backed government spending on internal governments such as new roads and canals, and they were financed bytariffs

Term
Impact of Tariff Policies on  Sections of the United States before the Civil War
Definition

South – the South, which had little industry and imported most non-agricultural goods, saw high tariff as a burden imposed by the more industrialized and populated north. Sold most of their cotton to foreign buyer’s on credit.

Southern response- Southerners opposed tariffs because the South’s main trade partners were European nations. High tariffs on raw materials forced the south to sell their materials for low prices, while higher price for the products they purchased from their European trade partners

Term
Effects of Political, Economic, and Social Factors on Slaves and Free Blacks
Definition

Sectionalism and  Civil War

-         Political

Missouri Compromise – Missouri entered the Union as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state. This Missouri Compromise also stated that all new states entering the Union with a latitude north of the 36.30’ line would be free states.

Compromise of 1850 – California admitted as a free state; slave trade abolished in Washington, DC; stronger fugitive slave laws would be passed to help slave holders recapture runaway slaves.

Term
Effects of Political, Economic, and Social Factors on Slaves and Free Blacks
Definition

Southern plantation system – relied on slavery; slaves had no property and no rights

Northern industrial economy- slave trade abolished in north; large population

Term
Reform and Culture
Definition

This unit addresses the cultural aspects of the United States history during the 19th century.

* In addition, it addresses the reform movements of the mid-1800s, including public education, temperance, prison reform, care of the disabled and women’s rights.

* Finally, it takes an in-depth study of the abolition movement.

Term
Impact of Slavery on Different Sections of the United States
Definition

Sectionalism and Civil War

·      North

·      Illegal since the Revolution

·      Abolitionist societies and newspapers and Underground Railroad

Many were ambivalent to the plight of slaves/free blacks

Term
Impact of Slavery on Different Sections of the United States
Definition

Sectionalism and Civil War

·      South

·      Economic factor –slaves viewed as property and labor supply

·      Maintain a way of life

·      Considered a states’ rights issue

Fugitives

Term
Impact of Slavery on Different Sections of the United States
Definition

Sectionalism and Civil War

·      West

·      Fight over whether or not to extend slavery into the territories

Maintain balances of the free and slave states in the Senate

Term
Missouri Compromise, 1820
Definition

         Sponsored by Henry Clay

         Allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state

         Allowed Maine to enter as a free state

 

Term
Nullification Crisis, 1828
Definition

          Tariff of Abominations: resulted in higher tariffs

          In 1832, a lower tariff was passed

        Still angered South Carolinians, led by John C. Calhoun

        South Carolina declared the federal tariff null and void within its borders

        Delegates to a special convention urged the state legislature to take military action and secede from the union if the federal government demanded customs duties

        To prevent a civil war, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833

The Government lowers the tariff and backs

Term
Nullification Crisis, 1828
Definition

         Tariff of Abominations: resulted in higher tariffs

         In 1832, a lower tariff was passed

       Still angered South Carolinians, led by John C. Calhoun

       South Carolina declared the federal tariff null and void within its borders

       Delegates to a special convention urged the state legislature to take military action and secede from the union if the federal government demanded customs duties

       To prevent a civil war, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833

       The Government lowers the tariff and backs down

Term

Compromise of 1850

Definition

         Sponsored by Henry Clay

         Allowed California to enter the Union as a free state (pleased the North)

         The rest of the Southwest was left open to slavery, depending on a vote of the people (popular sovereignty) who settled there (pleased the South)

         Ended the slave trade in Washington, DC

         Allowed those owning slaves to keep them (pleased both sides)

         INCLUDED The Fugitive Slave Law

       Required the return of escaped slaves to their owners (pleased the South, angered the North because they felt it was immoral)

Term
Kansas – Nebraska Act, 1854
Definition

        Allowed for Kansas and Nebraska to be organized on the basis of popular sovereignty

     That is, the people would vote themselves to decide if they would be Free or Slave

Term
John C. Calhoun
Definition

        South Carolina Senator

        Favored states’ rights

        Led opposition in South Carolina to the protective Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations)

Term
Henry Clay
Definition

      Senator from Kentucky

       known as “The Great Compromiser” for his ability to smooth sectional conflict through balanced legislation

      Sponsored the Missouri Compromise in 1820

      Admitted Missouri as a slave state

      Admitted Maine as a free state

Term
Daniel Webster
Definition

        Senator from Massachusetts

        Known as “The Great Orator”

        Worked to create compromises with the southern states that would delay the start of the Civil War

