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SOC 273 Exam 2
SOC 273 Exam 2
Undergraduate 4

Additional Sociology Flashcards







-Montgomery Bus Boycott demonstrates hope and progress

-Emmett Till demonstrates despair and struggles

-MLK was assassinated in 1968

-spring 1963 Alabama

-worst of the racist south

-eugene "bull" conner- police chief that ordered men not to protect freedom riders

-bombed churches with people inside, big on KKK, sprayed protestors with high pressure hoses

-began planning "project c" (confrontation) - way to attack the racist south

-king and SLCC

-new tactic: mobalize schoolchildren (6 years old to be a member and march)

-may 2nd and 3rd 1963 kids marched alongside adults

-20,000 arrested

-after a few weekds AL desegragated


black power

A saying created by Stokely Charmichael from SNNC, meant to help breathe life back into SNCC. Speech was given during the march against fear. It was about not running away and being proud and powerful community of black


-a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies.[1] It is used in the movement among people of Black African descent throughout the world, though primarily by African Americans in the United States.[2] The movement was prominent in the late 1960s and early 1970s, emphasizing racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests[3] and advance black values. "Black Power" expresses a range of political goals, from defense against racial oppression, to the establishment of social institutions and a self-sufficient economy. The earliest known usage of the term is found in a 1954 book by Richard Wright titled Black Power.[4] Although he did not "coin" the phrase, New York politician Adam Clayton Powell Jr. used the term on May 29, 1966 during a baccalaureate address at Howard University: "To demand these God-given rights is to seek black power."[5]

chicago freedom movement

-lead by MLK

-held rallys and marches for things like housing, education, transportation, job acsess, income, employement, health care, wealth generation, crime and criminal justice system,

-most ambitious civil rights movement in the north

civil rights act of 1964

-july 2 of 1964

-outlawed discrimination in employment and public accomodation on basis of race, religion, or sex

-fed gov can hold back funding from programs where discrimination is found

-called for equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC)

-aid for desegregating schools

civil righters era definition of "freedom"

-forced america to rethink what it really means by freedom ->james baldwin

-dominated by "freedom language" -> freedom summer, freedom schools, freedom rides, MLK's book with freedom

-definition: full legal and political integation into american life -> end segragation, end separate but equal, constitutional equality: enforcement of federal laws regarding race, already in constitution so enforce it!, federal gov as guaranteer of freedom

cycles of protest

-called cycles because they come in waves

-heightened conflict across social system

-rapid spread of collective action to social groups

-in thier movements spawn other movements for change

-activism in one social group leads to activism in other groups

ella baker
was an African-American civil rights and human rights activist beginning in the 1930s. She was a behind-the-scenes activist, whose career spanned over five decades. She worked alongside some of the most famous civil rights leaders of the 20th century, including W. E. B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, A. Philip Randolph, and Martin Luther King Jr. She also mentored such then-young civil rights stalwarts as Diane Nash, Stokely Carmichael, Rosa Parks and Bob Moses.
emmett till

-from chicago spending the summer in MS august 1955 visiting family

-14 y/o

-went to store to buy gum and clerk/wife at store told her husband that he either whistled or cat called at her on wed. on sunday the husband and half brother kidnapped him, there were whittnesses, found body with gun shot to head in the river

-all white male jury dismissed all charges after just an hour

-mom decided on open casket to show all the mutilated head, took pics and they got out, said "let them see what i have seen"

-oct 11, 1955 NYC NAACP and dept. store workers union protesting the murder

-demonstrates the growing acency of cog. liberation, organizing strength

free speech movement
a student protest which took place during the 1964–1965 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of students Mario Savio, Brian Turner, Bettina Aptheker, Steve Weissman, Art Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg, and others. In protests unprecedented in this scope at the time, students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom.
freedom rides

were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to test the United States Supreme Court decisions Boynton v. Virginia (1960)[1] and Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946).[2] The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961,[3] and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.

