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Mostly for surveys
Convert answers to numbers
Ex: Males (1)
Females (2) 


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Structuring Survey questions so key punch will operate more effectively. Includes: a blank space on the Margins for answer 


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Moving from survey, directly to computer.



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The I don't know catagory # coding 


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Situations to "collapse categories" 

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Income code by real amount then collapse it later 


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a guide with respect to all variables and answers in the survey. It lists location of variables, lists codes that were assigned to various answer categories. 


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1. Nominal
2. Ordinal
3. Interval
4. Ratio 


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offer names or labels for certain characteristics.
Do not assign the same numeral to different classes or different numerals to the same class. Beyond that, anything goes with the nominal scale 


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the numbers assigned to objects or events represent the rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) of the entities assessed. An example of an ordinal scale is the result of a horse race, which says only which horses arrived first, second, or third but include no information about race times. 


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Quantitative attributes are all measurable. As any difference between the levels of an attribute can be multiplied by any real number to exceed or equal another difference.
Real zero. 


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the distinguishing feature is the possession of a nonarbitrary zero value 


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Constructing Class Intervals 

Definition
Use a minimum of 5 class intervals to maximum of 12
Classes should be defined so that every case has a class. No scores are left out. The classes have to be mutually exclusive and cases fall into one category only.
Class intervals ordinarily should be of equal size. 


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Measures of Central Tendency 

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Middle score in a distribution 


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Score repeated most often in data set 


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Average of all numbers of a data set. add up all scores and divide by the total number of scores. 


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Frequency distribution and control tendencies.the analysis of a single variable, because it does not involve the relationships between two or more variables.descriptive rather than explanatory. 


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explores the statistical association between the independent variable and the dependent variable. 


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3 or more variables for a crosstabulationa quantitative analysis technique for determining the nature of social problems such as ethnic or gender discrimination. 


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Independent variable on top; left=low, Right=high
Dependent on side; top=high, bottom= low 


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cross tabuation of different variables 


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data can be easily quantified. Ex: male and female into "1" and "2" Method  researchers must engage in coding process after the data have been collected. Why: to reduce a wide variety of items of information to a more limited set of attributes composing a variable. 


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the process whereby raw data are transformed into standardised form suitable for machine processing and analysis 


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High ind and high dep. or low and low
a.k.a. direct relationship 


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Low and high go opposite variables
a.k.a. Indirect 


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