Term
Roles Played by Significant Individuals During the Civil War
Definition

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederate States of America

Term

Henry Bessemer

Definition

·       Bessemer Steel Process

·       Mass Production of steel

·       1855

·       Transportation

Agriculture

Term

Robert Fulton

Definition

·       The Clermont

·       Steamboat

·       1807

Term
Eli Whitney
Definition

·       Cotton Gin

·       Machine to separate fibers from seeds

·       1793

Agriculture

Term
Cyrus McCormick
Definition

·       Mechanical Reaper

·       Machine to harvest grain

·       1831

Agriculture

Term
Eli Whitney
Definition

·      Interchangeable parts

·      Process to produce  parts that meet specifications so it can be used in any machine

·      1798

Agriculture, Transportation, communication, household

Term
James Watt
Definition

·      Steam Engine

·      Engine to pump water

·      1769

Transportation

Term
John Deere
Definition

·      Steel Plow

·      Cast-steel plow

·      1837

Agriculture

Term
John Fitch
Definition

·      Steamboat

·      First successful trial of steam boat

·      1787

Transportation

Term
Samuel Morse
Definition

·      Telegraph

·      Process of transmitting signals over wire

·      1837

Communication

Term
Peter Cooper
Definition

·      The Tom Thumb

·      First American built steam locomotive

·      1830

Transportation

Term
James Hargreaves
Definition

·      Spinning Jenny

·      Made thread

·      1764

Household

Term
Richard Trevithick
Definition

·      Locomotive

·      Engine that used high pressure steam

·      1764

Transportation

Term
Samuel Slater
Definition

·       First  water powered textile mill

·       Mill that hired whole families and divided work in to tasks (Rhode Island System)

·       1790

Household

Term
Erie Canal
Definition

·       Linked Lake Erie to Hudson river

·       1825 (completed)

Transportation

Term
National Road
Definition

·       First highway built by federal government

·       1839 (completed

Transportation

Term
Railroads
Definition

·       Improved movement of goods and services

·       1764 (First US)

Transportation

Term
Elias Howe
Definition

·       Sewing Machine

·       Machine could use 2 different thread sources

·       1845

Household

 

Term
Constitutional  Era – 1787 – Creation of the U.S. Government
Definition

·         This era evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and understands the need for a new government.

·         Issues and compromises that were addressed at the Constitutional Convention.

·         Establishment of the U.S. Constitution through compromises and influences from past documents (Magna Carta, Mayflower Compact, Declaration of Independence, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the English Bill of Rights)

·         Federalists and Anti-Federalists

·         Individual rights are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights and how these amendments pleased the Anti-Federalists

Term
Identify the major events of the Constitutional Time Period
Definition

·       Philadelphia Convention 1787

·       Great Compromise

·       3/5s Compromise

·       Federalist and Anti-Federalist points of view

·       Federalist Papers

Bill of Rights

Term
Significance of 1787
Definition

Writing of the United States Constitution

Term
Articles of Confederation : Issues Surrounding Important Events of the American Revolution
Definition

Written during the American Revolution

*Occurred at the Second Continental Congress (1776)

*Created a new form of government for the independent colonies

   *one branch, a Congress, including one representative from each of the former colonies

*Articles created a “firm league of friendship” where “each state retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence

Term
Issues of the Constitututional Convention – Representation
Definition

Representation

1.      Virginia Plan: large state plan that proposed representation on population size

2.      New Jersey Plan: small state plan that proposed equal representation among all states

Compromise

Great Compromise: Constitution resulted in a two-house legislature with the House of Representatives based on population and the Senate maintaining equal representation from all states

Term
Issues of the Constitutional Convention – Slavery
Definition

Issue

How slaves should be counted regarding population and taxation.

Compromise

Three-Fifths Compromise: three-fifths of the slave population would be counted when setting direct taxes on the states and three-fifths ratio would also be used to determine representation in the legislature

Term
Arguments for and Against Ratification of the Constitution
Definition

o   Federalists – argued for a stronger national government because under the Articles of Confederation, the weak national government set the United States up for failure.

o   Anti-Federalists – argued that states’ rights should remain powerful over key issues; remained the opinion that we fought the Revolution to get away from strong central government; desired to protect individual liberties

Compromise: the U.S. Constitution is ratified and the Bill of Rights is added

Term
Magna Carta
Definition

·        1215; Runnymede, England

·        Limited the power of the King of England

·        This document influenced the United States’ Constitution

·        The Constitution limits the power of the central government

·        Trial by jury

An innocent man cannot be put into jail without a trial

Term
English Bill of Rights
Definition

·       1689

·       Limited the power of the King

·       Listed individual rights of the people that could not be taken away by the King

This document influenced the United States’ Constitution Bill of Rights

Term
Mayflower Compact
Definition

·       1620

·       Written by the Pilgrims

·       An agreement that established majority rule and self-government

·       The Pilgrims pledged to remain loyal to Great Britain

Term
Federalist Papers
Definition

A series of essays written in support of the United States Constitution.