-Blacks and some whites did sit ins on buses through the south in hopes of desegregating the bus systems. They would go into segregated bus stops in attempts to use their facilities. Robert Kennedy tried to get the riders protection, but some cities and states refused. People were brutally beaten but they kept going.

freedom summer
(also known as the Mississippi Summer Project) was a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi which had historically excluded most blacks from voting. The project also set up dozens of Freedom Schools, Freedom Houses, and community centers in small towns throughout Mississippi to aid the local black population. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of the Mississippi branches of the four major civil rights organizations (SNCC, CORE, NAACP and SCLC). Most of the impetus, leadership, and financing for the Summer Project came from the SNCC. Robert Parris Moses, SNCC field secretary and co-director of COFO, directed the summer project.[1]
greensboro, NC

-feb 1st 1960 in greensbror sit-ins at lunch counters

-4 students ordered coffee and donuts and werent served, increased to more and more students

-started read-ins, swim-ins, kneel-ins showed that young AA activists would play a huge role

-were they spontaneous? yes and no, they started in NC but then 200 other cities had sit-ins in the spring of '60

-brown vs boe in 1954 ->separate but equal is not real, must integrate


"i dont want nobody to give me nothin"

-Song. Written by James Brown. Looked at in juxtaposition with “we shall overcome.” This song is written in a more aggressive tone. Don’t want to overcome the whites, aren’t going to be passive, just want to be treated like equals, like men.



james lawson

-in SNCC

-driving forces behind nonviolence, christian pacifist, missionary work for 3 years in India, convinced non-violence would work

-toured south in 1950s preaching non-violence

john f. kennedy

-civil rights was a nusance to kennedy, shied away from these issues, wasnt a moral imperitive, didnt want the burden

-splitting the difference: appointed both sides

-they put pressure on kennedy admin/federal government

-kennedy begged them to stop freedom rides, he only moved to action because law/order was breaking down

-in 1961 he issued a federal law to stop

-lesson: federal acts not when civil rights are violated but only when law and order breaks down

-gave a civil rights speech in june 1963, helped MLK get out of jail

john l. lewis

-born into poverty in alabama

-became active b/c of dashed home

-after b vs boe he thought things would change but they didnt

-root of sitin movement

-Nashville student movement in 1959 lewis, nash and others formed an NAACP chapter, began groundwork for a sit-in campainge before feb '60!

-conducted training and test sit-ins in 1959, sit up straight, dont talk back or hit back -> shows it wasnt spontaneous

-70,000 participants in sit-ins, lead to desegragation in many cities in the south, generated new recruits, mobilized students in a growing sense of efficacy, could take matters into their own hands instead of waiting for washington

lyndon johnson

-President of the USA from 1963 to 1969.Signed the civil rights act in 1964 with MLK. Also increased involvement in Vietnam

-Johnson overcame southern resistance and convinced the Democratic-Controlled Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed most forms of racial segregation. John F. Kennedy originally proposed the civil rights bill in June 1963.[43] In late October 1963, Kennedy officially called the House leaders to the White House to line up the necessary votes for passage.[44][45] After Kennedy's death, Johnson took the initiative in finishing what Kennedy started and broke a filibuster by Southern Democrats in March 1964; as a result, this pushed the bill for passage in the Senate.[46] Johnson signed the revised and stronger bill into law on July 2, 1964.[46] Legend has it that, as he put down his pen, Johnson told an aide, "We have lost the South for a generation", anticipating a coming backlash from Southern whites against Johnson's Democratic Party.

martin luther king jr.
Leader of the civil rights movement. King was involved in SCLC. Preached nonviolence. Helped organize protests and marches. Was voice for the African American community. Profound speaker.
massive resistance

-Open defiance of federal law on part of whites. Brown vs. Board of Education.

-ban book of black and white rabbits marrying

-sold all zoo animals instead of desegragating zoo

montgomery bus boycott

-on dec 1st rosa parks sat on the bus and wouldnt move

-4 days later on dec. 5th 1955 -> testament to black churches for power of organizing forces

-success nov/dec of 1956 ->busses desegragated by order of SCOTUS

-learned new tactics ->new way to boycott

-new leader (MLK)

-new organization (SCLC)

-new confidence -> cognitive liberation, growing sense of empowerment

-importance/strenght of indigenour orginization. about 75% of SM activity was from NAACP, SCLC, and black churches


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Wanted to help black people have political, educational, economical, and social equality.

-formed in 1909

-want to eliminate racial hatred and discrimination

new left

1. students movements

-generational idealism

-by 1968 1/2 the country was under 25

-20M people turned 18 in the mid 1960s, 7M in college

-not just AA young people were involved, but whites too


2. attitudes

-"alienated youth" -> just a chilche (at least in the early 60s) they actually had higher than average GPAs, there were liberals and idealists, emphasis on community, werent rejecting ideas they had been taught they were taking what they had learned and put it to good use, most came from these backgrounds and were acting on what their partents had taught them, they werent rebeling against them


3. the new left

-students for a democratic society (SDS)

-est. 1960 -> university of Mich. -> inspired by activism of AA

-tended to be white and nothern students

-civil rights and then opposed war in vietnam

-"SNCC's white cousin in the north"

-free speech movement (FSM)

