# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

SMT CHAPTER NINE
NATURAL HAZARDS : KELLER, DEVECHIO
107
Geology
11/18/2012

Term
 A tornado is a __________________________ violently rotating column of air associated with extreme __________ winds, and can cause tremendous property damage and loss of life.
Definition
 violentlyhorizontal winds
Term
 how did people react to the tri - state tornado.
Definition
 people assumed it was a thunderstorm, and their were in fact some thunderstorms.
Term
 can we see/feel energy?we can experience part of energy through_________
Definition
 noforce
Term
 in the metric system force is measured in ____________. and is defined as the force that can that can accelerate2.2 lbs at_______ ft per second in motion
Definition
 Newtons3.3
Term
 when is work donework is calculaed by multiplying ____________.a joule is the force applied to _________/\
Definition
 as energy is expendedForce x Distanceone meter
Term
 Power is the rate at which________
Definition
 work is done.
Term
 when dealing with atmospheric processes, we are often concerned with __________
Definition
 large amounts of energy
Term
 what is the energy source which heats the planet, evaporates water, produces differential heating, and causes air masses to move across our landscape.
Definition
 solar power
Term
 stored energy is called____ while energy in motion is called_________.
Definition
 potential energykinetic energy
Term
 heat energy is the energy of random motion of _______ . Heat itself may then be defined as kinetic energy of the above within a ___________.
Definition
 atoms/moleculessubstance.
Term
 sensible heat is the type that can be __________latent heat is the type that is either__________
Definition
 monitored with thermometerreleased / absorbed.
Term
 the change of wtaer to a gas is known as___________
Definition
 heat of evaporation
Term
 the three major types of heat transfer is__________
Definition
Term
 how does conduction transfer heat through a substance___________this process relies on____________, causing heat to flow through an area of greater temp to area of less temp.
Definition
 atomic/molecular interactionstemp differences
Term
 is air a good conductor of heat Y/Nconvection is the ____________ of a fluid, such as water or air.in convection cold and hot water does what?radiation refers to the energy that is emitted through any process the possesses _________, and the transfer of energy waves by radiation are called _______
Definition
 Nomass movementcold sinks and heat rises.electromagnetic waves
Term
 the general equilibrium between inbound and outbound energy is called ___________
Definition
 earths energy balance.
Term
 the suns energy drives what three processes
Definition
 hydrologic cycle, ocean waves/currents, and global atmosphere circulatio.
Term
 what type of energy travels from the sun, and this travels how fast through a vacuum.
Definition
 electromagnetic energyspeed of light
Term
 E.M radiation is described as a ____________ and the distance b/w two successive waves is called the __________.
Definition
 wavewavelength
Term
 the collection of all possible wavelengths is called__________visible light makes up how much of the above___________the two waves with the shortest wavelength are _______
Definition
 E.M spectrumevery small fractionX- ray / gamma ray
Term
 what three things happens to energy from the sun when it reaches earth________in redirection two things happen to energy.
Definition
 redirected, transmitted, and absorbedreflected, scattered
Term
 transmission involves nergy passing through_______
Definition
 the atmosphere.
Term
 what is the second way solar energy returns to outer space called?
Definition
 emmision
Term
 what 2 things are important when determining temperature of air and land?the color of land surface determines its __________ to visible light.the reflectivity is refereed to as __________
Definition
 energy reflected/absorbedreflectivityalbedo
Term
 many atmospheric gases are ___________. they absorb some wavelength energy and are __________ to others.
Definition
 selective absorberstransparent
Term
 absorbed energy that are not emitted as heat is emitted as ________hotter obj radiate more rapidly and at ___________
Definition
Term
 earths land surface, oceans clouds are so cool that they emit__________ IR radiation
Definition
 longer wavelength
Term
 the earths atmosphere is made of what 3 things
Definition
 gas mileculessuspended solid / liquid particles, and falling percipitation
Term
 the 2 main components of the atmosphere are _______the 3 smaller amount are __________
Definition
 nitrogen / oxygenargon, water vapor, carbon dioxide.
Term
 humidity is the amount of what?
Definition
 moisture
Term
 actual changes in water vapor content of atmosphere takes place where_________ or where air masses mix eithier________
Definition
 water evaporates]]vertically/ horizontal
Term
 THE WATER VAPOR CONTENT AND TEMPERATURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE VARIES FROM THE EARTHS ___________ AND ITS UPPER_________.
Definition
 surfacelimits
Term
 most of the gas molecules are dconcentratedbelow a height of _________miles
Definition
 62
Term
 earths lowest atmosphere is the___________ and it extends how many miles from the surface?