·        Focused on the need for a strong central governement with restricted (limited) powers.

·        Supported separation of powers amd checks and balances.

Written by: Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison

Term
Anti – Federalist Papers
Definition

A series of essays written against the United States Constitution.

·        Feared a strong central government

·        Felt the Constitution lacked protection for individual rights

Written by: Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry

Term
Strengths of the Articles of Confederation
Definition

1.     States’ rights (a result of a strong fear of a tyrannical leader)

2.    Confederation of states with equal voice in Congress

Congress had power to make war and peace, sign treaties, raise an army and navy, print money, and set up a postal system

Term
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Definition

1.      No national taxes – no way to raise national money to pay an army, navy, or other national interests; had to ask the states for money which was often ignored

2.      No federal court system – no way to settle disputes between the states

3.      Lack of a strong federal government – reduced ability to settle disputes over state boundaries

4.      No power to regulate commerce – arguments about taxes on goods that crossed state borders

5.      No federal leader – no Executive to lead the country

Limited military = no protection

Term
Shay’s Rebellion
Definition

An armed rebellion of farmers in Massachuestts led by Daniel Shays.

Showed that the government could not keep order and a stronger form of national government was needed

Term
Colonial Grievances Addressed in the U.S. Constitution
Definition

Grievance in Declaration of Independence

Addressed in the U.S. Constitution

Taxation without representation

All states have representation in Congress, which sets taxes

King has absolute power

Congress has the power to override Presidential veto

Colonists not allowed to speak out against the King

1st Amendment – Freedom of Speech

Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops

3rd Amendment – No quartering of troops

Allowed homes to be searched without warrants

4th Amendment – No unwarranted search and seizure

No trial by jury of peers

6th Amendment – right to a speedy public trial

 

7th Amendment – trial by jury

Term
Federalists
Definition

Supporters of the United States Constitution.

Argued for a stronger national government.

Under the Articles of Confederation the weak national government set the United States up for failure.

Term
Alexander Hamilton
Definition

Wanted to go beyond the stated powers of the Constitution.

Used the “necessary and proper” clause to justify forming a National Bank that was necessary and proper for the United States economy to develop.

Served as a delegate from New York at the Constitutional Convention.

Leading member of the Federalists

Term
James Madison
Definition

Known as “the Father of the Constitution”

Helped write the Federalist Papers with John Jay and Alexander Hamilton

Authored the first 10 Amendments (the Bill of Rights) to compromise the Anti-Federalists

Term
Anti-Federalists
Definition

Against the Constitution

Argued that states’ rights should remain powerful over key issues

Kept the opinion that we fought the Revolution to get away from strong central government

Believed that the Constitution should protect individual rights

Term
Patrick Henry
Definition

Was so opposed to the idea of a stronger national government that he refused to attend the Philadelphia Convention because he “smelled a rat”

From Virginia

Had been an influential leader against England with his “Give me liberty, or give me death!” speech.

Term
George Mason
Definition

Leader of the Anti-Federalists. Believed in the need to restrict governmental power and supported protection of individual rights.

Served as a delegate from Virginia at the Constitutional Convention.

Made over 130 speeches against the Constitution.

Term

Rights Guaranteed in the Bill of Rights

Definition

1st – Freedom of Speech, Religion, Press, Assembly, and Petition to the Government

2nd – Bear Arms

3rd – No quartering troops during times of peace

4th – search and seizure

5th – due process of law; not to be tried twice for the same crime (double jeopardy); right not to testify against yourself

6th – right to a speedy and public trial

7th – right to a trial by jury in civil trials

8th – right not to have excessive bail and/or punishment

9th – rights of the people

10th – rights left to the states to decide

Term
Importance of Free Speech
Definition
Freedom of speech and press allow for the protection of individual rights; freedom to express information, ideas, and opinions free of government restrictions based on content
Term
Republicanism
Definition
Representatives are elected by the people to serve the people
Term
Development of Religious Freedom in the United States
Definition

1620-1691 -Plymouth Colony – self-governing, with each congregation independent and electing its own pastor and officers

*17th century-Mass. Bay Colony – democratic in that they elected ministers and other officials; church closely tied to state government

*1631-Roger Williams founded Rhode Island; 1636 church and state separated

*1681-1776 – Penn’s Frames of Government guaranteed religious freedom to all settlers in Pennsylvania

*1689 – Toleration Acts; Maryland is founded for Catholics

*1791 – Bill of Rights guaranteed freedom of religion from government interference

Term
Impact of the First Amendment Guaranteeing Freedom of Religious Freedom on the American Way of Life
Definition

·      Americans have the right to worship however they choose

·      The government does not have the right to interfere with religious beliefs

Sets up for official separation of church and state

Term
Exampleof American Art during the Constitutional Time Period
Definition
Term
How the U.S. Constitution Reflects Principles of Government
Definition

Judges are appointed for life making them independent of executive control.