-US Berkely 1964 -> same summer as freedom summer, many at freedom summer came from berkeley and college encouraged this, but when they came back and wanted to be active at home the college tried to block this

-mario savio-> oct 1964, students got on top of car and took shoes off, agreed to repaid damage, faculty was for students but admin wasnt

operation rolling thunder

-1965 -> approved by johnson admin in winter of 1965 - bombing vietnam

-increased number of troops, especially ground troops

project c
-confront serious problems in racist south birmingham AL
rosa parks

-she refused to move on the bus when she was asked to


-was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights", and "the mother of the freedom movement

Selma Alabama. Location for the March for voting rights, last epic integrationist civil rights marches. Turned in to Bloody Sunday. As soon as it turned violent, King and SCLC stepped in to run the march instead of SNCC. It brought about eh Voting Rights Act.

southern christian leadership conference SCLC



-is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The SCLC had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.

-helped plan bus boycott


"we shall overcome"

Song. Talks about overcoming someday. Looked at it in juxtaposition with “I Don’t Want Nobody to give me Nothin.” We shall overcome was more passive but also more peaceful. Wanted to someday be able to overcome the obstacles in their way.

-be able to walk hand in hand, not live in fear, live in peace, overcome struggles

stokely carmichael

-a Trinidadian-American black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. He rose to prominence first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced "snick") and later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party. Initially an integrationist, Carmichael later became affiliated with black nationalist and Pan-Africanist movements.[1] He popularized the term "Black Power".[2]

-Ended up taking over for Lewis and became a partly unwanted face for SNCC. He came up with the black power saying. He said that integration was irrelevant and that what black people had to have was political and economic power. (SNCC in 1966).

student nonviolent coordinating committee (SNCC)

-new surge of activists

-began april 1960

-MLK called for students to become involved at Shaw University

-SCLC (king's organization) decided they needed to tap into youth resources

-300 students showed up (3x what they expected), they wanted to stay separate from SCLC b/c they had more to offer, wanted to be radical in the really tough cities

-had idealism, energy, youth (b&w), males and females, north and south

-white students started to cause friction -> they were more educated, better speakers, but AA's felt they hadnt really lived the struggle

-womens role in org was controversial, they were instramental (diana nash, cynthia washington were very important)

-women (mama) were often strongest allies

-fried to find mama in community to be ally

-head of SNCC said women were pro

-one black and one white hand holding hands

-wanted to emphasize the grassroots community in organizing the urban south

-organized freedom summer and taught their volunteers

-did not have a central base or leader, it was run by the group and the community, listened to what the people needed and worked towards it: voter registration and education in Miss.

students for a democratic society (SDS)

-see the new left

a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of the country's New Left. The organization developed and expanded rapidly in the mid-1960s before dissolving at its last convention in 1969

vietnam war/draft

-students were extremely angry about this , also couldnt vote or drink because legal age was 21 so they couldnt even do anything to change it

-BUT those who could pay to go to elite colleges were able to get a deferment, so if you had money you could pay to go to school you could get out of draft 

-AA were getting killed at twice the rate

-corporations were funding colleges and using them as reasearch labs for war tactics


vietnam war/escalation

-escalation of war=escalation of protests

-became larger and more strident as war got larger and more out of their hands

-beginning in 1965 -> major war protests

-merger of civil rights and antiwar which became "the movement" which meant these movements were bound together

-more militant rhetoric, became more heated

-SDS grows/loss of control -> almost 100,000 people by 66/67 lost focus of message though

-burn draft cards, flowers in guns, anti-viet cong flags

-oct 1967: march on pentagon -> largest anti-war march up to that date



rise of counterculture

-retreat into alternative lifestyles


-tune in turn on and drop out - timothy leary

-the beatles smoking lsd and pot

bob dylan

voting rights act of 1965

-abolished literacy tests to vote

-brought end to poll tax

-AG empowered to oversee voter registration, successful after 3 years over 2 million AA registrated to vote

-by the end of 1965 things are desegragated, voting, eating, busses, is it true equality? what about housing? economic inequality?

-signed by MLK and lyndon b johnson

white backlash



-White people got all upset because of the rights that the black community were obtaining. They moved from the cities to the suburbs, turmoil between the races.


-was a civil disturbance in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California from August 11 to August 15, 1965. The five-day riot resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests and over $40 million in property damage. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992


-1965 Movements at a Cross Roads. August 1965, week of rioting, 40 million dollars in damage, 34 dead, 4,000 jailed, 16,000 police and guardsmen. Pattern of urban riots. 1 week after the voting rights act was instated.

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