Definition
 troposphere5 to 10 miles
Term
 the tropopause is the___________
Definition
 upper boundary of troposphere
Term
 what segment of the atmosphere does most of the weather occur
Definition
 troposphere
Term
 clouds develolop when very small droplets of__________ or ____________ condense in our atmosphere.
Definition
 waterice crystals
Term
 cumulus cllouds look like whatandhow do cumulonimbus clouds appear as.
Definition
 floating pieces of cottonthunderstorm clouds
Term
 where does most water vapor condense? and how much water is left in the atmosphere when this occurs.
Definition
 tropospherelittle amounts
Term
 barometric pressure, atmospheric pressure is the weight of the column of air above_____________
Definition
 any given point
Term
 atmospheric pressure can be thought of as _____________onm a surface
Definition
 the force excerted by gas moleculess
Term
 atmospheric pressure is greatest at the tops of mountains T/F
Definition
 false, its greateset at sea level
Term
 changes in air temperature/ air movement are responsible for most of the _______________in atmospheric pressure. temp change influences pressure because cold is is ________ than warm air and excerts a higher __________ on the underlying pressure.cold air is denser because__________they have
Definition
 lower kinetic energy and are closely packed together.
Term
 what warms air masses that have high humidity?the low pressure zones are created by ____________ and these occurs at equatorial lattitudes that convect upwards in the atmosphere.
Definition
 solar heating and evaporation of seawaterlow density of heated air
Term
 the pileing up of air is known as__________while the loss of air pressure is called___________
Definition
 convergencedivergence
Term
 what causes zones of low/high pressure?
Definition
 combined effects of temperature and air movement
Term
 air flows from areas of ___________ to areas of_________.
Definition
 high pressurelow pressure
Term
 differences in the absorbtion of ____________produces variations in the temperature of earths surface, and as well as the air_____________.
Definition
Term
 what is a major driving force for wind and weather
Definition
 changes in atmospheric pressure.
Term
 air movements can also be caused by___________ in the atmosphere.the small volume of air is called a________
Definition
 vertical differencesparcel
Term
 the ability for a parcel of air to remain inplace is known as__________
Definition
 atmospheric stability
Term
 when is an air mass considered unstableatmosphere comonly becomes unstable when lighter____________ air is overlain by denser____________air
Definition
 when parcels are rising untill they reachair of similiar density or temperature.warm/moist aircold or dry air
Term
 boundary between a cooler and warm air mass is called a ________
Definition
 front
Term
 a cold air front is forms when____________a warm forms when_____________
Definition
 cold air moves into a mass of warm airthe opposite of cold front occurs
Term
 warmer air is always lifted by _____________ masses
Definition
 colder air
Term
 warm fronts tend to be___________ as they overide the receeding cold air masses, and updrafts/cloud formations are more_____________.
Definition
 gentlerscattered
Term
 a front which does not move for hours/days is called a__________. another front called ____________ develops when rapdily moving cooler air overtakes another coooler air mass and warm air is wedged above the frontal boundary.
Definition
 stationary frontoccludeded
Term
 which area has the world record for thunder storms________, because it has one 7 out of 10 days. in the U.S these occur in the___________regions
Definition
 E africasouth/southwest
Term
 when and during what seasons are thunderstorms most common
Definition
Term
 the three condtions needed for t-storms to occur are_______________.
Definition
 humid air must be availablesteep temperature gradient must existan updraft must force air up to colder air of atmosphere.
Term
 thunderstorm formation starts as ________air is forced___________ and cools, and water vapor formscondesnses to form a ____________cloud
Definition
 moistupwardscumulus
Term
 the upward growth in size of a cumulus cloud begins with the __________stage of T-storm development.
Definition
 cumulus
Term
 the cumulus stage requires a continous release of_________ from water vapor condensation to __________ the surrounding air, and cause the air to ____________ further.
Definition
 latent heatwarmrise
Term
 the two mechanisims needed for T-storms are
Definition
 growth of the cloud into colder air causing water droplets to freezewarm air of lower part of cloudcollide with smaller droplets
Term
 at what stage does rain, lightningm, thunder, and hail occur
Definition
 mature stage
Term
 the upward supply of moist air is blocked by downdrafts at lower levels of the cloud is known as____________
Definition
 dissapative stage
Term
 when is a T-storm considered severe
Definition
 when wind speed exceeds 58 MPH or hail stones larger than 0.75 inches fall
Term
 what 4 conditons makea severe thunderstorm occur
Definition
 wind shear changes, high water vapor content, updraft of air, presence of dry air mass over moist air mass.
Term
 vertical wind shear mass is produced by an ______________ in the velocity or change in the__________direction of wind.
Definition
 upward increasehorizontal
Term
 circular cluster of stom cells called______________linear belts of t-storms are called____________large cells with single updrafts are called__________
Definition
 mesoscale convective systemssquall linessuper cells
Term
 complex T-storms can continue to grow for ____________ hrs or more. the downdrafts of these storms can come together to form_____________, curved lines of t -storms that may travel long distances.