Article II of the Constitution

Term
How the U.S. Constitution Reflects Principles of Government
Definition

Limited Government

 

 

 

 


The Constitution creates a limited government in which everyone, including all authority figures must obey the laws.

Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power so that they cannot take advantage of their elected, appointed, or inherited positions

Term
Checks and Balances
Definition

System that does not allow anyone branch of the government to have too much power.

Example: the President can veto legislation passed by Congress; Congress can override the veto. The Senate confirms major appointments made by the President, and the courts may declare acts passed by Congress unconstitutional

Term
Federalism
Definition
Sharing of power between the federal government and the state governments
Term
Separation of Powers
Definition
Term
Popular Sovereignty
Definition

All political power rests with the people.

The people can create, alter, and abolish government.

People express themselves through voting and free participation in government

Term
Process of Changing the U.S. Constitution
Definition

The Constitution can be changed or amended when it is deemed necessary by the people to bring the document up to date.

Congress or state conventions can propose an amendment.

It then goes to the states to be approved.

An amendment must have a 2/3 vote of Congress or state conventions and a ¾ vote of the states to be approved.

Term
Examples of Unalienable Rights
Definition

Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness

Freedom to associate

Freedom of assembly

Right to property

Term
Founding Fathers
Definition

Name given to the individuals who played a major role in declaring independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the Constitution of the United States

Thomas Jefferson : George Washington

Alexander Hamilton : John Adams

Benjamin Franklin : James Madison

 

Term
Civic Virtue
Definition

Involvement in a community

Those with civic virtue go a step beyond their obligations by taking an active role in improving the community in the experiences of other members of the community.

Term
Major Eras and Events in U.S. History through 1877
Definition

      Abolition

      Women’s Rights

      Education

      Care of the Disabled and Mentally Ill

      Prisons

      Temperance

Term
Frederick Douglass
Definition

Leading African-American abolitionist,

accomplished orator and writer

Term
Susan B. Anthony
Definition

      Key spokesperson for the 19th century women’s suffrage movement

      Suffrage – right to vote

Term
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Definition

      Leader of the 19th century women’s suffrage movement

      Called for the first convention of women’s movement in Seneca Falls

      Wrote the “Declaration of Sentiments” which was approved at the Seneca Falls Convention

Term
Political, Social, and Economic Contributions of Women to American Society
Definition

      Political: began the fight for suffrage

      Social: allowed women to be successful in other fields

      Economic: fought for women’s rights; they were able to get the work day reduced to 10 hours a day

Term
Historical Development of the Abolitionist Movement
Definition

      Abolitionist movement worked to end slavery

      1807 – Congress banned the importation of African slaves into the United States and then demand began to end slavery

      1820 – 1840 – Abolitionists grew in number

      1840 – 1850 – Abolitionist leaders Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth began to speak out across the nation; The Underground Railroad began to make an impact and the Women’s Movement joined in

Term
Reform Movements
Definition

    Public Education

      Opening of public schools

      Primarily in the North as well as        private grade schools and colleges

      By churches and other groups

Term
Developments in Art, Music, and Literature that are Unique to the American Culture
Definition

Literature 

Emily Dickinson           

 

               Walt Whitman- Leaves of Grass

Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Scarlet Letter

 

                    Edgar Allan Poe

 

Term
Developments in Art, Music, and Literature that are Unique to the American Culture
Definition

      Art – Landscapes

      John James Audubon

    Drew American wildlife

Term

Hudson River School Artists

      Their paintings depict the American landscape and reflect three themes of America in the 19th Century:

      Discovery

      Exploration

      Settlement

 

 

Albert Bierstadt; The Oregon Trail

Definition
Term
Definition

MUSIC

Slave spirituals and gospel music

“Battle Hymn of the Republic”

  Written at the beginning of the Civil War

  Used music from the abolitionist song, “John Brown’s Body”

Became a popular Civil War song of the Union Army

  Still a well-loved patriotic anthem

Term

Literature

   Mark Twain

   Samuel Langhorne Clemens (real name)

   American author and humorist. He is most noted for his novels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885),[2] the latter often called "the Great American Novel."

Definition
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