Definition
 12outflow boundaries
Term
 squall lines commonly develop parrellel to cold fronts at a distance of ______________ to __________ miles ahead of a front
Definition
 180310
Term
 downdrafts originating on the back side of storms surge forward as________ of cold air in advance of precipitation, these can also develop along dry lines which are ____________
Definition
 gust frontair masses in different moisure content rather then air temperature.
Term
 what is the most damaging type thunderstorm____________, and these are the breeding ground for what?
Definition
Term
 the largets windstorms are called____________ which produce severe wind gusts.these winds travel at __________MPH
Definition
 derechos130
Term
 hailstones start off as a small pellet, and gets a coat of_______in the_________of the storm and this processes is________.
Definition
 waterlowerpartrepeated
Term
 hailstorms cause heavy causlauties T/F
Definition
 false, cause more monetary damage
Term
 how many people die per year from tornadoes in the U.S?to be called a tornadoe a spinning column of wind must have a ____________extending from the cloud to the surface
Definition
 57vortex
Term
 where do tornadoew form?in the organizxational stage vertical wind shear causes causes___________
Definition
 wherever their are large differences in atm pressure over long distancesrotation to develop within the T-Storm.
Term
 the upward column of rotating air which is undetected by radar is called____________.major updrafts in the rear or southwesteern part part of the storm, lower a portion of the cumulonimbus cloud to form___________.
Definition
 mesocycloneclud wall
Term
 the mature stage is a_______________ whcih extends from the thunder storm clud to the ground as moist air is drwan upwardin stronger tornadoes, smaller whirls called___________ may form within a large tornadoe
Definition
 visible condensation funnelsuction vortices
Term
 when the warm air is reduced the tornadoe enters the____________.in the final decaying or _________ the upqard spiraling air comes into contact with downdraftsand the tornadoe begins to move erratically. and new tornadoeas can form nearby
Definition
 shrinking stageshrinking stage
Term
 how far and how long do tornadoes last for
Definition
 4 to 5 milesa few minutes
Term
 the enhanced fujita scale is based on__________
Definition
 post stom damage survey
Term
 where are toranodes the most common in the world.the tornado alley belt covers which areas
Definition
 the U.SN/S of central U.S
Term
 extremely low visiblity for an extended period of time are refered top as_____________, and are thresholds the same for blizzrds between the U.S and canada.in blizzrds what happens to snow to creat low vivbility
Definition
 white outsnothey are driven by high winds
Term
 high winds picking up previousley fallen snow creates a___________. fast moving storms forming east of the canadian rockies called__________, are generally drier with____________ and very cold temperatures.
Definition
 ground blizzardalberta clippersless snow
Term
 why are blizzrds more dangerous then other windstorms?
Definition
 windchill effect
Term
 ice stroms cause freezing rains, and the 3 ways these from are.
Definition
 moisture in warm air mass south of frontwarm air uplifted over an air massobj on land surface at or close to freezing
Term
 fogs form when air cooling untill_____________ or by evaporation adding water vapor to_____________air.
Definition
Term
 fogs can also evaporate when cold air flows over three things
Definition
 river lakecoastal water
Term
 what natuarl hazard effects the more people than any other
Definition
 drought
Term
 on mountains high winds can travel at speeds excedding________mph
Definition
 115
Term
 dust storms can carry how much dust?can these travel long distances through the atmosphere.
Definition
 100 million tonsyes
Term
 where are the only places sandstorms can occcur, and the sand grains rarely travel more than___________m
Definition
 deserts2
Term
 people who are not used to heatwaves in the cooler cities are in more danger ?these are commonly associated to elongated areas of high pressure called___________
Definition
 yesridges
Term
 the heat indx measures the____________ which is greatly influnecd by_______
Definition
 bodys percweption of air temphumidity
Term
 leaving the topsiol on farmland exposed to wind erosion during the winter may increase the size oF__________
Definition
 dust storms
Term
 a climatic condition in which a metroploitan area may become____________ surounding country side is called _________
Definition
 22 degress farenhiefht urban heat island
Term
 global warming is likely to increase the heat index and number of______________and the intnsity of ___________ events in most areas.
Definition
 heatwavesprecipitation
Term
 intense flash flooding can be produced by __________ which produces alot of rain.what kinds of winds make slow prevailing winds__________.what else can light prevailing winds cause__________.thunderstorms have a 25% chance of doing what to forets?
Definition
 slow moving thunderstormsprevailing windsstagnation of frontal boundary, cause a storm to remain fixed in a locationwildfires
Term
 doppler radar antennas send out _______________ that has a wavelength a little longer than __________ .
Definition